Learning ObjectivesMBTI Module 1: Introduction to theMyers-Briggs Type InstrumentCourse DescriptionExceptional veterinary teams are comprised of individuals whounderstand their personal strengths. They apply this knowledgein their collaborative and leadership capacities, resulting inimproved professional practice and personal morale based onincreased abilities to be effective in interpersonal relationships,communication, and decision making.The purpose of Module 1 is the acquisition of powerfulinformation and insights that will help you understand yourpersonal strengths in order to enhance your contribution toyour veterinary team and to promote your effectiveness inrelationships at home, at school, and in life. Course ContentLearning Objectives◆ Learn the purposes of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Optional and Recommended: Take the MBTI personality tool. Part 1: The MBTI Tool◆ Know how the MBTI is similar to and different from other Personality assessment and the veterinary team personality inventories. Increasing self-awareness Understanding individual differences◆ Understand the concept of “personality type.” Part 2: Understanding TypeOptional and Recommended Benefits of understanding personality type◆ Complete the MBTI. Register at myEVT.com. Part 3: MBTI Comparison◆ Review your assessment report to become aware of your How the MBTI compares to other psychological tests type preferences. What makes the MBTI similar What makes the MBTI uniqueAchieve an increased awareness of your thoughts, Part 4: Carl Jung feelings, and behaviors: What is personality type? ◆ How you prefer to become energized. Personality type theory ◆ How you prefer to take in information. Recommended reading ◆ How you prefer to make decisions. Part 5: The Four Dichotomies The building blocks of personality type How you prefer to approach life. The four dichotomies The spice of life Recognize and respect your strengths and challenges. Exercise Develop awareness of how preference dichotomies impact Part 6: The Eight Preferences others’ thinking, feeling, and behaviors. Understanding your preferences The eight preferences Grasp that all preferences are equally valuable and useful. Required Materials Required course content is online.Be motivated to use what you have learned to benefit yourself Optional and recommended and others with whom you work or interact, such as Take the MBTI online at the EVT discounted price. the members of your veterinary team! 1The MBTI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Carl 5 The 4 Jung Dichotomies 6 The 8 Preferences
1 The MBTI Tool By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC 1 2 The purpose 3 4 5 of learning about type is 6 7 8 9 10 11 to help you understand 12 13 14 15 16 17 yourself P E RS O N A L I T Y 18 19 20 better and to enhance your 21 Y 22 23 24 25 relationships 26 P 27 with others. —Isabel A S S E S S ME N T 28 29 30 31 Briggs Myers and the Veterinary Team • Understanding individual differences. Social awareness is the The purpose of the MBTI personality inventory is to make key to working well with others and the theory of psychological types described by Carl G. Jung the MBTI instrument helps people understandable and applicable. The essence of the theory is understand the differences in how that much seemingly random variation in people’s behavior people work and interact. is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the way individuals prefer to: Using these powerful insights we can discover how each person’s unique • Get energized personality type contributes to team • Take in information performance. Plus, we can learn new The Myers- • Make decisions, and ways to increase collaboration and Briggs Type • Approach life. improve relationships, productivity, Indicator and efficiency at work by considering (MBTI) is a These preferences are innate and hard-wired, in much the all points of view. ●valuable tool same way that you are born with a preference for either for personal right- or left-handedness.development notes When combined, your preferences form one of 16 unique and for personality types, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. building No type is inherently better or worse than any others. By healthy and understanding your type, and the type preferences of those productive around you, you gain powerful insights into maximizing your veterinary own effectiveness and your ability to work with others. health care teams. The MBTI tool is great for: • Increasing self-awareness. Self-awareness alone is a compelling predictor of success at work and accounts for one third of job performance. Awareness of your unique personality profile is an essential starting point. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
2 Understanding Type By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCBenefits of UnderstandingPersonalityTy PeU nderstanding and applying a knowledge of personality type leads to:• Enhanced leadership• Improved teamwork• Clearer communications• Greater utilization of personal strengths• Reduced conflicts• Improved decision making• Increased moraleIn developing the MBTI, the aim ofIsabel Briggs Myers, and her mother,Katharine Briggs, was to make theinsights of type theory easy to grasp. notesAfter more than 50 years, the MBTIassessment continues to be the bestknown and most trusted personalitytool available today. More than 2million assessments are administered toindividuals annually. ● From developing more productive work teams to building closer families, the MBTI can improve the quality of life for anyone and any organization. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
3 MBTI Comparison By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCHow MBTI Compares to OtherPsychological Tests The Myers-Briggs Type MBTI Indicator (MBTI) is a psychological instrument that provides What Makes MBTI Unique information about Jungian-based personality or • The MBTI instrument does not evaluate psychological types. It is not considered to be a mental health; there are no bad or test or evaluation instrument, and there are no unhealthy results. right or wrong answers. The responses to the • The MBTI instrument sorts individuals questions give an indication of the person’s into opposite categories, both of which psychological type, and all types are positive or are desirable. Many instruments good. measure the amount or degree of a trait, The MBTI is similar to other psychological such as shyness or detail-orientation. instruments in that it is designed to assess some Usually, it is desirable to have more or qualities of an individual’s personality. People less of a trait, whereas with the MBTI are asked to respond to questions about their instrument both categories are desirable. preferences in various situations, and the result • The MBTI instrument does not compare is an indicated “type” of personality. Knowing your results to those of other people; it one’s type gives insight into motives, behaviors, does not evaluate you by comparing you and interactions with others. to any normal or pathological standard. • The MBTI instrument describes the The MBTI instrument is unlike many other psychological instruments interaction between all preferencesin that it is not an assessment of mental health, intelligence, or unhealthy personality types or (called type dynamics) to create a wholepatterns. The common psychological instrument may tell you, among other things, where you type pattern