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  1. 1. Persuasive Strategies
  2. 2. The Rhetorical Continuum Information like Persuasion Propaganda dislike
  3. 3. Propaganda is information given by a group in support of their own beliefs or product.
  4. 4. The end goal of propaganda is to persuade the reader or listener to "buy into" something – to influence their behavior. Information or ideas are methodically spread to promote or injure a cause, movement, nation, etc. Can you think of everyday examples of propaganda? Examples include commercials, advertisements, movie trailers, lawn signs, etc.
  5. 5. • Advertisers use propaganda techniques to convince us to consume; • Political parties use propaganda to gain support from voters; • Health officials and social organizations use propaganda in public service announcements. • Propaganda can also play a role in news reporting by journalists.)
  6. 6. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion into three categories--Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.
  7. 7. Ethos (credibility) If people believe and trust in you, you’re more likely to persuade them. Example: Believe me! I’ve been there before. I’m just like you.
  8. 8. Logos (logical/reasoning) Facts, numbers, and information can be very convincing. Example: A Snickers bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of sugar. That’s not very healthy.
  9. 9. Pathos (emotional) Getting people to feel happy, sad, or angry can help your argument. Example: Your donation might just get this puppy off the street and into a good home.
  10. 10. There are techniques designed to fool us because they appeal to our emotions rather than to our r eason.
  11. 11. There are several types of emotional appeals:
  12. 12. Name Calling Linking negative words or phrases with an opposing person, group, or cause to persuade an audience to reject something, based on emotional response to words rather than on careful consideration of facts
  13. 13. Glittering Generalities is really name-calling in reverse - words with good connotations - "virtue words“: democracy, family values (when used positively), rights, civilization, even the word American. The words and phrases are vague and suggest different things to different people but the implication is always favorable. It cannot be proved true or false because it really says little or nothing at all.
  14. 14. Note: Serendipity means good fortune Or luck.
  15. 15. Card Stacking Distorting or omitting facts; telling halftruths Card stacking is a device of propaganda which selects only the facts that support the propagandist's point of view, and ignores all the others. For example: "Representive McNerd introduced more new bills than any other member of the congress," and neglect to mention that most of them were so preposterous that they were laughed off the floor.
  16. 16. For example, if a brand of snack food is loaded with sugar (and calories), the commercial may boast that the product is low in fat, which implies that it is also low in calories. Card-Stacking is a prevalent rational propaganda technique that gives us only part of the picture.
  17. 17. Plain Folk A speaker attempts to convince the audience that the speaker is “one of them”. • • • • Bill Clinton eats at McDonalds. Cindy McCain raced cars. Obama enjoys riding a bike. George Bush, Sr. hates broccoli.
  18. 18. Bandwagon The bandwagon technique appeals to the reader’s need to belong and to do what everyone is doing. Should you buy a product just because it is the most popular?
  19. 19. Jenny Craig Ad
  20. 20. Big Names Important people or experts can make your argument seem more convincing. Example: Former U.S. president Bill Clinton thinks that junk food should be taken out of vending machines. Big Name Strategies: -Testimonial -Transfer
  21. 21. TesTimonial • This man seems like a normal, likeable guy. • The text is written as if he is talking directly to the reader. • The picture also uses another emotional appeal. Can you identify it?
  22. 22. TesTimonial The testimonial technique uses a famous person (ethos appeals) or someone who looks like a normal, average person. The testimonial tries to connect the writer’s opinion to the reader’s feeling about this person.
  23. 23. Examples: • Jane Russell: "I am delighted with Springboard products and have felt much better since I started using them." • Oscar Meyer created an ad for its food products using George Foreman, a recognizable boxer, as the celebrity providing a testimonial for the product. Michael Jordan is the most commonly used sports figure for testimonials. • Tiger Woods lends his name to Nike. • Testimonials are intensely emotionally appealing words so closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs that they carry conviction without supporting information or reason.
  24. 24. Transfer is a technique used to carry over the authority and approval of something we respect and revere to something the propagandist would have us accept. Propagandists often employ symbols (e.g., waving the flag) to stir our emotions and win our approval.
  25. 25. Halle Berry uses it too!
  26. 26. Faulty Cause and Effect Claiming without proof that a product will bring results Confusing coincidental time sequence with actual causation, sometimes called POST HOC
  27. 27. • This device sets up a cause and effect relationship that may not be true. Just because one thing happened after another doesn't mean that one caused the other. • For example: "After I came to office, the rate of inflation dropped to 6 percent." But did the person do anything to cause the lower rate of inflation or was it the result of other conditions? Would the rate of inflation have dropped anyway, even if he hadn't come to office? • False cause and effect reasoning is terribly persuasive because it seems so logical. Don't be taken in by false cause and effect; be sure to ask, "Is there enough evidence to prove that this cause led to that effect? Could there have been any other causes?"
  28. 28. There are other techniques used in propaganda.