rather than just adding upare deficient, lacking or disturbed. It is not possible to have an MBTI result that is bad or the qualities of each separate preference.unhealthy. The MBTI instrument is intended for self-discovery—what is right with you. • The MBTI instrument allows you to It does not measure amounts of personality traits or quantities of thought or behavior. Most determine your own personality typepsychological instruments report high or low amounts of a good or bad trait. The MBTI through a personal verification process, leaving the final assessment of your typeinstrument sorts personalities into different types that are qualitatively different. Just as apples in your hands.are different from oranges, one personality type is different from other types. Trait theory wouldtell you how much orange and how much apple you are. hSource: http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality- type/mbti-basics/different-from-other-instruments.asp It does not compare your results to that of other individuals. Most psychological testsevaluate you by comparing you to some normal or pathological standard. With the MBTIinstrument your responses are the only values used to indicate your psychological type. Whether or not you are an extravert or an introvert is the important notes issue, not how you compare to other extraverts or introverts.The MBTI is It does not tell you what you are. Usually the results of asimilar to psychological instrument are the final word. You are depressed orother dysfunctional in some way and the test told you so. With the MBTIpsychological instrument, the type that the person reports on the Indicator is a hypothesis that needs to be verified by the respondent as he or sheinstruments in considers the descriptions of the reported and different types. Thisthat it is leads to a best-fit type, and continued self-assessment may result in andesigned to accurate indication of type that is different from the reported results.assess some Remember: you are the expert on you. It is up to you to decide howqualities of an and if type can enhance your life. ●individual’s hSource: capt.org/mbti-assessment/mbti-test-comparison.htmpersonality. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
4 Carl Jung By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCWhat IsPersonalityType?Personality type (also referred to as psychologicaltype) is based on the theory described by Carl Jungthat seemingly random variation in people’sbehavior is actually consistent and orderly. Theconcept is a practical and convenient frameworkfor understanding and appreciating the differences e people ink about thamong individuals. Take a m oment to th e. You can your practic you w ork with in ers who thin k ntify team membAn underlying personality pattern probably ide m you. As y ou d ifferently froresults from the dynamic interaction of and operate learning mo dule,basic preferences, environmental continue through this of see if someinfluences, and our own choices. We r attention to pay particula y be explain ed bytend to develop behaviors, skills, and these dif ferences ma e.attitudes associated with our type, and rsonality typ diffe rences in pethose with different types will likely beopposite to you in many ways, while Recommended Reading There are a vast number of books and articles that willpeople with the same personality types help you better understand the MBTI and how it to usenaturally have similar interests and it. Some of classics in the field:views, behaviors, and motivations. 1. Health Care Communication Using Personality Type: Patients are Different! Allen J—Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 2000.Each type represents a valuable and 2. People Types and Tiger Stripes. Lawrence G—Gainesville: notesreasonable way to be. Each has its own Center for Application of Psychological Type, 2000.potential strengths, as well as its likely 3. Please Understand Me: Character and Temperamentblind spots. Awareness of differences Types. Keirsey D, Bates—Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1984.between types can help people 4. Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, andunderstand and value other people Intelligence. Keirsey D, Bates—Del Mar, CA:who think and act quite differently. ● Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1998.Just remember that, in the words of IsabelMyers, “Type does not explain everything. Humanpersonality is much more complex.” 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
5 The 4 Dichotomoies Exercise By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC In her studies of people and extensive reading of Jung’s theories, Isabel Myers concluded there were four primary ways people differed BUILDINGTHE from one another. She labeled these differences “preferences,” drawing a similarity to “hand preferences” to illustrate that although we all use both of our hands, most of us have a preference for one over the other and “it” takes the lead in many of the activities in which we use our hands. To experience this concept, try this simpleBLOCKS exercise: • Take out a piece of paper and sign your name as you normally do. • Now, sign your name again, but this time use your other hand.OF PERSONALITY TYPE • How would you describe the experience of writing your name with your preferred hand? • With your nonpreferred hand?There are four key building blocks that make up our personality type. Each of the four • Most people who try this immediately noticebuilding blocks is made up of a pair of opposite preferences. So there are two possible ways a number of differences:we can choose to use each building block at any given moment in time. Preferred Hand In type terms, these building blocks are called dichotomies and their pairs of opposite • Feels naturalpreferences are called poles. The MBTI reports preferences related to the following four • Didn’t think about itdichotomies. • Effortless, easyThe Four Preference Dichotomies • Looks neat, legible, adult• Extraversion/Introversion How you prefer to get energized Nonpreferred Hand • Feels unnatural• Sensing/Intuition How you prefer to take in information • Had to concentrate while doing it• Thinking/Feeling How you prefer to make decisions • Awkward and clumsy• Judging/Perceiving How you prefer to approach life • Looks childlike legible, adultIt is important to understand three key points. The words used to describe the preferences1.You can and do use each of these eight preferences at different times. We use both for one hand over the other illustrate the poles at different times and in different contexts. However, we can’t use both at exactly theory of preferences in the MBTI: You can the same time and we don’t use both with equal confidence. use either hand when you have to, and you2.Although you use all of the preferences, you tend to use one preference in each pair use both hands regularly; but for writing, one is natural, while the other often requires more than the other; one feels more comfortable, more natural. Neither is wrong. more effort and doesn’t come quite as easily. You can do both, but you prefer one. hSource: Introduction to Type, 6th ed. Myers IB—3.Most importantly all eight of the preferences are equally valuable. All preferences Palo Alto, CA:CPP, 1998. are equally valuable and each type brings an important point of view when people interact. notesThe Spice of Life “There is noA variety of types is best for a work group or team because many views right or wrongare represented. Although each type approaches situations differently, type, and thereand another person’s approach may not be what you would choose, each are no betterway can be effective. For example, let’s say you have a colleague at work named Nicole. or worseNicole’s type may lead her to like doing things at the last minute, while combinationsyou are uncomfortable if everything isn’t scheduled and planned in of types inadvance. Nicole may feel constrained when she has to plan far in work oradvance. You are not right and Nicole wrong. Nicole is not right and relationships.”you wrong. Different ways, based on different personality types, work - Isabelfor one of you and not for the other. Of course when you and Nicole work together, your differences can Briggsbe irritating. This is when knowing about personality type can help. MyersYou can accept her way as valid and she can accept yours. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
6 The 8 Preferences “Become By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC aware of your type biasesUnderstanding Your (we all have them!) to avoid negative stereotyping.” Preferences - Isabel Briggs Myers The Eight PreferencesY our results from the MBTI instrument help you become awareof your personality preferences. How you prefer to E Extraversion I Introversion get energized People who prefer People who prefer A preference is what you like. You extraversion tend to introversion tend tomay like, or prefer, peppermint candy focus on the outside focus on the inner world world and get energy and get energy throughover butterscotch. You may prefer through interacting reflecting onreading over watching movies. This with people and doing information, ideasdoesn’t mean you won’t sometimes things. and/or concepts.choose, or be pressured to choose, How you prefer to S Sensing N Intuitionbutterscotch candy or movies. But in take in information People who prefer People who prefergeneral you will prefer to choose sensing tend to notice intuition tend to paypeppermint and reading. and trust facts, details, attention to and trust and present realities. interrelationships, There are no right or wrong They like to take in theories, and futurepreferences. Reading is not better than information through possibilities. They arewatching movies; each has its strengths the five senses drawn to the big picture.and its problems. Most people have the How you prefer to T Thinking F Feelingability to do both, even if they don’t like make decisions People who prefer People who preferone or the other. thinking tend to make feeling tend to make decisions using decisions to create Personality type, also called impartial, logical, and harmony by applyingpsychological type, is what you prefer objective analysis. person-centered values.when you are using your mind orfocusing your attention. Studies and How you prefer to J Judging P Perceiving approach life People who prefer People who preferexperience have shown that there are judging tend to like a perceiving tend to adoptconsistent patterns for each person. planned approach to a more spontaneousThere are many benefits to life and are organized, approach to life and are orderly, structured, flexible, adaptable, andunderstanding your own preferences, and decisive. like to keep theirincluding how they affect you, how they options open.affect your style of communication, and noteshow they are different from what other Note: to avoid confusion, N is used as the abbreviation for Intuition and I for Introversion.people prefer. Preferences allow us tohave different interests, different ways of Four of these eight preferences (E or I, S or N, T or F, J or P) make up a person’s MBTI type, also calledbehaving, and different ways of seeing psychological or personality type. As you act on yourthe world. type preferences, you create a unique approach to the While all the preferences are equal, world, to information, to decisions, and to other people.each has different strengths and different When the preferences are combined in all possiblechallenges. Knowing these personality ways, they form 16 distinct personality types.strengths and challenges for yourself andothers can help you understand andappreciate how everyone contributes to asituation, a task, or the solution to aproblem. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
Learning Objectives MBTI Module 2: Course Content Exploring Your Preferences Optional and Recommended: Take the MBTI Part 7: Extraversion or Introversion Exploring your preferences Course Description How do you prefer to get energized? Understanding personal strengths is the cornerstone for enhancing What do extraversion and introversion look like? the development of exceptional veterinary teams. Through General characteristics applying this awareness, individual and collaborative leadership Extraversion and introversion in a veterinary practice capacities are enhanced, and all aspects of the veterinary practice Self-assessment are positively impacted. Part 8: Sensing or Intuition The purpose of Module 2 is to focus on the interpretation of the Exploring your preferences Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type assessment. How do you prefer to take in information? Through these interpretations, 16 personality type preferences are What do sensing and intuition look like? understood and can be applied in any context. Utilizing type General characteristics Sensing and intuition in a veterinary practice preference knowledge promotes the effectiveness of your veterinary Self-assessment team to provide providing high-quality patient care, resulting in client adherence and loyalty…and professional satisfaction. Part 9: Thinking or Feeling Exploring your preferences Learning Objectives How do you prefer to make decisions? What do thinking and feeling look like? Optional and Recommended: Characteristics of people who prefer thinking vs feeling ◆ Complete the MBTI. (Register at myEVT.com.) Thinking and feeling in a veterinary practice ◆ Review your assessment report to become aware of your Self-assessment type preferences. Part 10: Judging or PerceivingLearn the general characteristics of each of the eight Exploring your preferences type preferences. How do you prefer to approach life? What do judging and perceiving look like? Discover how each of the type preferences is expressed. Characteristics of people who prefer judging vs perceiving Explore your preferences, comparing and contrasting Judging and perceiving in a veterinary practice examples to determine: Self-assessment ◆ How you prefer to get energized. ◆ How you prefer to take in information. Part 11: Your MBTI Results Your self-assessment results ◆ How you prefer to make decisions. Interpreting your MBTI Profile Report and ◆ How you prefer to approach life. Indicator Type What’s included on your MBTI Profile ReportExplore and apply the understanding of team differences, using Determining your best fit type veterinary practice examples, as a means to strengthen Reasons your indicator type may not be your the practice team. best fit type Tips for discovering your best fit type Self-assess your type preferences. Questions to help provide clarity Find out what’s included on your MBTI Profile Report. Part 12: Whole Type Descriptions Use whole type descriptions to help verify your Receive guidance to interpret your MBTI Profile Report best fit type and your type preferences. Next steps Websites Books Articles Determine your best fit type. Required Materials • Required course content is online. Reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, applying Optional and recommended • Take the MBTI online at what you have learned about type preferences. the EVT discounted price. 7 E or I? 8 S or N? 9 T or F? 10 J or P? 11 Your MBTI Results 12 Whole Types