  29. 29. Kairos (the right time and right place) Try to convince your audience that this issue is so important they must act now. Example: This is a one-time offer. You can’t get this price after today.
  30. 30. Research Using reliable research can help your argument seem convincing. Example: A recent study found that students who watch TV during the week don’t do as well in school.
  31. 31. Buzzword -A word or phrase connected with a specialized group and is used to impress people: "'Sensitivity' is the buzzword in the beauty industry this fall" (ADWEEK). -A stylish or trendy word or phrase.
  32. 32. JINGLES— Songs or rhymes for you to sing and remember.                                                      "Hungryyyyy, Hungry Jack. They gobble 'em up and the plate come back for Hungry Jack." Hungry Jack Biscuits, 1977
  33. 33. is repeating words several times, so the public will remember the product. “Hefty, Hefty, Hefty”
  34. 34. Fear The speaker uses this technique to direct the audience to focus on a significant fear instead of on the actual proposal or item.
  35. 35. Fear • A television commercial shows a terrible car accident to remind the viewer to wear a seatbelt. • An insurance company shows pictures of burned-out homes to encourage people to purchase home-owners insurance.
  36. 36. Loaded Language The loaded language technique uses words that cause a strong feeling. Once the reader is feeling strongly, he or she may be more likely to agree with the writer.
  37. 37. Snob appeaL • Snob appeal is a technique that uses the reader’s desire to be better than others and connects this feeling to the writer’s opinion. • “Better” can mean more beautiful, more athletic, smarter, or richer than the average person.
  38. 38. Snob appeaL This model is Cybil Shepard, who is popular with older adults. Advertisers use famous models to sell clothing because many people want to look as beautiful as the model.
  39. 39. baSic needS An Ad for a Low Fat Frozen Dinner To what basic need does this ad appeal?
  40. 40. Rhetorical Question This technique demands a response f rom the audience. A question is asked and the viewer or listener is supposed to answer in such a way as to af f irm the product' s goodness. "Plymouth--isn't that the kind of car America wants?"
  41. 41. Puns Puns are words that have more than one meaning purposefully used to conjure up both meanings . They make for funny slogans because they make a person think of dual meanings.
  42. 42. Euphemisms A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the receiver. • • • • • People are not fat; they are "full-figured", "large", or "weight-watchers". They don't smell; they have "body odor". They are not old; they are "senior citizens" in their "golden years". They don't fly second class; they fly "coach". They don't buy second-hand; they buy "pre-owned".
  43. 43. Examples: Reach your ideal size with Jenny Craig= Lose your fat. Pre-owned= used
  44. 44. Slippery Slope The slippery-slope argument is the assumption that one event can cause an undesirable chain reaction of events.  The slippery slope fallacy is a case of if-then. 
  45. 45. Slippery Slope Examples: (i) If we pass laws against private nuclear weapons, then it won't be long before we pass laws against guns, and then we will begin to restrict other rights, and finally we will end up living in a communist state. Thus, we should not ban private nuclear weapons. (ii) You should never gamble. Once you start gambling you find it hard to stop. Soon you are spending all your money on gambling, and eventually you will turn to crime to support your earnings. (iii) If I make an exception for you then I have to make an exception for everyone.
  46. 46. • Examples: (i) If we pass laws against private nuclear weapons, then it won't be long before we pass laws against guns, and then we will begin to restrict other rights, and finally we will end up living in a communist state. Thus, we should not ban private nuclear weapons. (ii) You should never gamble. Once you start gambling you find it hard to stop. Soon you are spending all your money on gambling, and eventually you will turn to crime to support your earnings. (iii) If I make an exception for you then I have to make an exception for everyone.
  47. 47. Circular Reasoning- is a restatement using stronger or different words In circular reasoning, the speaker uses part of an argument as evidence to support the argument. This fallacy "goes around in a circle;" the reason given is the same as the conclusion.
  48. 48. Circular Reasoning Example • Ms. Hundley is the best teacher because she is the best teacher. • Chocolate is my favorite because I like it the most.
  49. 49. More Examples: To say, “You should exercise because it’s good for you” is really saying, “You should exercise because you should exercise.” Of Mice and Men is really popular because a lot of people like it. Popular and a lot of people like it mean the same thing. An obvious non-smoker blurts: “Can a person quit smoking?  Of course — as long as he has sufficient willpower and really wants to quit.”
  50. 50. A person makes a claim then argues for it by advancing grounds whose meaning is simply equivalent to that of the original claim. This is also called "begging the question." Example: Someone argues that schools should continue to have textbooks read from cover to cover because, otherwise, students would not be well-educated. When asked to define what "well-educated“ means, the person says, "knowing what is in the textbooks."
  51. 51. Can you figure out these products based on one letter?
  52. 52. Do you know these products? • "I am stuck on ______, and _______  stuck on me." • "Roll that beautiful bean footage" • “Crispety, crunchety, peanut-buttery ____." • "Eat mor chikin" • “I’m lovin’ it.” • “Yo Quiero _______.”