7 Extraversion or Introversion By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCExploring YourPreferences:Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I) The Extraversion/Introversion (seeHow Do You Prefer To Get Energized? What Do Extraversion and IntroversionThe first pair of psychological preferences is Extraversion and Introversion. Look Like?) dichotomy of the MBTIWhere do you put your attention and get your energy? Do you like to spend addresses these questions:time in the outer world of people and things (Extraversion), or in your innerworld of ideas and images (Introversion)? ◆ Where do you focus your attention? ◆ How do you get energized?Extraversion and Introversion, as used by C.G. Jung, explain different ◆ Where do you direct your energy?attitudes people use to direct their energy. These words have a meaning inpsychology that is different from the way they are used in everyday language. ◆ What tends to drain your energy?Everyone spends some time extraverting and some time introverting. Don’t ◆ How much and what kind ofconfuse Introversion with shyness or reclusiveness; they are not related. contact with others do you prefer? What Do Extraversion and Introversion Look Like? Which of the these descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) “Let’s talk this over.” “I need to think about this.” You are drawn to the outside world as your elemental source You draw your primary energy from the inner world of of energy. Rarely, if ever, do you feel your energy batteries information, thoughts, ideas, and other reflections. When are “drained” by excessive amounts of interaction with the circumstances require an excessive amount of attention outside world. You engage the things, people, places, and spent in the outside world, you find the need to retreat activities going on in the outside world for your life force. to a more private setting as if to recharge your drained batteries. Your energy is directed outward and stimulates action. Your energy is directed inward and stimulates reflection. You are responsive to what is going on in the environment. You achieve stability from attending to enduring ideas. You You learn and work best when able to share, discuss, and learn and work best by having time to relate, understand, process information with others. and process information on your own.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
7 Extraversion or IntroversionGeneral CharacteristicsLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Extraversion and Introversion. People who prefer Extraversion (E) People who prefer Introversion (I) ◆ Talk more than listen ◆ Listen more than talk ◆ Have broad interests ◆ Focus in depth on their interests ◆ Prefer to do lots of things at once ◆ Prefer to focus on one thing at a time ◆ Act first, think/reflect later ◆ Think/reflect first, then act ◆ Prefer a public role ◆ Prefer to work “behind-the-scenes” ◆ Prefer to communicate by talking ◆ Prefer to communicate in writing ◆ Talk about their thoughts ◆ Keep thoughts inside until they are clearly formulated ◆ Feel their best work is done with others ◆ Feel their best work is done alone ◆ Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with ◆ Regularly require an amount of “private time” to the outside world recharge their batteries ◆ Need to experience the world before they can ◆ Need to understand the world before they understand it experience it ◆ Plunge in and try out ideas right away ◆ Try things out reflectively first ◆ Look outside themselves for ideas and stimulation ◆ Look inside themselves for ideas and stimulation ◆ Prefer a physical work space that facilitates ◆ Prefer a physical work space that allows for privacy interaction and concentration ◆ Assume that others are interested in what they ◆ Don’t assume that others want their opinion unless have to say they explicitly ask for it ◆ Engage with others to consider conflict ◆ Withdraw from others to consider conflict
7 Extraversion or Introversion Extraversion and Introversion in a Veterinary Practice Katharine and Isabel are licensed veterinary technicians with comparable experience and skills. They have similar roles at their practice, spending time interacting with clients and working on inpatient cases. While both are talented and committed team members, their contrasting work and communication styles are making it difficult for them—and the rest of the team—to work effectively together. Katharine prefers Extraversion Isabel prefers Introversion Katharine thrives on active, people-filled days and enjoys Isabel prefers working in the back of the hospital to talking with clients in the exam rooms and reception area. working up front with clients and is at her best when she Because she likes to be involved with activities involv- can concentrate and work independently, working on ing other people, Katharine finds it difficult to focus on tasks such as lab work or performing dental procedures. solitary tasks for long periods of time. She prefers more active work that requires several pairs of hands, like taking radiographs or surgery prep work. Katharine is energized by lively, wide-ranging discussions Isabel wants to “think things through,” and is more and likes to “talk things out.” Her conversation is rapid likely to engage in quiet conversations with space for paced and she often interrupts others to elaborate on and reflection. Her conversation pace is slower as she takes process thoughts. time to formulate and build thoughts and ideas inter- nally before speaking. The Result: Because both technicians naturally gravitate to the job functions they enjoy most, important things sometimes don’t get done, patient care suffers, and they resent each other for “shirking their responsibilities.” Isabel feels she “can’t get a word in edgewise,” but that it doesn’t really matter since Katharine never listens anyway. Isabel thinks Katharine has too many “half-baked ideas.” Katharine, meanwhile, wonders why Isabel is so secretive. An understanding of the MBTI personality framework can be a starting point for understanding and working through the differences between these two team members related to their preferences for Extraversion and Introversion.Self-Assessment: Select eitherDo You Prefer Extraversion or Introversion?Based on your understanding of Extraversion and Introversion, Extraversion or Introversionwhich preference do you think more accurately describes you? ❏ Extraversion (E)Each of us has two faces. One is directed towards the outer People who prefer Extraversion tend to focusworld of activities, excitements, people, and things. The other is on the outside world and get energy throughdirected inward to the inner world of thoughts, interests, ideas, interacting with people and doing things.and imagination. These are two different but complementarysides of our nature. ❏ Introversion (I)Remember, you can and do use both preferences at different People who prefer Introversion tend to focus ontimes and in different situations, but which one is your most the inner world and get energy through reflect-natural energy orientation? ing on information, ideas and/or concepts.
8 Sensing or IntuitionExploring Your Preferences: Sensing (S) or Intuition (N) How Do You Prefer to Take in Information? The second pair of psychological preferences is Sensing and Intuition. Do you pay more attention to information that comes in through your five senses (Sensing), or do you pay more attention to the patterns and possibilities that you see in the information you receive (Intuition)? The Sensing/Intuition dichotomy of the MBTI addresses the following questions: ✤ What do you become aware of? ✤ What kind of information do you seek? ✤ What kind of information is important to you? ✤ What kinds of things do you tend to notice, or not notice? What Do Sensing and Intuition Look Like? Take a minute and ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Sensing (S) Intuition (N) “Just the facts, please.” “I can see it all now.” You favor clear, tangible data and information that fit in well You are drawn to information that is more abstract, with your direct here-and-now experience. conceptual, big-picture, and represents imaginative possibilities for the future. You tend to have a mastery of the facts and a knowledge of You pay attention to insights and meanings and have a what materials and resources are available. grasp of what is possible and what the trends are. You have an appreciation of knowing and doing what works. You have an appreciation of doing what hasn’t been tried before.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
8 Sensing or IntuitionGeneral CharacteristicsLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Sensing and Intuition. People who prefer Sensing (S) People who prefer Intuition (N) ✤ Focus on details and specifics ✤ Focus on the big picture and possibilities ✤ Admire practical solutions ✤ Admire creative ideas ✤ Are pragmatic—see what is ✤ Are inventive—see what could be ✤ Value utility: approaches that are useful and ✤ Value novelty: approaches that stimulate the based on established principles imagination ✤ Live in the now, attending to present opportunities ✤ Live in the future, attending to future possibilities ✤ Take things literally, at face value ✤ Take things figuratively, looking for a deeper meaning ✤ Have a memory recall that is rich in detail of ✤ Have a memory recall that emphasizes patterns, facts and past events contexts, and connections ✤ Like step-by-step instructions ✤ Like to figure things out for themselves ✤ Work at a steady pace ✤ Work in bursts of energy ✤ Prefer to perfect established skills ✤ Prefer to learn new skills ✤ Like clear and concrete information; dislike ✤ Are comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data, and with guessing when facts are “fuzzy” guessing its meaning. ✤ Prefer to stay with the valuable, tried, and true ✤ Are excited by future possibilities when considering when considering change change ✤ Tend to follow instructions ✤ May create their own instructions ✤ Apply experience to problems ✤ Apply ingenuity to problems ✤ Need to be convinced ✤ Need to be inspired
8 Sensing or Intuition Sensing and Intuition in a Veterinary Practice Building on our previous example, while they differ in their preferences for Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I), both Katharine and Isabel share a common preference for Sensing (S). However, the practice owner, Dr. Jung, prefers Intuition (N). Katharine and Isabel prefer Sensing Dr. Jung prefers Intuition Katharine and Isabel excel at using tried and true meth- Dr. Jung loves to envision the future of the practice ods that use their existing skillsets and generally resist and make constant improvements in processes and changes that don’t seem necessary. They would rather get procedures. He can easily predict outcomes and see their work done then participate in strategic planning how changes will positively affect the big picture and meetings and their motto is, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix the bottom line. His motto is, “If it ain’t broke, then it.” break it.” The technicians prefer to receive case management Dr. Jung is comfortable creating his own way of instructions in clear, stepwise fashion. They get frus- doing things without having to always rely on a trated when Dr. Jung supplies instructions in what they standard protocol. So he doesn’t understand why perceive to be vague, haphazard ways that lack specific Katharine and Isabel need what he thinks is so much detail and direction. unnecessary detail and why they want things laid out in concrete. The Result: Conflict results when Dr. Jung fails to recognize all the specific details involved in making changes to the practice work flow and Katharine and Isabel fail to understand the big picture and long-term benefits of proposed improve- ments. The technicians feel that Dr. Jung spends too much time on “pie in the sky” ideas instead of concentrating on the issues at hand. Dr. Jung resents the technicians for their apparent disinterest in the practice vision and getting mired in unimportant practicalities. Their differing preferences for Sensing and Intuition are causing difficulties and breakdowns in communication as one preference sees “the forest” while the other sees “the trees.” Both the details and the big picture must be considered for the best possible outcomes in this practice. Once Katharine, Isabel, and Dr. Jung understand personality type, these differences can become useful.Self-Assessment: Do You Prefer Sensing or Intuition? Select EitherBased on your understanding of Sensing and Intuition, which prefer-ence do you think more accurately describes you? Sensing or IntuitionThe Sensing side of our brain notices the sights, sounds, smells, and ❏ Sensing (S)all the sensory details of the present. It categorizes, organizes, records, People who prefer Sensing tend to noticeand stores the specifics from the here and now. It is reality based, deal- and trust facts, details, and present realities.ing with “what is.” It also provides the specific details of memory and They like to take in information throughrecollections from past events. the five senses.The Intuitive side of our brain seeks to understand, interpret, and formoverall patterns of all the information that is collected and records these ❏ Intuition (N) People who prefer Intuition tend to paypatterns and relationships. It speculates on possibilities, including look- attention to and trust interrelationships,ing into and forecasting the future. It is imaginative and conceptual. theories, and future possibilities. They areRemember, you can and do use both preferences at different times and drawn to the big picture.in different situations, but which one of these kinds of perceiving doyou instinctively tend to favor?
9 Thinking or Feeling By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCExploring YourPreferences:Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)How Do You Prefer To Make Decisions?This third preference pair describes how you like to makedecisions. Do you like to put more weight on objective prin-ciples and impersonal facts (Thinking) or do you put moreweight on personal concerns and the people involved (Feeling)?Don’t confuse Feeling with emotion. Everyone has emo- The Thinking/Feeling dichotomy of thetions about the decisions they make. Also do not confuse MBTI addresses the following questions:Thinking with intelligence. ◆ What do you rely on when making a decision?Everyone uses Thinking for some decisions and Feeling ◆ What kinds of decisions do you like to make?for others. In fact, a person can make a decision using his or ◆ What consequences are you likely to considerher preference, then test the decision by using the other prefer- when making a decision?ence to see what might not have been taken into account. ◆ How do you evaluate the opinions or decisions of others? What Do Thinking and Feeling Look Like? Ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you. Thinking (T) Feeling (F) “Is this logical?” “Will anyone be hurt?” You have a natural preference for making decisions in an You make your decisions in a somewhat global, visceral, objective, logical, and analytical manner with an emphasis harmony, and value-oriented way, paying particular on tasks and results to be accomplished. attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people. You objectively analyze the pros and cons of a situation, You desire to uncover the greatest good in a situation and even when you have a personal stake. notice when people may be harmed. You want to discover the “truth” and naturally notice You know what is important to people and adhere to that logical inconsistencies. in the face of opposition.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
9 Thinking or FeelingCharacteristics of People Who Prefer Thinking Vs FeelingLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Thinking and Feeling. People who prefer Thinking (T) People who prefer Feeling (F) ◆ Are honest and direct ◆ Are diplomatic and tactful ◆ Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision ◆ Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact on situation people in decision situations ◆ Weigh the pros and cons when making decisions ◆ Sort through personal values when making decisions ◆ Are more likely to critique first and compliment later ◆ Are more likely to compliment first and critique later ◆ Tend toward skepticism, controversy, and impartiality ◆ Tend toward acceptance, tolerance, and sympathy ◆ Are motivated by achievement ◆ Are motivated by appreciation ◆ Naturally notice tasks and work to be accomplished ◆ Are naturally sensitive to the needs of others and the work process ◆ Typically respond by first asking questions and ◆ Typically respond by first looking for common ground challenging what is said and expressing agreement or sharing concern ◆ Expect that the best ideas and solutions emerge from ◆ Expect that the best ideas and solutions emerge from argument and debate cooperation and building on everyone’s contribution ◆ Prefer situations where they can critique and get ◆ Prefer situations where personally helping people is mastery over the main work ◆ Do their best work when they can take an analytical ◆ Do their best work when personal relationships and approach to new ideas and situations harmony are the context for their learning ◆ Believe fairness means treating everyone by the same ◆ Believe fairness means taking individual needs into standards account ◆ Are more interested in justice ◆ Are more interested in mercy ◆ Take few things personally ◆ Take many things personally ◆ Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of ◆ Are unsettled by conflict; want to avoid disharmony relationships with people
9 Thinking or Feeling Thinking and Feeling in a Veterinary Practice In addition to sharing a preference for Sensing (S), Katharine and Isabel also both prefer Feeling (F). Their com- mon preferences for Sensing (S) and Feeling (F) might well explain what draws them to work in a veterinary health care environment—they both seek practical ways to help and serve both pets and people. They also want to be part of a predictable and harmonious work environment. In contrast, Dr. Jung has a preference for Thinking (T). Combined with his preference for Intuition (N), this means that he differs significantly from both technicians in how he prefers to take in information and make decisions. Let’s look at how their differing approaches to decision making play out: Dr. Jung prefers Thinking Katharine and Isabel prefer Feeling When making decisions, Dr. Jung will tend to look ob- When making decisions, Katharine and Isabel, tend to jectively at a situation, then consider the people aspects, consider the effect on people first, then look at the logic and then return to the objective information to make a involved, and then return to the Feeling data for the final final decision. decision. When considering how to staff the practice to best serve When considering staffing issues and delivering client clients, Dr. Jung is more likely to focus on the following service, Katharine and Isabel will consider a different set questions: of questions: ◆ What are the pros and cons of acting on different ◆ What are the people consequences for both the team options? and the client of each option? ◆ What is the most reasonable course of action? ◆ How will the team members and clients respond to ◆ What are the financial costs and considerations? each scenario? ◆ What strategies are needed to achieve each potential ◆ What do we personally like and dislike about what outcome? we’re considering here? ◆ Who is committed to carrying out this plan? The Result: Dr. Jung is sometimes exasperated by what he sees as the wishy washy, touchy-feely approach to problems that Katharine and Isabel seem to have. “Why can’t they be rational?,” he thinks. Katharine and Isabel are sometimes put off by Dr. Jung’s apparent complete disregard for people’s perspectives and feelings. It’s important to understand that both these ways of making decisions are rational, they are just based on different priorities and different data sets. Both Thinking and Feeling preferences are essential for the competent and sensitive delivery of healthcare services as well as the management of the veterinary health care team.Self-Assessment: Do You Prefer Thinking or Feeling?Based on your understanding of Thinking and Feeling, which prefer- Select Eitherence do you think more accurately describes you? Thinking or FeelingThe Thinking side of our brain analyzes information in a detached,objective fashion. It operates from factual principles, deduces, and ❏ Thinking (T)forms conclusions systematically. It is our logical nature. People who prefer Thinking tend to make decisions using impartial, logical, andThe Feeling side of our brain forms conclusions in an attached and objective analysis.somewhat global manner, based on likes/dislikes, impact on others,and human and aesthetic values. It is our subjective nature. ❏ Feeling (F)Remember, you can and do use both preferences at different times People who prefer Feeling tend to makeand in different situations, but which one of these ways of forming decisions to create harmony by applyingconclusions do you lean toward? person-centered values.
10 Judging or PerceivingExploring YourPreferences:Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)How Do You Prefer To Approach Life?This fourth preference pair describes how you like to liveyour outer life; what behaviors others tend to see. Do youprefer a more structured and decided lifestyle (Judging) ora more flexible and adaptable lifestyle(Perceiving)? This preference may also be thought of asyour orientation to the outer world.The Judging-Perceiving dichotomy of theMBTI addresses the following questions:✦ Do you deal with the outer world by gathering information about it or by making decisions about it?✦ How much structure do you like or need? Don’t confuse Judging and Perceiving✦ How do you approach tasks that need to be done? with a person’s level of organization.✦ How much information do you want? Either preference can be organized. What Do Judging and Perceiving Look Like? Take a minute and ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Judging (J) Perceiving (P) “Just do something.” “Let’s wait and see.” You rely upon either your T or F preference to manage You rely upon either your S or N preference to run your outer life. This typically leads to a style oriented your outer life. This typically results in an open, adapt- toward closure, organization, planning, or in some fashion able, flexible style of relating to the things and people managing the things and or people found in the external found in the outside world; and you quickly respond environment. The drive is to order the outside world. to the needs of the moment. The drive is to experience While you may have an assertive manner, your “ordering the outside world rather than order it. So, in general, touch”—with respect to other people—may be light. you easily tolerate a lack of closure. You like to push to get things settled and decided. You strive to keep your options open so new informa- tion may be gathered. You have an appreciation of well-organized efficiency. You have an appreciation of the need for spontaneity and exploration.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
10 Judging or PerceivingCharacteristics of People Who Prefer Judging Vs PerceivingLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Judging and Perceiving. People who prefer Judging (J) People who prefer Perceiving (P) ✦ Want things decided ✦ Want to keep their options open ✦ Feel anxious until things are settled ✦ Feel anxious if there is pressure to settle things too quickly ✦ Make most decisions pretty easily, but may decide too ✦ May have difficulty making decisions and avoid quickly decisions altogether ✦ Control their environment ✦ Understand their environment ✦ Schedule their time, set dates, and make arrangements ✦ Leave scheduling options open as long as possible ✦ Find comfort in schedules ✦ Want the freedom to be spontaneous ✦ Like to make and stick with plans ✦ Like to keep plans flexible ✦ Avoid problems by anticipating and planning ahead ✦ Solve problems if and when they arise ✦ Are serious and conventional ✦ Are playful and unconventional ✦ Prefer to finish projects ✦ Prefer to start projects ✦ Talk about definite results: focusing on goals, ✦ Talk about a general course of action, emphasizing objectives, and outcomes direction, thrust, and approach ✦ Stop taking in information as soon as they have ✦ Keep taking in information because there is always enough to make a decision something more to understand ✦ Like to have due dates and to stay well ahead of them ✦ Like to follow their curiosity and work best under pressure as deadlines approach ✦ Prefer to know exactly what they are accountable for ✦ Prefer to have genuine choices and flexibility in assignments ✦ See the need for most rules ✦ Question the need for many rules
10 Judging or Perceiving Judging and Perceiving in a Veterinary Practice Without an understanding of personality preferences, Isabel’s and Katharine’s contrasting approaches to managing their work day have the potential to negatively affect their work relationship. Isabel prefers Judging Katharine prefers Perceiving Isabel likes to draw a very clear line around her respon- Katharine is prepared to drop everything to get a sibilities and resists when asked to take on any new or critical job done in a hurry; consequently, non-urgent unscheduled tasks or activities. She completes her tasks tasks sometimes get neglected and she sometimes gets quickly, competently, and on time, following through behind schedule on all her commitments Isabel is decisive, working best when she can organize Katharine prefers to continually explore options; she and finish tasks. She feels comfortable once a decision enjoys starting tasks and leaving them open for last- is made and she is free to focus on what needs to be minute changes, gathering as much information as completed. possible and keeping her options open. The Result: Katharine—and other team members—see Isabel as reliable but very rigid. Katharine is seen as flexible, but not always dependable. Tension erupts when discussing how to comanage their technician duties. Isabel tries to limit op- tions, which stifles Katharine’s open-ended exploratory process. Katharine feels that Isabel decides things too quickly and is resistant to revising decisions, even when compelling new information becomes available. The MBTI can help everyone concerned appreciate their own strengths and realize that others aren’t purposely trying to drive them crazy, that’s just the way they’re wired.Self-Assessment:Do You Prefer Judging or Perceiving?Based on your understanding of Judging and Perceiving, whichpreference do you think more accurately describes you?A Judging style approaches the outside world with a plan and isoriented towards organizing one’s surroundings, being prepared,making decisions and reaching closure and completion.A Perceiving style takes the outside world as it comes and isadopting and adapting, flexible, open-ended and receptive to Select eithernew opportunities and changing game plans. Judging or PerceivingRemember, you can and do use both preferences at differenttimes and in different situations, but which one of these is themost natural orientation towards life? ❏ Judging (J) People who prefer Judging tend to like a planned approach to life and are organized, orderly,Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers structured, and decisive.added the Judging-Perceiving dimension to C.J. Jung’s typo-logical model, identifying the preference for using either the ❏ Perceiving (P)Judging function (Thinking or Feeling) or Perceiving function People who prefer Perceiving tend to adopt a more(Sensing or Intuition) when relating to the outside world. spontaneous approach to life and are flexible, adaptable, and like to keep their options open.
11 Your MBTI Results YourSelf-Assessment ResultsBased on your selections for each pair of preferencedichotomies thus far, your Self-Assessed MBTIPersonality Type is: I or E; S or N; F or P; T or JThe next step is to compare this to your IndicatorType as reported by the MBTI Instrument, available toExceptional Veterinary Team subcribers at myEVT.com.When you receive your report, return to complete thelearning module and verify your Best Fit Type.Interpreting Your MBTI ProfileReport and Indicator TypeThe two-page MBTI Profile report is designed to help youunderstand your results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) assessment. Based on your individual responses, theMBTI instrument produces results that identify which of the16 different personality types best describes you.What’s Included on Your MBTI Profile ReportThe first page of the report conveys your four-letter Indicator Type (also referred to as your Reported Type).The Preference Clarity Index (PCI) on page 2 of the report indicate how clear you were in expressing your preference for aparticular pole over its opposite. Higher numerical scores suggest you are more certain about your preference, while lower scores suggest you are less sure about that preference. These number scores do not measure skills or ability or degree of use for a specific preference, only preference clarity. ® FIONA SMITH / ISTJ June 28, 2009 Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Profile At the bottom of page 2 of your report, you can read a brief description of your Indicator Type. ed to help you results on the Myers- Briggs Type Indicat understand your ses, the MBTI instrument produc type or® es results alityThis profile is design Based on your individual respon best describes you. Your person two opposite ent.(MBTI ) assessm sixteen different personality types sed of each category compo ® alityto identif y which of separat e categories, with form the basis of a persons person preferences in four key areas that combine to represents your e categories describ poles. The four as follows: · Where you focus your attention — Extrave information — Sensing (S) or rsion (E) or Introver Feeling (F) Intuition (N) · The way you take indecisions — Thinking (T) or(J) or Perceiving (P) · The way you make the outer world — Judging sion (I) Does the description seem to fit? Many people find that their Indicator Type description describes · How you deal with on your respon ses is indicated by the four letters Your MBTI type your reported MBTI type is ISTJ, to the assessment, results are highlig hted below. preferences. Based representing your as Introverted Sensing with also described them quite well. Here’s the bottom line, though. The MBTI Profile Report does not tell you what you Thinking. Your Reported Type: ISTJ Extraversion People who prefer Extraversion tend to focus their people and things. I Introversion attention on the Introversion tend inner to focus their People who prefer world of ideas and impressio ns. are. Usually the results of a psychological instrument are the final word. But with the MBTI instru- outer world of ment, your Indicator Type is a hypothesis that needs to be verified. Your continued self-assessment Where you focus your attention E attention on the Intuition Intuition tend to take in informatio n People who prefer and focus on future the big picture N from patterns and Sensing Sensing tend to take in People who prefer and focus on possibilities. The way the five senses you take in S information through the here and now. may result in you selecting a Best Fit Type that is different than the reported results. Feeling Feeling tend to make decisions information People who prefer on subjective Thinking on values and F make decisions based primarily . Thinking tend to ntered concerns People who prefer objective analysis evaluation of person-ce The way on logic and on you make decisions T based primarily of cause and effect. Perceiving Perceiving tend to like a flexible People who prefer and prefer to keep approach to life How you Judging People who prefer Judging tend to approach to life like a planned and prefer to have P and spontaneous their options open. deal with the J and organized things settled. outer world e the they also indicat e your preferences; your preference for a par- ent not only indicat expressing the to the MBTI assessmthat is, how clear you were in index, or pci. The bar graph on Your responses your preferences— preference clarity about your prefer- relative clarity of opposite. This is known as the bar suggests you are quite sure its ticular pole over . Note that a longer nce. your pci results about that prefere next page charts bar sugges ts you are less sure ence, while a shorter You are the expert on you and the final judge of your Best Fit Type.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole