Learning ObjectivesMBTI Module 1: Introduction to theMyers-Briggs Type InstrumentCourse DescriptionExceptional veterinary teams are comprised of individuals whounderstand their personal strengths. They apply this knowledgein their collaborative and leadership capacities, resulting inimproved professional practice and personal morale based onincreased abilities to be effective in interpersonal relationships,communication, and decision making.The purpose of Module 1 is the acquisition of powerfulinformation and insights that will help you understand yourpersonal strengths in order to enhance your contribution toyour veterinary team and to promote your effectiveness inrelationships at home, at school, and in life. Course ContentLearning Objectives◆ Learn the purposes of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Optional and Recommended: Take the MBTI personality tool. Part 1: The MBTI Tool◆ Know how the MBTI is similar to and different from other Personality assessment and the veterinary team personality inventories. Increasing self-awareness Understanding individual differences◆ Understand the concept of “personality type.” Part 2: Understanding TypeOptional and Recommended Benefits of understanding personality type◆ Complete the MBTI. Register at myEVT.com. Part 3: MBTI Comparison◆ Review your assessment report to become aware of your How the MBTI compares to other psychological tests type preferences. What makes the MBTI similar What makes the MBTI uniqueAchieve an increased awareness of your thoughts, Part 4: Carl Jung feelings, and behaviors: What is personality type? ◆ How you prefer to become energized. Personality type theory ◆ How you prefer to take in information. Recommended reading ◆ How you prefer to make decisions. Part 5: The Four Dichotomies The building blocks of personality type How you prefer to approach life. The four dichotomies The spice of life Recognize and respect your strengths and challenges. Exercise Develop awareness of how preference dichotomies impact Part 6: The Eight Preferences others’ thinking, feeling, and behaviors. Understanding your preferences The eight preferences Grasp that all preferences are equally valuable and useful. Required Materials Required course content is online.Be motivated to use what you have learned to benefit yourself Optional and recommended and others with whom you work or interact, such as Take the MBTI online at the EVT discounted price. the members of your veterinary team! 1The MBTI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Carl 5 The 4 Jung Dichotomies 6 The 8 Preferences
1 The MBTI Tool By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC 1 2 The purpose 3 4 5 of learning about type is 6 7 8 9 10 11 to help you understand 12 13 14 15 16 17 yourself P E RS O N A L I T Y 18 19 20 better and to enhance your 21 Y 22 23 24 25 relationships 26 P 27 with others. —Isabel A S S E S S ME N T 28 29 30 31 Briggs Myers and the Veterinary Team • Understanding individual differences. Social awareness is the The purpose of the MBTI personality inventory is to make key to working well with others and the theory of psychological types described by Carl G. Jung the MBTI instrument helps people understandable and applicable. The essence of the theory is understand the differences in how that much seemingly random variation in people’s behavior people work and interact. is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the way individuals prefer to: Using these powerful insights we can discover how each person’s unique • Get energized personality type contributes to team • Take in information performance. Plus, we can learn new The Myers- • Make decisions, and ways to increase collaboration and Briggs Type • Approach life. improve relationships, productivity, Indicator and efficiency at work by considering (MBTI) is a These preferences are innate and hard-wired, in much the all points of view. ●valuable tool same way that you are born with a preference for either for personal right- or left-handedness.development notes When combined, your preferences form one of 16 unique and for personality types, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. building No type is inherently better or worse than any others. By healthy and understanding your type, and the type preferences of those productive around you, you gain powerful insights into maximizing your veterinary own effectiveness and your ability to work with others. health care teams. The MBTI tool is great for: • Increasing self-awareness. Self-awareness alone is a compelling predictor of success at work and accounts for one third of job performance. Awareness of your unique personality profile is an essential starting point. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
2 Understanding Type By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCBenefits of UnderstandingPersonalityTy PeU nderstanding and applying a knowledge of personality type leads to:• Enhanced leadership• Improved teamwork• Clearer communications• Greater utilization of personal strengths• Reduced conflicts• Improved decision making• Increased moraleIn developing the MBTI, the aim ofIsabel Briggs Myers, and her mother,Katharine Briggs, was to make theinsights of type theory easy to grasp. notesAfter more than 50 years, the MBTIassessment continues to be the bestknown and most trusted personalitytool available today. More than 2million assessments are administered toindividuals annually. ● From developing more productive work teams to building closer families, the MBTI can improve the quality of life for anyone and any organization. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
3 MBTI Comparison By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCHow MBTI Compares to OtherPsychological Tests The Myers-Briggs Type MBTI Indicator (MBTI) is a psychological instrument that provides What Makes MBTI Unique information about Jungian-based personality or • The MBTI instrument does not evaluate psychological types. It is not considered to be a mental health; there are no bad or test or evaluation instrument, and there are no unhealthy results. right or wrong answers. The responses to the • The MBTI instrument sorts individuals questions give an indication of the person’s into opposite categories, both of which psychological type, and all types are positive or are desirable. Many instruments good. measure the amount or degree of a trait, The MBTI is similar to other psychological such as shyness or detail-orientation. instruments in that it is designed to assess some Usually, it is desirable to have more or qualities of an individual’s personality. People less of a trait, whereas with the MBTI are asked to respond to questions about their instrument both categories are desirable. preferences in various situations, and the result • The MBTI instrument does not compare is an indicated “type” of personality. Knowing your results to those of other people; it one’s type gives insight into motives, behaviors, does not evaluate you by comparing you and interactions with others. to any normal or pathological standard. • The MBTI instrument describes the The MBTI instrument is unlike many other psychological instruments interaction between all preferencesin that it is not an assessment of mental health, intelligence, or unhealthy personality types or (called type dynamics) to create a wholepatterns. The common psychological instrument may tell you, among other things, where you type pattern rather than just adding upare deficient, lacking or disturbed. It is not possible to have an MBTI result that is bad or the qualities of each separate preference.unhealthy. The MBTI instrument is intended for self-discovery—what is right with you. • The MBTI instrument allows you to It does not measure amounts of personality traits or quantities of thought or behavior. Most determine your own personality typepsychological instruments report high or low amounts of a good or bad trait. The MBTI through a personal verification process, leaving the final assessment of your typeinstrument sorts personalities into different types that are qualitatively different. Just as apples in your hands.are different from oranges, one personality type is different from other types. Trait theory wouldtell you how much orange and how much apple you are. hSource: http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality- type/mbti-basics/different-from-other-instruments.asp It does not compare your results to that of other individuals. Most psychological testsevaluate you by comparing you to some normal or pathological standard. With the MBTIinstrument your responses are the only values used to indicate your psychological type. Whether or not you are an extravert or an introvert is the important notes issue, not how you compare to other extraverts or introverts.The MBTI is It does not tell you what you are. Usually the results of asimilar to psychological instrument are the final word. You are depressed orother dysfunctional in some way and the test told you so. With the MBTIpsychological instrument, the type that the person reports on the Indicator is a hypothesis that needs to be verified by the respondent as he or sheinstruments in considers the descriptions of the reported and different types. Thisthat it is leads to a best-fit type, and continued self-assessment may result in andesigned to accurate indication of type that is different from the reported results.assess some Remember: you are the expert on you. It is up to you to decide howqualities of an and if type can enhance your life. ●individual’s hSource: capt.org/mbti-assessment/mbti-test-comparison.htmpersonality. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
4 Carl Jung By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCWhat IsPersonalityType?Personality type (also referred to as psychologicaltype) is based on the theory described by Carl Jungthat seemingly random variation in people’sbehavior is actually consistent and orderly. Theconcept is a practical and convenient frameworkfor understanding and appreciating the differences e people ink about thamong individuals. Take a m oment to th e. You can your practic you w ork with in ers who thin k ntify team membAn underlying personality pattern probably ide m you. As y ou d ifferently froresults from the dynamic interaction of and operate learning mo dule,basic preferences, environmental continue through this of see if someinfluences, and our own choices. We r attention to pay particula y be explain ed bytend to develop behaviors, skills, and these dif ferences ma e.attitudes associated with our type, and rsonality typ diffe rences in pethose with different types will likely beopposite to you in many ways, while Recommended Reading There are a vast number of books and articles that willpeople with the same personality types help you better understand the MBTI and how it to usenaturally have similar interests and it. Some of classics in the field:views, behaviors, and motivations. 1. Health Care Communication Using Personality Type: Patients are Different! Allen J—Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 2000.Each type represents a valuable and 2. People Types and Tiger Stripes. Lawrence G—Gainesville: notesreasonable way to be. Each has its own Center for Application of Psychological Type, 2000.potential strengths, as well as its likely 3. Please Understand Me: Character and Temperamentblind spots. Awareness of differences Types. Keirsey D, Bates—Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1984.between types can help people 4. Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, andunderstand and value other people Intelligence. Keirsey D, Bates—Del Mar, CA:who think and act quite differently. ● Prometheus Nemesis Books, 1998.Just remember that, in the words of IsabelMyers, “Type does not explain everything. Humanpersonality is much more complex.” 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
5 The 4 Dichotomoies Exercise By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC In her studies of people and extensive reading of Jung’s theories, Isabel Myers concluded there were four primary ways people differed BUILDINGTHE from one another. She labeled these differences “preferences,” drawing a similarity to “hand preferences” to illustrate that although we all use both of our hands, most of us have a preference for one over the other and “it” takes the lead in many of the activities in which we use our hands. To experience this concept, try this simpleBLOCKS exercise: • Take out a piece of paper and sign your name as you normally do. • Now, sign your name again, but this time use your other hand.OF PERSONALITY TYPE • How would you describe the experience of writing your name with your preferred hand? • With your nonpreferred hand?There are four key building blocks that make up our personality type. Each of the four • Most people who try this immediately noticebuilding blocks is made up of a pair of opposite preferences. So there are two possible ways a number of differences:we can choose to use each building block at any given moment in time. Preferred Hand In type terms, these building blocks are called dichotomies and their pairs of opposite • Feels naturalpreferences are called poles. The MBTI reports preferences related to the following four • Didn’t think about itdichotomies. • Effortless, easyThe Four Preference Dichotomies • Looks neat, legible, adult• Extraversion/Introversion How you prefer to get energized Nonpreferred Hand • Feels unnatural• Sensing/Intuition How you prefer to take in information • Had to concentrate while doing it• Thinking/Feeling How you prefer to make decisions • Awkward and clumsy• Judging/Perceiving How you prefer to approach life • Looks childlike legible, adultIt is important to understand three key points. The words used to describe the preferences1.You can and do use each of these eight preferences at different times. We use both for one hand over the other illustrate the poles at different times and in different contexts. However, we can’t use both at exactly theory of preferences in the MBTI: You can the same time and we don’t use both with equal confidence. use either hand when you have to, and you2.Although you use all of the preferences, you tend to use one preference in each pair use both hands regularly; but for writing, one is natural, while the other often requires more than the other; one feels more comfortable, more natural. Neither is wrong. more effort and doesn’t come quite as easily. You can do both, but you prefer one. hSource: Introduction to Type, 6th ed. Myers IB—3.Most importantly all eight of the preferences are equally valuable. All preferences Palo Alto, CA:CPP, 1998. are equally valuable and each type brings an important point of view when people interact. notesThe Spice of Life “There is noA variety of types is best for a work group or team because many views right or wrongare represented. Although each type approaches situations differently, type, and thereand another person’s approach may not be what you would choose, each are no betterway can be effective. For example, let’s say you have a colleague at work named Nicole. or worseNicole’s type may lead her to like doing things at the last minute, while combinationsyou are uncomfortable if everything isn’t scheduled and planned in of types inadvance. Nicole may feel constrained when she has to plan far in work oradvance. You are not right and Nicole wrong. Nicole is not right and relationships.”you wrong. Different ways, based on different personality types, work - Isabelfor one of you and not for the other. Of course when you and Nicole work together, your differences can Briggsbe irritating. This is when knowing about personality type can help. MyersYou can accept her way as valid and she can accept yours. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
6 The 8 Preferences “Become By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC aware of your type biasesUnderstanding Your (we all have them!) to avoid negative stereotyping.” Preferences - Isabel Briggs Myers The Eight PreferencesY our results from the MBTI instrument help you become awareof your personality preferences. How you prefer to E Extraversion I Introversion get energized People who prefer People who prefer A preference is what you like. You extraversion tend to introversion tend tomay like, or prefer, peppermint candy focus on the outside focus on the inner world world and get energy and get energy throughover butterscotch. You may prefer through interacting reflecting onreading over watching movies. This with people and doing information, ideasdoesn’t mean you won’t sometimes things. and/or concepts.choose, or be pressured to choose, How you prefer to S Sensing N Intuitionbutterscotch candy or movies. But in take in information People who prefer People who prefergeneral you will prefer to choose sensing tend to notice intuition tend to paypeppermint and reading. and trust facts, details, attention to and trust and present realities. interrelationships, There are no right or wrong They like to take in theories, and futurepreferences. Reading is not better than information through possibilities. They arewatching movies; each has its strengths the five senses drawn to the big picture.and its problems. Most people have the How you prefer to T Thinking F Feelingability to do both, even if they don’t like make decisions People who prefer People who preferone or the other. thinking tend to make feeling tend to make decisions using decisions to create Personality type, also called impartial, logical, and harmony by applyingpsychological type, is what you prefer objective analysis. person-centered values.when you are using your mind orfocusing your attention. Studies and How you prefer to J Judging P Perceiving approach life People who prefer People who preferexperience have shown that there are judging tend to like a perceiving tend to adoptconsistent patterns for each person. planned approach to a more spontaneousThere are many benefits to life and are organized, approach to life and are orderly, structured, flexible, adaptable, andunderstanding your own preferences, and decisive. like to keep theirincluding how they affect you, how they options open.affect your style of communication, and noteshow they are different from what other Note: to avoid confusion, N is used as the abbreviation for Intuition and I for Introversion.people prefer. Preferences allow us tohave different interests, different ways of Four of these eight preferences (E or I, S or N, T or F, J or P) make up a person’s MBTI type, also calledbehaving, and different ways of seeing psychological or personality type. As you act on yourthe world. type preferences, you create a unique approach to the While all the preferences are equal, world, to information, to decisions, and to other people.each has different strengths and different When the preferences are combined in all possiblechallenges. Knowing these personality ways, they form 16 distinct personality types.strengths and challenges for yourself andothers can help you understand andappreciate how everyone contributes to asituation, a task, or the solution to aproblem. 1The MTBI 2 Understanding 3 MBTI Tool Type Comparison 4 Jung 5 Dichotomies Carl The 4 6 The 8 Preferences
Learning Objectives MBTI Module 2: Course Content Exploring Your Preferences Optional and Recommended: Take the MBTI Part 7: Extraversion or Introversion Exploring your preferences Course Description How do you prefer to get energized? Understanding personal strengths is the cornerstone for enhancing What do extraversion and introversion look like? the development of exceptional veterinary teams. Through General characteristics applying this awareness, individual and collaborative leadership Extraversion and introversion in a veterinary practice capacities are enhanced, and all aspects of the veterinary practice Self-assessment are positively impacted. Part 8: Sensing or Intuition The purpose of Module 2 is to focus on the interpretation of the Exploring your preferences Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type assessment. How do you prefer to take in information? Through these interpretations, 16 personality type preferences are What do sensing and intuition look like? understood and can be applied in any context. Utilizing type General characteristics Sensing and intuition in a veterinary practice preference knowledge promotes the effectiveness of your veterinary Self-assessment team to provide providing high-quality patient care, resulting in client adherence and loyalty…and professional satisfaction. Part 9: Thinking or Feeling Exploring your preferences Learning Objectives How do you prefer to make decisions? What do thinking and feeling look like? Optional and Recommended: Characteristics of people who prefer thinking vs feeling ◆ Complete the MBTI. (Register at myEVT.com.) Thinking and feeling in a veterinary practice ◆ Review your assessment report to become aware of your Self-assessment type preferences. Part 10: Judging or PerceivingLearn the general characteristics of each of the eight Exploring your preferences type preferences. How do you prefer to approach life? What do judging and perceiving look like? Discover how each of the type preferences is expressed. Characteristics of people who prefer judging vs perceiving Explore your preferences, comparing and contrasting Judging and perceiving in a veterinary practice examples to determine: Self-assessment ◆ How you prefer to get energized. ◆ How you prefer to take in information. Part 11: Your MBTI Results Your self-assessment results ◆ How you prefer to make decisions. Interpreting your MBTI Profile Report and ◆ How you prefer to approach life. Indicator Type What’s included on your MBTI Profile ReportExplore and apply the understanding of team differences, using Determining your best fit type veterinary practice examples, as a means to strengthen Reasons your indicator type may not be your the practice team. best fit type Tips for discovering your best fit type Self-assess your type preferences. Questions to help provide clarity Find out what’s included on your MBTI Profile Report. Part 12: Whole Type Descriptions Use whole type descriptions to help verify your Receive guidance to interpret your MBTI Profile Report best fit type and your type preferences. Next steps Websites Books Articles Determine your best fit type. Required Materials • Required course content is online. Reflect on your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, applying Optional and recommended • Take the MBTI online at what you have learned about type preferences. the EVT discounted price. 7 E or I? 8 S or N? 9 T or F? 10 J or P? 11 Your MBTI Results 12 Whole Types
7 Extraversion or Introversion By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCExploring YourPreferences:Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I) The Extraversion/Introversion (seeHow Do You Prefer To Get Energized? What Do Extraversion and IntroversionThe first pair of psychological preferences is Extraversion and Introversion. Look Like?) dichotomy of the MBTIWhere do you put your attention and get your energy? Do you like to spend addresses these questions:time in the outer world of people and things (Extraversion), or in your innerworld of ideas and images (Introversion)? ◆ Where do you focus your attention? ◆ How do you get energized?Extraversion and Introversion, as used by C.G. Jung, explain different ◆ Where do you direct your energy?attitudes people use to direct their energy. These words have a meaning inpsychology that is different from the way they are used in everyday language. ◆ What tends to drain your energy?Everyone spends some time extraverting and some time introverting. Don’t ◆ How much and what kind ofconfuse Introversion with shyness or reclusiveness; they are not related. contact with others do you prefer? What Do Extraversion and Introversion Look Like? Which of the these descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) “Let’s talk this over.” “I need to think about this.” You are drawn to the outside world as your elemental source You draw your primary energy from the inner world of of energy. Rarely, if ever, do you feel your energy batteries information, thoughts, ideas, and other reflections. When are “drained” by excessive amounts of interaction with the circumstances require an excessive amount of attention outside world. You engage the things, people, places, and spent in the outside world, you find the need to retreat activities going on in the outside world for your life force. to a more private setting as if to recharge your drained batteries. Your energy is directed outward and stimulates action. Your energy is directed inward and stimulates reflection. You are responsive to what is going on in the environment. You achieve stability from attending to enduring ideas. You You learn and work best when able to share, discuss, and learn and work best by having time to relate, understand, process information with others. and process information on your own.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
7 Extraversion or IntroversionGeneral CharacteristicsLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Extraversion and Introversion. People who prefer Extraversion (E) People who prefer Introversion (I) ◆ Talk more than listen ◆ Listen more than talk ◆ Have broad interests ◆ Focus in depth on their interests ◆ Prefer to do lots of things at once ◆ Prefer to focus on one thing at a time ◆ Act first, think/reflect later ◆ Think/reflect first, then act ◆ Prefer a public role ◆ Prefer to work “behind-the-scenes” ◆ Prefer to communicate by talking ◆ Prefer to communicate in writing ◆ Talk about their thoughts ◆ Keep thoughts inside until they are clearly formulated ◆ Feel their best work is done with others ◆ Feel their best work is done alone ◆ Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with ◆ Regularly require an amount of “private time” to the outside world recharge their batteries ◆ Need to experience the world before they can ◆ Need to understand the world before they understand it experience it ◆ Plunge in and try out ideas right away ◆ Try things out reflectively first ◆ Look outside themselves for ideas and stimulation ◆ Look inside themselves for ideas and stimulation ◆ Prefer a physical work space that facilitates ◆ Prefer a physical work space that allows for privacy interaction and concentration ◆ Assume that others are interested in what they ◆ Don’t assume that others want their opinion unless have to say they explicitly ask for it ◆ Engage with others to consider conflict ◆ Withdraw from others to consider conflict
7 Extraversion or Introversion Extraversion and Introversion in a Veterinary Practice Katharine and Isabel are licensed veterinary technicians with comparable experience and skills. They have similar roles at their practice, spending time interacting with clients and working on inpatient cases. While both are talented and committed team members, their contrasting work and communication styles are making it difficult for them—and the rest of the team—to work effectively together. Katharine prefers Extraversion Isabel prefers Introversion Katharine thrives on active, people-filled days and enjoys Isabel prefers working in the back of the hospital to talking with clients in the exam rooms and reception area. working up front with clients and is at her best when she Because she likes to be involved with activities involv- can concentrate and work independently, working on ing other people, Katharine finds it difficult to focus on tasks such as lab work or performing dental procedures. solitary tasks for long periods of time. She prefers more active work that requires several pairs of hands, like taking radiographs or surgery prep work. Katharine is energized by lively, wide-ranging discussions Isabel wants to “think things through,” and is more and likes to “talk things out.” Her conversation is rapid likely to engage in quiet conversations with space for paced and she often interrupts others to elaborate on and reflection. Her conversation pace is slower as she takes process thoughts. time to formulate and build thoughts and ideas inter- nally before speaking. The Result: Because both technicians naturally gravitate to the job functions they enjoy most, important things sometimes don’t get done, patient care suffers, and they resent each other for “shirking their responsibilities.” Isabel feels she “can’t get a word in edgewise,” but that it doesn’t really matter since Katharine never listens anyway. Isabel thinks Katharine has too many “half-baked ideas.” Katharine, meanwhile, wonders why Isabel is so secretive. An understanding of the MBTI personality framework can be a starting point for understanding and working through the differences between these two team members related to their preferences for Extraversion and Introversion.Self-Assessment: Select eitherDo You Prefer Extraversion or Introversion?Based on your understanding of Extraversion and Introversion, Extraversion or Introversionwhich preference do you think more accurately describes you? ❏ Extraversion (E)Each of us has two faces. One is directed towards the outer People who prefer Extraversion tend to focusworld of activities, excitements, people, and things. The other is on the outside world and get energy throughdirected inward to the inner world of thoughts, interests, ideas, interacting with people and doing things.and imagination. These are two different but complementarysides of our nature. ❏ Introversion (I)Remember, you can and do use both preferences at different People who prefer Introversion tend to focus ontimes and in different situations, but which one is your most the inner world and get energy through reflect-natural energy orientation? ing on information, ideas and/or concepts.
8 Sensing or IntuitionExploring Your Preferences: Sensing (S) or Intuition (N) How Do You Prefer to Take in Information? The second pair of psychological preferences is Sensing and Intuition. Do you pay more attention to information that comes in through your five senses (Sensing), or do you pay more attention to the patterns and possibilities that you see in the information you receive (Intuition)? The Sensing/Intuition dichotomy of the MBTI addresses the following questions: ✤ What do you become aware of? ✤ What kind of information do you seek? ✤ What kind of information is important to you? ✤ What kinds of things do you tend to notice, or not notice? What Do Sensing and Intuition Look Like? Take a minute and ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Sensing (S) Intuition (N) “Just the facts, please.” “I can see it all now.” You favor clear, tangible data and information that fit in well You are drawn to information that is more abstract, with your direct here-and-now experience. conceptual, big-picture, and represents imaginative possibilities for the future. You tend to have a mastery of the facts and a knowledge of You pay attention to insights and meanings and have a what materials and resources are available. grasp of what is possible and what the trends are. You have an appreciation of knowing and doing what works. You have an appreciation of doing what hasn’t been tried before.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
8 Sensing or IntuitionGeneral CharacteristicsLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Sensing and Intuition. People who prefer Sensing (S) People who prefer Intuition (N) ✤ Focus on details and specifics ✤ Focus on the big picture and possibilities ✤ Admire practical solutions ✤ Admire creative ideas ✤ Are pragmatic—see what is ✤ Are inventive—see what could be ✤ Value utility: approaches that are useful and ✤ Value novelty: approaches that stimulate the based on established principles imagination ✤ Live in the now, attending to present opportunities ✤ Live in the future, attending to future possibilities ✤ Take things literally, at face value ✤ Take things figuratively, looking for a deeper meaning ✤ Have a memory recall that is rich in detail of ✤ Have a memory recall that emphasizes patterns, facts and past events contexts, and connections ✤ Like step-by-step instructions ✤ Like to figure things out for themselves ✤ Work at a steady pace ✤ Work in bursts of energy ✤ Prefer to perfect established skills ✤ Prefer to learn new skills ✤ Like clear and concrete information; dislike ✤ Are comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data, and with guessing when facts are “fuzzy” guessing its meaning. ✤ Prefer to stay with the valuable, tried, and true ✤ Are excited by future possibilities when considering when considering change change ✤ Tend to follow instructions ✤ May create their own instructions ✤ Apply experience to problems ✤ Apply ingenuity to problems ✤ Need to be convinced ✤ Need to be inspired
8 Sensing or Intuition Sensing and Intuition in a Veterinary Practice Building on our previous example, while they differ in their preferences for Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I), both Katharine and Isabel share a common preference for Sensing (S). However, the practice owner, Dr. Jung, prefers Intuition (N). Katharine and Isabel prefer Sensing Dr. Jung prefers Intuition Katharine and Isabel excel at using tried and true meth- Dr. Jung loves to envision the future of the practice ods that use their existing skillsets and generally resist and make constant improvements in processes and changes that don’t seem necessary. They would rather get procedures. He can easily predict outcomes and see their work done then participate in strategic planning how changes will positively affect the big picture and meetings and their motto is, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix the bottom line. His motto is, “If it ain’t broke, then it.” break it.” The technicians prefer to receive case management Dr. Jung is comfortable creating his own way of instructions in clear, stepwise fashion. They get frus- doing things without having to always rely on a trated when Dr. Jung supplies instructions in what they standard protocol. So he doesn’t understand why perceive to be vague, haphazard ways that lack specific Katharine and Isabel need what he thinks is so much detail and direction. unnecessary detail and why they want things laid out in concrete. The Result: Conflict results when Dr. Jung fails to recognize all the specific details involved in making changes to the practice work flow and Katharine and Isabel fail to understand the big picture and long-term benefits of proposed improve- ments. The technicians feel that Dr. Jung spends too much time on “pie in the sky” ideas instead of concentrating on the issues at hand. Dr. Jung resents the technicians for their apparent disinterest in the practice vision and getting mired in unimportant practicalities. Their differing preferences for Sensing and Intuition are causing difficulties and breakdowns in communication as one preference sees “the forest” while the other sees “the trees.” Both the details and the big picture must be considered for the best possible outcomes in this practice. Once Katharine, Isabel, and Dr. Jung understand personality type, these differences can become useful.Self-Assessment: Do You Prefer Sensing or Intuition? Select EitherBased on your understanding of Sensing and Intuition, which prefer-ence do you think more accurately describes you? Sensing or IntuitionThe Sensing side of our brain notices the sights, sounds, smells, and ❏ Sensing (S)all the sensory details of the present. It categorizes, organizes, records, People who prefer Sensing tend to noticeand stores the specifics from the here and now. It is reality based, deal- and trust facts, details, and present realities.ing with “what is.” It also provides the specific details of memory and They like to take in information throughrecollections from past events. the five senses.The Intuitive side of our brain seeks to understand, interpret, and formoverall patterns of all the information that is collected and records these ❏ Intuition (N) People who prefer Intuition tend to paypatterns and relationships. It speculates on possibilities, including look- attention to and trust interrelationships,ing into and forecasting the future. It is imaginative and conceptual. theories, and future possibilities. They areRemember, you can and do use both preferences at different times and drawn to the big picture.in different situations, but which one of these kinds of perceiving doyou instinctively tend to favor?
9 Thinking or Feeling By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACCExploring YourPreferences:Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)How Do You Prefer To Make Decisions?This third preference pair describes how you like to makedecisions. Do you like to put more weight on objective prin-ciples and impersonal facts (Thinking) or do you put moreweight on personal concerns and the people involved (Feeling)?Don’t confuse Feeling with emotion. Everyone has emo- The Thinking/Feeling dichotomy of thetions about the decisions they make. Also do not confuse MBTI addresses the following questions:Thinking with intelligence. ◆ What do you rely on when making a decision?Everyone uses Thinking for some decisions and Feeling ◆ What kinds of decisions do you like to make?for others. In fact, a person can make a decision using his or ◆ What consequences are you likely to considerher preference, then test the decision by using the other prefer- when making a decision?ence to see what might not have been taken into account. ◆ How do you evaluate the opinions or decisions of others? What Do Thinking and Feeling Look Like? Ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you. Thinking (T) Feeling (F) “Is this logical?” “Will anyone be hurt?” You have a natural preference for making decisions in an You make your decisions in a somewhat global, visceral, objective, logical, and analytical manner with an emphasis harmony, and value-oriented way, paying particular on tasks and results to be accomplished. attention to the impact of decisions and actions on other people. You objectively analyze the pros and cons of a situation, You desire to uncover the greatest good in a situation and even when you have a personal stake. notice when people may be harmed. You want to discover the “truth” and naturally notice You know what is important to people and adhere to that logical inconsistencies. in the face of opposition.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
9 Thinking or FeelingCharacteristics of People Who Prefer Thinking Vs FeelingLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Thinking and Feeling. People who prefer Thinking (T) People who prefer Feeling (F) ◆ Are honest and direct ◆ Are diplomatic and tactful ◆ Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision ◆ Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact on situation people in decision situations ◆ Weigh the pros and cons when making decisions ◆ Sort through personal values when making decisions ◆ Are more likely to critique first and compliment later ◆ Are more likely to compliment first and critique later ◆ Tend toward skepticism, controversy, and impartiality ◆ Tend toward acceptance, tolerance, and sympathy ◆ Are motivated by achievement ◆ Are motivated by appreciation ◆ Naturally notice tasks and work to be accomplished ◆ Are naturally sensitive to the needs of others and the work process ◆ Typically respond by first asking questions and ◆ Typically respond by first looking for common ground challenging what is said and expressing agreement or sharing concern ◆ Expect that the best ideas and solutions emerge from ◆ Expect that the best ideas and solutions emerge from argument and debate cooperation and building on everyone’s contribution ◆ Prefer situations where they can critique and get ◆ Prefer situations where personally helping people is mastery over the main work ◆ Do their best work when they can take an analytical ◆ Do their best work when personal relationships and approach to new ideas and situations harmony are the context for their learning ◆ Believe fairness means treating everyone by the same ◆ Believe fairness means taking individual needs into standards account ◆ Are more interested in justice ◆ Are more interested in mercy ◆ Take few things personally ◆ Take many things personally ◆ Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of ◆ Are unsettled by conflict; want to avoid disharmony relationships with people
9 Thinking or Feeling Thinking and Feeling in a Veterinary Practice In addition to sharing a preference for Sensing (S), Katharine and Isabel also both prefer Feeling (F). Their com- mon preferences for Sensing (S) and Feeling (F) might well explain what draws them to work in a veterinary health care environment—they both seek practical ways to help and serve both pets and people. They also want to be part of a predictable and harmonious work environment. In contrast, Dr. Jung has a preference for Thinking (T). Combined with his preference for Intuition (N), this means that he differs significantly from both technicians in how he prefers to take in information and make decisions. Let’s look at how their differing approaches to decision making play out: Dr. Jung prefers Thinking Katharine and Isabel prefer Feeling When making decisions, Dr. Jung will tend to look ob- When making decisions, Katharine and Isabel, tend to jectively at a situation, then consider the people aspects, consider the effect on people first, then look at the logic and then return to the objective information to make a involved, and then return to the Feeling data for the final final decision. decision. When considering how to staff the practice to best serve When considering staffing issues and delivering client clients, Dr. Jung is more likely to focus on the following service, Katharine and Isabel will consider a different set questions: of questions: ◆ What are the pros and cons of acting on different ◆ What are the people consequences for both the team options? and the client of each option? ◆ What is the most reasonable course of action? ◆ How will the team members and clients respond to ◆ What are the financial costs and considerations? each scenario? ◆ What strategies are needed to achieve each potential ◆ What do we personally like and dislike about what outcome? we’re considering here? ◆ Who is committed to carrying out this plan? The Result: Dr. Jung is sometimes exasperated by what he sees as the wishy washy, touchy-feely approach to problems that Katharine and Isabel seem to have. “Why can’t they be rational?,” he thinks. Katharine and Isabel are sometimes put off by Dr. Jung’s apparent complete disregard for people’s perspectives and feelings. It’s important to understand that both these ways of making decisions are rational, they are just based on different priorities and different data sets. Both Thinking and Feeling preferences are essential for the competent and sensitive delivery of healthcare services as well as the management of the veterinary health care team.Self-Assessment: Do You Prefer Thinking or Feeling?Based on your understanding of Thinking and Feeling, which prefer- Select Eitherence do you think more accurately describes you? Thinking or FeelingThe Thinking side of our brain analyzes information in a detached,objective fashion. It operates from factual principles, deduces, and ❏ Thinking (T)forms conclusions systematically. It is our logical nature. People who prefer Thinking tend to make decisions using impartial, logical, andThe Feeling side of our brain forms conclusions in an attached and objective analysis.somewhat global manner, based on likes/dislikes, impact on others,and human and aesthetic values. It is our subjective nature. ❏ Feeling (F)Remember, you can and do use both preferences at different times People who prefer Feeling tend to makeand in different situations, but which one of these ways of forming decisions to create harmony by applyingconclusions do you lean toward? person-centered values.
10 Judging or PerceivingExploring YourPreferences:Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)How Do You Prefer To Approach Life?This fourth preference pair describes how you like to liveyour outer life; what behaviors others tend to see. Do youprefer a more structured and decided lifestyle (Judging) ora more flexible and adaptable lifestyle(Perceiving)? This preference may also be thought of asyour orientation to the outer world.The Judging-Perceiving dichotomy of theMBTI addresses the following questions:✦ Do you deal with the outer world by gathering information about it or by making decisions about it?✦ How much structure do you like or need? Don’t confuse Judging and Perceiving✦ How do you approach tasks that need to be done? with a person’s level of organization.✦ How much information do you want? Either preference can be organized. What Do Judging and Perceiving Look Like? Take a minute and ask yourself which of the following descriptions seems more natural, effortless, and comfortable for you? Judging (J) Perceiving (P) “Just do something.” “Let’s wait and see.” You rely upon either your T or F preference to manage You rely upon either your S or N preference to run your outer life. This typically leads to a style oriented your outer life. This typically results in an open, adapt- toward closure, organization, planning, or in some fashion able, flexible style of relating to the things and people managing the things and or people found in the external found in the outside world; and you quickly respond environment. The drive is to order the outside world. to the needs of the moment. The drive is to experience While you may have an assertive manner, your “ordering the outside world rather than order it. So, in general, touch”—with respect to other people—may be light. you easily tolerate a lack of closure. You like to push to get things settled and decided. You strive to keep your options open so new informa- tion may be gathered. You have an appreciation of well-organized efficiency. You have an appreciation of the need for spontaneity and exploration.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
10 Judging or PerceivingCharacteristics of People Who Prefer Judging Vs PerceivingLet’s take a look at some of the characteristics of people who prefer Judging and Perceiving. People who prefer Judging (J) People who prefer Perceiving (P) ✦ Want things decided ✦ Want to keep their options open ✦ Feel anxious until things are settled ✦ Feel anxious if there is pressure to settle things too quickly ✦ Make most decisions pretty easily, but may decide too ✦ May have difficulty making decisions and avoid quickly decisions altogether ✦ Control their environment ✦ Understand their environment ✦ Schedule their time, set dates, and make arrangements ✦ Leave scheduling options open as long as possible ✦ Find comfort in schedules ✦ Want the freedom to be spontaneous ✦ Like to make and stick with plans ✦ Like to keep plans flexible ✦ Avoid problems by anticipating and planning ahead ✦ Solve problems if and when they arise ✦ Are serious and conventional ✦ Are playful and unconventional ✦ Prefer to finish projects ✦ Prefer to start projects ✦ Talk about definite results: focusing on goals, ✦ Talk about a general course of action, emphasizing objectives, and outcomes direction, thrust, and approach ✦ Stop taking in information as soon as they have ✦ Keep taking in information because there is always enough to make a decision something more to understand ✦ Like to have due dates and to stay well ahead of them ✦ Like to follow their curiosity and work best under pressure as deadlines approach ✦ Prefer to know exactly what they are accountable for ✦ Prefer to have genuine choices and flexibility in assignments ✦ See the need for most rules ✦ Question the need for many rules
10 Judging or Perceiving Judging and Perceiving in a Veterinary Practice Without an understanding of personality preferences, Isabel’s and Katharine’s contrasting approaches to managing their work day have the potential to negatively affect their work relationship. Isabel prefers Judging Katharine prefers Perceiving Isabel likes to draw a very clear line around her respon- Katharine is prepared to drop everything to get a sibilities and resists when asked to take on any new or critical job done in a hurry; consequently, non-urgent unscheduled tasks or activities. She completes her tasks tasks sometimes get neglected and she sometimes gets quickly, competently, and on time, following through behind schedule on all her commitments Isabel is decisive, working best when she can organize Katharine prefers to continually explore options; she and finish tasks. She feels comfortable once a decision enjoys starting tasks and leaving them open for last- is made and she is free to focus on what needs to be minute changes, gathering as much information as completed. possible and keeping her options open. The Result: Katharine—and other team members—see Isabel as reliable but very rigid. Katharine is seen as flexible, but not always dependable. Tension erupts when discussing how to comanage their technician duties. Isabel tries to limit op- tions, which stifles Katharine’s open-ended exploratory process. Katharine feels that Isabel decides things too quickly and is resistant to revising decisions, even when compelling new information becomes available. The MBTI can help everyone concerned appreciate their own strengths and realize that others aren’t purposely trying to drive them crazy, that’s just the way they’re wired.Self-Assessment:Do You Prefer Judging or Perceiving?Based on your understanding of Judging and Perceiving, whichpreference do you think more accurately describes you?A Judging style approaches the outside world with a plan and isoriented towards organizing one’s surroundings, being prepared,making decisions and reaching closure and completion.A Perceiving style takes the outside world as it comes and isadopting and adapting, flexible, open-ended and receptive to Select eithernew opportunities and changing game plans. Judging or PerceivingRemember, you can and do use both preferences at differenttimes and in different situations, but which one of these is themost natural orientation towards life? ❏ Judging (J) People who prefer Judging tend to like a planned approach to life and are organized, orderly,Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers structured, and decisive.added the Judging-Perceiving dimension to C.J. Jung’s typo-logical model, identifying the preference for using either the ❏ Perceiving (P)Judging function (Thinking or Feeling) or Perceiving function People who prefer Perceiving tend to adopt a more(Sensing or Intuition) when relating to the outside world. spontaneous approach to life and are flexible, adaptable, and like to keep their options open.
11 Your MBTI Results YourSelf-Assessment ResultsBased on your selections for each pair of preferencedichotomies thus far, your Self-Assessed MBTIPersonality Type is: I or E; S or N; F or P; T or JThe next step is to compare this to your IndicatorType as reported by the MBTI Instrument, available toExceptional Veterinary Team subcribers at myEVT.com.When you receive your report, return to complete thelearning module and verify your Best Fit Type.Interpreting Your MBTI ProfileReport and Indicator TypeThe two-page MBTI Profile report is designed to help youunderstand your results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) assessment. Based on your individual responses, theMBTI instrument produces results that identify which of the16 different personality types best describes you.What’s Included on Your MBTI Profile ReportThe first page of the report conveys your four-letter Indicator Type (also referred to as your Reported Type).The Preference Clarity Index (PCI) on page 2 of the report indicate how clear you were in expressing your preference for aparticular pole over its opposite. Higher numerical scores suggest you are more certain about your preference, while lower scores suggest you are less sure about that preference. These number scores do not measure skills or ability or degree of use for a specific preference, only preference clarity. ® FIONA SMITH / ISTJ June 28, 2009 Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Profile At the bottom of page 2 of your report, you can read a brief description of your Indicator Type. ed to help you results on the Myers- Briggs Type Indicat understand your ses, the MBTI instrument produc type or® es results alityThis profile is design Based on your individual respon best describes you. Your person two opposite ent.(MBTI ) assessm sixteen different personality types sed of each category compo ® alityto identif y which of separat e categories, with form the basis of a persons person preferences in four key areas that combine to represents your e categories describ poles. The four as follows: · Where you focus your attention — Extrave information — Sensing (S) or rsion (E) or Introver Feeling (F) Intuition (N) · The way you take indecisions — Thinking (T) or(J) or Perceiving (P) · The way you make the outer world — Judging sion (I) Does the description seem to fit? Many people find that their Indicator Type description describes · How you deal with on your respon ses is indicated by the four letters Your MBTI type your reported MBTI type is ISTJ, to the assessment, results are highlig hted below. preferences. Based representing your as Introverted Sensing with also described them quite well. Here’s the bottom line, though. The MBTI Profile Report does not tell you what you Thinking. Your Reported Type: ISTJ Extraversion People who prefer Extraversion tend to focus their people and things. I Introversion attention on the Introversion tend inner to focus their People who prefer world of ideas and impressio ns. are. Usually the results of a psychological instrument are the final word. But with the MBTI instru- outer world of ment, your Indicator Type is a hypothesis that needs to be verified. Your continued self-assessment Where you focus your attention E attention on the Intuition Intuition tend to take in informatio n People who prefer and focus on future the big picture N from patterns and Sensing Sensing tend to take in People who prefer and focus on possibilities. The way the five senses you take in S information through the here and now. may result in you selecting a Best Fit Type that is different than the reported results. Feeling Feeling tend to make decisions information People who prefer on subjective Thinking on values and F make decisions based primarily . Thinking tend to ntered concerns People who prefer objective analysis evaluation of person-ce The way on logic and on you make decisions T based primarily of cause and effect. Perceiving Perceiving tend to like a flexible People who prefer and prefer to keep approach to life How you Judging People who prefer Judging tend to approach to life like a planned and prefer to have P and spontaneous their options open. deal with the J and organized things settled. outer world e the they also indicat e your preferences; your preference for a par- ent not only indicat expressing the to the MBTI assessmthat is, how clear you were in index, or pci. The bar graph on Your responses your preferences— preference clarity about your prefer- relative clarity of opposite. This is known as the bar suggests you are quite sure its ticular pole over . Note that a longer nce. your pci results about that prefere next page charts bar sugges ts you are less sure ence, while a shorter You are the expert on you and the final judge of your Best Fit Type.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
11 Your MBTI Results Determining Best Fit Type is simply the four-letter type that youYour Best Fit Type think best fits you. It’s the type that you feel represents your natural preferences.Compare your Self-Assessed Type with your Indicator Type from your profile report. Are they the same? Congratulations!You’ve likely determined your Best Fit Type. Skip to the Whole Type Descriptions section to read the description for yourfour-letter type and verify that the description fits.The percentage of agreement between a person’s Self-Assessed Type and his or her reported type is 70% to 80%.Agreement on three of the preference dichotomies rather than all four is around 95%.Sometimes circumstances of your life can lead you to answer the questions on the MBTI instrument so that your reportedMBTI type does not reflect your true preferences. Reasons Your Indicator Type May Not Be Your Best Fit Type ◆ You may still be developing your preferences (this is especially true of young people). ◆ You may have completed the MBTI questionnaire based on expectations or preferences of your parents, family, or friends. ◆ You may have based your answers on what you feel Tips for Discovering Your Best Fit Type is required by your work or current situation rather than what you actually prefer. Focus on your whole type, not on your individual preferences. ◆ You may be worried that someone in authority will see the results and disagree with your preferences. People often focus on pairs of preferences. But MBTI type theory is about whole types, in which ◆ You may not be acting typically because of stress or a preferences interact in ways unique to each of the 16 crisis. types. Start with what you are sure about. Read all the ◆ You may be reacting to cultural pressure to have type descriptions that include the preferences you are certain preferences (for example, planning ahead or sure of. At this point, you may find a type that you being outgoing). know is yours. ◆ You may be in your teens or early 20s and therefore Suppose you are unsure whether you prefer, for still exploring your preferences, or you may be at example, Sensing (S) or Intuition (N), but the other midlife and working to develop the less-preferred preferences Extraversion (E), Thinking (T), and Judg- functions. In terms of establishing Best Fit Type, ing (J) are clear to you. The real question at this point either situation can confuse the issue. is not whether you are an S or an N, but whether you are an ESTJ or an ENTJ. The essences of those two ◆ Your type may itself be the source of difficulty in get- types are very different. ting to a best-fit type with which you are comfortable. For example, those who prefer Perceiving favor taking The ESTJ is focused on getting things done smoothly in more information rather than coming to a conclu- and efficiently. As an SJ, you have a core need for seek- sion quickly; those with a preference for Judging on ing the good of the community, a sense of belonging, the other hand may rush to conclusions too early. and learning from the past. Those who prefer Intuition may engage in too many The ENTJ, on the other hand, is focused on imple- possibilities; and those who prefer Sensing and Judg- menting new ideas and challenges. As an NT, you are ing may feel the pull of duty to be a certain type. likely to be concerned primarily with competence and intellectual resourcefulness.
11 Your MBTI Results ✔ Opposite types may help you identify what you are not.. If you are, for example, hesitating between ISTJ and ISFJ, an MBTI practitioner may ask you to read descriptions of the two opposite types, ie, ENFP and ENTP. You may recognize very clearly the type you are most unlike, thus guiding you toward your own type.Start observing yourself.For example, if you are undecided about Thinking or Feeling, start noticing how you make decisions. Are decisions better if youtrust your heart (F) or your head (T)? Notice when activities take a lot of energy and effort. See if you can identify which mentalprocess you were using. It is often true that preferred processes seem effortless, and less preferred processes are more tiring.If watching details closely for a long time makes you feel tired, cross, or nervous, you might investigate whether other sensing(S) activities are also hard for you. You could then look to see if intuitive (N) activities come more easily. If they do, you couldconsider whether intuition might be your preferred process. To test these ideas, you could ask yourself if your hunches, flashesof inspiration and other intuitions are generally accurate or trustworthy. ✔ Think about family or community dynamics growing up. What preferences did your parents expect you to show? Was noise allowed or was quiet required? Were you expected to be practical or imaginative? Did your parents emphasize logic or empathy? Were you rewarded for being planful or encouraged to be more spontaneous? Are you still operating on childhood “shoulds”? Consider what others require of you. What do significant others (spouse, boss, partner, etc) require of you—more action or thought; common sense or dreaming; fairness or harmony; plans or spontaneity? ✔ Evaluate cultural influences.Q What preference does your culture emphasize? For example, most American business organi- zations favor Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging, so people with slight preference clarity indexes might consider whether their preferences are really for Introversion, Intuition, Feeling, or Perceiving or whether they feel pressured to be more like the typical business person. Questions to Help Provide Clarity 1. Extraversion and Introversion. How long would you be comfortable on a silent retreat or being by your self? 2. Sensing and Intuition. How do you give directions—in a clear, specific Sensing style, or using vague directions with landmarks and distances? 3. Thinking and Feeling. How comfortable are you with giving critical feedback or with exceptions being made to rules? 4. Judging and Perceiving. Do you like having your weekends planned out or do you prefer to wait to see what turns up, what the weather is like, who else is in town, etc? All too often, the Best Fit Type decision is a quick pro forma process, in which people either accept their MBTI Indicator results or puzzle briefly about one preference that doesn’t “feel” quite right. However, we encourage you to look in depth at your preferences and to understand the impact of type in all aspects of your life! The experience of verifying type can be very rewarding and enlightening and is very much worth the effort.
12 Whole Type DescriptionsWhole Type DescriptionsFour of the eight preferences (E or I, S or N, T or F, J or P) make up your four-letter MBTI type, also called psychological orpersonality type. When the preferences are combined in all possible ways, they form 16 distinct personality types. MBTI typetheory is essentially all about these whole types, in which the preferences interact dynamically in ways that are unique to each ofthe 16 types. In short, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.Use the following whole type descriptions to help verify your Best Fit Type.The 16 MBTI Types—The Myers & Briggs Foundationmyersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/the-16-mbti-types.aspThe Sixteen Types at a Glance—Center for Applications of Psychological Typecapt.org/mbti-assessment/type-descriptions.htmNext StepsThere are many great resources to help you expand your knowledge of typeand apply your understanding to deepen your self- and social-awareness andinterpersonal effectiveness. Here are a few recommendations:Books 1. Do What You Are. Tieger PD, Barron B. Little, Brown & Company, 2007. 2. Introduction to Type, 6th ed. Myers IB. 1998, CPP, 1998. 3. Introduction to Type and Teams. Hirsh E, Hirsch KW, Hirsch SK. CPP, 2003. 4. Introduction to Type in Organizations. by Hirsch SK, Kummerow JM. CPP, 1998. 5. Introduction to Type and Coaching. Hirsch SK, Kise JAG. CPP, 2000. 6. Introduction to Type and Communication. Dunning D. CPP, 2003. 7. Looking at Type: The Fundamentals. Martin C. CAPT, 1997. 8. Health Care Communication Using Personality Type. Allen J, Brock SA. Routledge, 2000. 9. People Types & Tiger Stripes, 3ed ed. Lawrence G. CAPT, 1993.10. Type Talk at Work. Kroeger O. Tilden Press, 2002.Web SitesMyers & Briggs Foundation—www.myersbriggs.orgPersonality Pathways—www.personalitypathways.comPersonalityType.com—www.personalitytype.comArticles1. Extraversion and Introversion. Houghton A. Student BMJ 12:393-436, 2004.2. How do you make decisions? Thinking and feeling. Houghton A. Student BMJ 13:1-44, 2005.3. How do you like to live your life? Judging and Perceiving. Houghton A. Student BMJ 13:45-88, 2005.4. Understanding personality type: How do you like to take in information? Houghton A. Student BMJ; 12:437-480, 2004.7 E or I? 8 9 10 11 Results 12 Types S or N? T or F? J or P? Your MBTI Whole
Learning Objectives Course ContentMBTI Module 4: Part 18: Personality types and communicationMBTI Type & Client Communication Identify your preferred style ✦ Determine how you prefer to get energized, takeCourse Description in information, make decisions, and approach life.Client communication and creating a flexible communication style Part 19: Tune In to the Other Personsuited to handle all MBTI personality preferences can have a positive Understanding other’s personality typeseffect on the practice team. Effective communication requires good ✦ Notice the way in which the other person talksworking knowledge of personality types, full understanding of your and determine whether they are extroverted orown type, and how to communicate with others. introverted.Module 4 will explore ways to connect with clients by using the ✦ Understand the kinds of questions the client isknowledge gained from modules 1–3. You can do this by understanding asking.the differences between yourself and others and applying what you know ✦ Sense what the client wants from you and whatabout preferred communication techniques from each type. criteria they use to make decisions. ✦ See how quickly the client wants to make aLearning Objectives decision.Learn how to use an understanding of individual MBTI preferencesto improve client communication: Part 20: Adjust Your Approach✦ Identify your preferred style. Learn to be flexible in your style of communication✦ Tune in to others’ styles and needs by noticing clues that reveal their ✦ Based on what you learn from the client, learn to personality preferences. communicate with all personality types, including✦ Adjust your communication preferences to fit the needs of others. ones that match and do not match your own. ✦ Use the four stages of client communication as aLearn about the effective 4-stage model for doctor–client and model for effective doctor–client and staff–clientstaff–client communication: communication.✦ In stage 1, understand how to effectively initiate interaction based on the client’s preference for extraversion or introversion. ✦ Learn to connect with clients with different types✦ In stages 2 and 3, investigate the needs of the client and suggest to more effectively understand what they want action based on the client’s style for both sensing or intuition and and how you get be flexible to give them what they thinking or feeling. need.✦ In stage 4, learn about closure and if a client needs a swift conclusion ✦ Understand the challenges of flexing your own or would rather discuss options. type and develop skills to overcome that.✦ Explore the challenge of being flexible with your own style. Part 21: Adherence—Encouraging clients to followLearn how your applied knowledge of MBTI type can encourage your clinical recommendationsand guarantee satisfaction and adherence from clients: Meet the goal to communication with clients to✦ Understand that through flexibility with your own type, clients are promote an informed decision about what is best for more likely to adhere to your advice and guidelines discussed about the necessary care for a pet. the pet. ✦ Communicate information in such a way for each✦ Practice using the model indicated in the chapter. preferred style that clients are more likely to ad-✦ Consider making lists or write down helpful tips about each type to here to recommendations. remember how to influence your clients most effectively. ✦ When doubtful of how to understand a client’s✦ Learn how to ask the client revealing questions for each type to gauge needs, ask questions to understand what they need how to handle the subject. from you and how you can more efficiently presentOnce you learn about how to apply the MBTI type preferences, you can information.teach your staff to understand the types and how to effectively com- ✦ Clarify information for clients and for yourselfmunicate with clients for a more positive experience in your practice. by asking if you interpreted their point of viewDon’t forget to ask the client in the case of a potential confrontation or correctly.misunderstanding. Clarifying what someone means when they say ordo something confusing will influence the way you communicate in the Required materials • Required course content is online.future by revealing more about the client personality preference. Optional and recommended • Take the MBTI online19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
MBTI Type & Client Communication By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC “I’m sure the doctor is brilliant, but after leaving my appointment, I was still unclear about what exactly was wrongwith my dog and what needed to be done. I just remember being shocked by how much it was all going to cost!” Does this sound familiar? The majority of client complaints received in the typical veterinary practice are related to ineffec- tive communication skills, not a lack of clinical competence. What often lingers in the clients’ mind long after their visit to your hospital is not what you did— however skilled—but what was said and how it was said. When doctor–client or staff–client communication goes awry, In this module, we’ll explore ways that you there’s more at stake than dissatisfaction. The client may not can better connect with your clients by apply- follow through with necessary medical treatment or may not ing your knowledge of the Myers-Briggs Type fully understand the importance of your clinical recommenda- Indicator (MBTI) framework. Specifically, tions, therefore opting against providing their pet with the care you will: it needs. In either case, the pet’s health and the integrity of the human–animal bond are put at risk. 1. Learn how to use an understanding of each Personality differences between veterinarians, staff members, and individual MBTI preferences to improve client clients may be one of the factors that lead to these breakdowns communication. in communication. If two individuals involved in an interaction 2. Discover a four-stage model for effective differ significantly in their personality preferences, they are likely doctor–client and staff–client communication to be talking on different wavelengths, resulting in potential that revisits the MBTI Function Pairs learned misunderstandings unless there is some adjustment or “flexing” about in Module 3. of style on someone’s part. 3. Consider the potential relationship between Therefore, effective communication in veterinary medicine effective client communication and your requires that your entire health care team make a concerted ability to encourage clients to follow your effort to tune in to your clients and adjust your individual styles clinical recommendations (ie, to improve to assure that you arrive at mutual decisions that are truly in the client adherence or compliance). best interest of the client and patient. “An understanding of psychological type can greatly improve the quality of communication between two people. If we can understand and value different approaches, we may unlock qualities in both ourselves and the other person which will allow us to work more effectively and creatively together.” —Judy Allen And SuSAn A. Brock19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve CommunicationAs you communicate with clients, it isimportant to remember that they may have differ-ent preferences than you in the way they take in andevaluate information and the way they are orientedto the world around them. Don’t assume thatpeople want to hear what you have to say in the wayyou want to say it. Effective communication meanspresenting different kinds and amounts of informa-tion in different ways.For example, calm, reasonable communicationsattract some types (people who prefer Introversion)while others are drawn toward enthusiasm (peoplewho prefer Extraversion). People who prefer totake in practical information (Sensing types) liketo hear facts and step-by-step procedures relevantto their current situation. Alternatively, those whoprefer Intuition (Intuitive types) need to hear anoverview of the information before the facts willbecome relevant to them. Some people are drawn There are three simple steps involved in utilizing the eightto personal stories (Feeling types) while others want MBTI preferences to improve your communication with others:to be convinced by logic (Thinking types). Some 1. Identify your own preferred style of communication.want conclusions and a focus on “how to,” (Judging 2. Tune in to the other person’s preferred style or current needs.types) while others are drawn to explore options and 3. Adjust your approach, if necessary, to match those needs.consider possibilities (Perceiving types). Let’s look at each step in a little more detail...Identify Your Preferred StyleYour preferred style of communication will be reflected by your MBTI type, also referred to as your personality type.Four of the eight preferences below (E or I, S or N, T or F, J or P) make up your MBTI type. As you communicate usingyour type preferences, you naturally exhibit specific communication-related behaviors associated with each preference. The Eight MBTI Preferences How You Prefer to Get Energized Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) People who prefer extraversion tend to focus on the People who prefer introversion tend to focus on the in- outside world and get energy through interacting with ner world and get energy through reflecting on infor- people and doing things. mation, ideas and/or concepts. Related behaviors: Related behaviors: ◆ Rapid speech. ◆ Pauses in answering or giving information. ◆ Appears to “think out loud,” talk things out. ◆ Appears to be thinking things through. ◆ Interrupts. ◆ Quieter voice volume. ◆ Louder voice volume. ◆ Shorter sentences, not run-on.19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve Communication How you Prefer to Take In InformationSensing (S) Intuition (N)People who prefer sensing tend to notice and trust facts, People who prefer intuition tend to pay attention to anddetails, and present realities. They like to take in infor- trust interrelationships, theories, and future possibilities.mation through the five senses. They are drawn to the big picture.Related behaviors: Related behaviors: ◆ Asks for step-by-step information or instruction. ◆ Asks for the purpose of an action. ◆ Asks about the present situation. ◆ Asks for current and long-range implications. ◆ Asks “what” and “how” questions. ◆ Asks “why” questions. ◆ Uses precise descriptions. ◆ Talks in general terms and possibilities. How You Prefer to Make DecisionsThinking (T) Feeling (F)People who prefer thinking tend to make decisions using People who prefer feeling tend to make decisions toimpartial, logical, and objective analysis. They focus on create harmony by applying person-centered values.the logical implications. They focus on the impact on people.Related behaviors: Related behaviors: ◆ Appears to be “testing you” or your knowledge. ◆ Strives for harmony in the interaction. ◆ Weighs the “objective” evidence. ◆ May talk about “values.” ◆ Not impressed by what others decide. ◆ Asks how others have acted or resolved the situation. ◆ Conversations follow a pattern of checking logic, ◆ Matters to them whether others have been taken “if this, then that.” into account. How You Prefer to Approach LifeJudging (J) Perceiving (P)People who prefer judging tend to like a planned People who prefer perceiving tend to adopt a moreapproach to life and are organized, orderly, structured, spontaneous approach to life and are flexible, adaptable,and decisive. They want closure. and like to keep their options open.Related behaviors: Related behaviors: ◆ Impatient with overly long descrip- ◆ Seems to want “space” to make own decisions. tions, procedures. ◆ The tone is “let’s explore, what are some more ◆ The tone is “hurry up, I want to factors to consider?” make this decision.” ◆ May decide at the “last moment.” ◆ May make decisions prema- ◆ Enjoys processing. turely. ◆ Enjoys being “done.”
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve CommunicationRecalling the team at the hypotheticalRiver City Veterinary Hospital referred toin Modules 2 and 3, you may rememberthat one of the veterinary technicians,Isabel, had an MBTI type preference ofISFJ. Another staff member, Paul, had apreference for ENTP.Isabel, then, would generally communicate in a thought- communication style. Similarly, Paul (the ENTP) couldful and succinct manner with an emphasis on specific facts also choose to communicate more like Isabel, using anand details, paying particular attention to the impact on ISFJ style. However, in reality, some preferences are moreothers. By contrast, someone with the exact opposite type, comfortable than others and both Isabel and Paul are morelike Paul, would be more comfortable processing things likely to behave using a style that’s more consistent without loud, talking about future possibilities, and evaluating their actual MBTI type.multiple options using logical analysis. So, what’s your preferred style of communication? For eachOnce again, remember that we use all eight of the MBTI of the dichotomies above (E/I, S/N, T/F, J/P), which of thepreferences so, depending on the context, Isabel (the behaviors listed do you naturally and consistently express?ISFJ) would be perfectly capable of using Paul’s ENTP’s You can record your preferred style here: Extraversion (E) Introversion (I) Focus: Talk it out Focus: Think it through Motto: “Let’s talk this over.” Motto: “I need to think about this.” Sensing (S) Intuition (N) Focus: Specifics Focus: Big picture Motto: “Just the facts, please.” Motto: “I can see it all now.” Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Focus: Logical implications Focus: Impact on people Motto: “Is this logical?” Motto: “Will anyone be hurt?” Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Focus: Joy of closure Focus: Joy of processing Motto: “Just do something.” Motto: “Let’s wait and see.” If you’re still not sure, observe yourself in action over the next week or two. At least once a day, reflect back over the various interactions you’ve participated in and determine which of the behaviors listed above best describe you.
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve CommunicationTune In Person to the OtherPersonality type will impact the effectiveness of communicationbetween many types of people. However, the greater the perceived“inequality” in a relationship (such as when one person perceives the other towield more power or authority), the less likely it is that the “weaker” of the twowill demand the kind of information and attitude that they need. This is commonlyseen in the exam room where clients look up to the doctor and medical staff andmay be hesitant to ask for what they really need in the way of communication.This makes it all the more important that you tune into your clients’ communicationneeds. Most of the time this will mean talking with clients in a manner consistent withtheir preferred communication style, not yours.Now that you’ve identified your own style, here are some questions that will help you tuneinto other people’s preferred styles or needs in the moment. For better communication,learn to pick up and respond to the personality type cues that other people are exhibiting.1What do you notice about the waythe other person is talking?Extraverts tend to talk relatively quickly and to think out ✱ Cues that you are talking to someone who prefers Introversion: Eye contact may be infrequent; will probably have studied any advance materials and come prepared having completed any required paperwork; may pauseloud, while Introverts tend to be more sparing in their before they react to a comment; may prefer a one-on-onespeech and to pause before answering questions. relationship with a single doctor in the practice; waits quietly for his or her appointment, perhaps reading✱ Cues that you are talking to someone who prefers available literature.Extraversion: Eye contact is usually direct and intense; 2may not review advance materials and, even if he or shedid, still wants to “hear it from the horse’s mouth”; partici-pates freely in conversation and discussions with different What kinds of questions is he orteam members; may interrupt others frequently; may be she asking?challenged by listening skills; interacts with others while in Clients preferring Sensing are more likely to ask forthe waiting area. details and want step-by-step explanations. Clients preferring Intuition are more likely to want to under- stand the broad implications for the future. Here are some additional cues to watch for related to Sensing and Intuition: ✱ Cues you are talking to someone who prefers Sensing: May ask LOTS of detailed questions; asks for facts, con- crete examples, and about your experience; uses words like “facts,” “statistics,” “history,” “experience,” etc; may appear resistant to change; takes a sequential approach to gather- ing and processing information. ✱ Cues you are talking to someone who prefers Intuition: Seems frustrated or bored by detail if there is no “big pic- ture”; may have difficulty explaining “how they know what they know”; wants to start with “cosmic significance” then move to detail; becomes irritated at detailed questions; uses words like “gut,” “hunch,” “intuition,” etc.
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve Communication3What criteria is he or she using formaking decisions?What do you sense he or she wants from you as a human 4 How quickly does he or she want to make a decision? Clients who prefer Judging arebeing? In decision-making, clients with a preference for more comfortable whenThinking naturally lean toward logic, cause and effect everything is decided, willreasoning, and objective evidence. They also tend to tend to decide quickly, andprefer an objective, impersonal approach and may be focus more on the out-irritated by what they see as being too “touchy-feely.” come. Those who prefer Perceiving are likely to askClients preferring Feeling will favor the implications for more information, befor themselves and those close to them when making reluctant to decide, maydecisions and will tend to want some kind of personal change their minds, and areconnection. They will also value attempts to under- more interested in the process.stand how they are feeling. Here are some additional cuesHere are some additional cues to watch for related to to watch for related to JudgingThinking and Feeling: and Perceiving:✱ Cues you are talking to someone who prefers ✱ Cues you are talking toThinking: Asks about the logic of your recommendations someone who prefers Judging:and decisions; can appear distant; wants to be clear about Expresses concern over schedules,your policies and procedures; uses words like “logical,” timetables, and follow-through; wants to know who will be“fair,” “defensible,” etc; has relatively low need for praise doing what; may rush to make decisions; becomes frustratedand/or acknowledgement; uses phrases like “I think,” or if things begin or end late; will learn from your experience“that makes/doesn’t make sense.” and advice; communicates update information frequently;✱ Cues you are talking to someone who prefers wants things planned.Feeling: May have a “soft” quality to eye contact; inter- ✱ Cues you are talking to someone who prefers Perceiv-ested in honoring other people’s values and priorities; may ing: Relatively unconcerned about when things start andbe uncomfortable around and avoid conflict; conveys an end; wants to defer decisions; wants to explore every possibleinterpersonal warmth that draws others; uses phrases like option and gather more and more information; seems to“my feeling is” or “I feel that…” prefer talking to action or “doing;” will learn from doing things on their own; communicates on a need-to-know basis.Flex Your ApproachBeing aware of type provides a useful framework for recognizing your own individual preferences and also points tospecific strategies for effective communication with others. Although it can sometimes be challenging to communicateeven with clients who share type preferences that are similar to your own, the real challenge comes when a client’spreferred communication style differs significantly from yours. It’s at these times that having the ability to adjust tomeet the client’s needs and “speak their language” can make all the difference.Here are some communication strategies to use when you want to “flex”your own style to connect with clients with differing type preferences:Communicating with Extraverted Clients“Let’s talk this over.”❖ Project energy and enthusiasm.❖ Use nonverbal behavior effectively (eg, lean forward, ❖ Emphasize action. nod, smile, and maintain eye contact). ❖ Allow plenty of discussion time for “thinking out loud”❖ Respond immediately to questions, comments, etc. and to help get past any initial resistance to an idea.
19 Understanding MBTI Preferences to Improve CommunicationCommunicating with Introverted Clients“I need to think about this.”❖ Allow them advance notice and time for prior thought if possible.❖ Don’t expect an immediate reaction—give them time to reflect and consider things.❖ Practice active listening skills.❖ Don’t be unnerved by pauses before they respond to something you say or ask. Above all, resist the urge to interrupt them, to rush in while they are pausing, or to complete their sentences.❖ Think before speaking or let them know that you are thinking out loud. Communicate with Feeling Types “Will anyone be hurt?”Communicating with Sensing Types ❖ Take time to get to know them and develop rapport.“Just the facts, please.” They will be most amenable to guidance and influence❖ Go into detail, give plenty of facts and evidence, and if they like you as a person. don’t skip over things. ❖ Use personal anecdotes and examples, and let them know❖ Begin with an explicit statement of the problem or issue some personal details about you. and have a definite plan of action. ❖ Avoid critiquing and evaluating when you are listening.❖ Emphasize tangible results (especially near-term as ❖ Include their needs and values as criteria in making opposed to far in the future). recommendations.❖ Don’t become frustrated or see it as resistance when they ❖ Remember that you cannot “logic them into ask lots of questions and want lots of detail. submission.”❖ Remember that errors of fact will destroy your credibility. Communicating with Judging TypesCommunicating with Intuitive Types “Just do something.”“I can see it all now.” ❖ Be prompt and punctual.❖ State the main idea first—know what your main point is. ❖ Be sure you are well-organized in your presentation; let❖ Begin with the big picture, then proceed to the details. them know your plan, and follow it; be sure to begin at❖ Get their attention with the broad implications and long- the beginning and end at the end. term possibilities. ❖ Be decisive, not wishy-washy; draw conclusions.❖ Emphasize concepts and general ideas and avoid getting ❖ Emphasize schedules, deadlines, and timetables (but bogged down in too many details. remember you will be held to them).❖ Discuss any novel, unusual, or innovative approaches that ❖ Follow through on your commitments or you will could be considered. lose credibility.Communicating with Thinking Types To Communicate with Perceiving Types“Is this logical?” “Let’s wait and see.”❖ Get straight to the point; be as brief and concise as you ❖ Present things in tentative, modifiable form; present can and support your recommendations with logical options. Let them draw the conclusions. reasoning and clear thinking. ❖ Avoid deadlines if possible, and don’t press them for an❖ Focus on clear goals and objectives and demonstrate your immediate decision unless absolutely necessary. competence. ❖ Follow up, since they are not always proactive with❖ Present advantages and disadvantages, including all updates and may need a gentle nudge once they’ve had known pros and cons. plenty of time to make up their minds.❖ Use logical, not emotional, arguments; play to the head, ❖ Be flexible—listen for new information and be prepared not the heart. to change your plan if warranted.❖ Demonstrate how your clinical judgment is consistent ❖ Remember that they lose interest if they are simply with similar cases and show the fairness and even-hand- “talked at” and aren’t involved. edness of your policies and procedures.
20 Four Stages of Client CommunicationA model foreffective doctor–client andstaff–client communicationAs we’ve seen, to be effective with their clients, veterinarypractitioners and health care team members must first discovertheir own preferred style of communication. Next, they needto determine what their patients prefer. Then, they adjust theirapproach, if necessary, to match those client preferences.This three-step approach can be readily applied at eachstage of a model for health care communicationdeveloped by Judy Allen and Susan A. Brock.According to Allen and Brock, what transpiresduring doctor-client and staff-client communicationcan be analyzed as a four-stage process:1. Initiating the interaction According to MBTI estimates provided by the2. Investigating needs Center for Applications of Psychological Type,3. Suggesting action 45%–53% of the general U.S. population prefer4. Next steps or closing. Extraversion, while 47%–55% prefer Introversion.Let’s look at each of the stages …Stage 1: Initiating the Interaction Stages 2 & 3: Investigating Needs andAt the start of the interaction, the preferences that likely Suggesting Actionmake the most difference are Extraversion and Introver- As the exchange proceeds, the client will show a preferencesion. Extraverts tend to talk first, while Introverts are for how information is taken in and how decisions are made.more likely to listen. Sensing and Intuition are the preferences used for taking inClients are likely to be most at ease when they feel the information. Some patients want facts and specifics (Sensing).health care practitioner is tuned in to them on this dimen- Others want to know the wider options and possibilitiession. Similar to the tips outlined in the previous “Adjust (Intuition). Thinking and Feeling are the preferences usedYour Approach” section, here are some communication for making decisions. Clients with a preference for Thinkingstrategies to try during this stage of the interaction: may first weigh the logical options, while those with a Feeling preference may first consider the personal impactIf your client prefers Extraversion of decisions.✦ In your own way, show energy and animation in your face, voice, and body. How clients prefer others to communicate with them during✦ Allow enough time for the client to talk it out. stages 2 and 3 depends most on their particular combination✦ Ask open-ended questions, then listen for and of function pairs—Sensing/Intuition and Thinking/Feeling. summarize the main points as they emerge. The function pairs—ST, SF, NF, and NT—are aptly named because they say so much about how people prefer to func-If your client prefers Introversion tion in life. They also play a key role in determining the✦ Use calm body movements. focus of the information and how we interact when commu-✦ Allow for and use a slower verbal pace to allow for the nicating. On the other hand, the Extraversion/Introversion client to think things through. and the Judging/Perceiving dimensions affect the pace of the✦ Listen after asking a question and don’t fill the pauses. interaction and the approach to concluding it.19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
20 Four Stages of Client Communication For a review of the four MBTI function pairs, how they affect practice team dynamics, and tips for communicating with colleagues and coworkers with differingHow Can You Identify Clients with function pairs, refer to section 16 in MBTIPreferences for ST, SF, NF, and NT? “Type and Teams” Module 3.What do each of these preference pairs looks like? Here aresome behavior cues to watch for that can tip you off to yourclient’s preferred way of gathering information and makingdecisions.Also included is the estimated prevalence of each of thefunctional pairs in the U.S. population,which providesinteresting insight into the preferences that clientsare most likely to display. ST SFSpecifics/Logical Implications Specifics/Impact on People(estimated 30% of the U.S. population) (estimated 43% of the U.S. population)✢ Values factual information ✢ Seeks personalized service, a caring relationship✢ Gives the facts in a logical order ✢ Asks for facts rather than theory✢ Has a practical, “let’s get the task done” approach ✢ Wants a warm and friendly approach✢ Interested in tried and trusted methods with data-back-up ✢ Interested in whatever worked for others✢ How they might prefer to hear bad news: ✢ How they might prefer to hear bad news:-“I don’t want to hear all sorts of irrelevant stuff, I just want the -“The blunt way the doctor broke the news made it so muchstraightforward facts, no fuzzy prelude.” worse to bear; what helped was how the technician actually related to me as a person.”-“When my last pet died, they kept asking me how I felt. It feltintrusive and wasn’t helpful. Please don’t expect me to open up -“The worst thing was hearing the news alone, I wished mybefore I know you are trustworthy.” partner was with me. But it really helped me to have the doctor’s full concentration, and not to be hurried so I could get all my questions answered.” NF NTBig Picture/Impact on People Big Picture/Logical Implications(estimated to be 17% of the U.S. population) (estimated to be 10% of the U.S. population)✢ Sees their situation as unique ✢ Asks for logical options✢ Needs to be valued as a person ✢ Tests the health care providers competence✢ Interested in new methods of treatment and perhaps ✢ Interested in cutting-edge methods non-traditional approaches ✢ How they might prefer to hear bad news:✢ How they might prefer to hear bad news : - “I just wanted the truth, an understanding of the whole-“I hated being treated like a number, just another person situation, the prognosis and what options there are.”with a sick cat. I really wanted to have more time to talk about - “If I have a serious decision to make that might affect my pet’sdifferent treatment options.” life, I want to be sure I am dealing with someone who knows-“I immediately thought of my family, especially the kids, and what is going on, not an amateur.”how they would take the news.”
20 Four Stages of Client CommunicationAccording to MBTI estimates provided by the So, the data suggest that, if veterinary clients are simply aCenter for Applications of Psychological Type: subset of the general U.S. population, then there is a 66% to✶ 66% to 74% of the general U.S. population prefers 74% likelihood that any random client would have a prefer- Sensing, while 26%–34% prefers Intuition ence for Sensing and up to a 60% likelihood of a client prefer- ring Feeling, unless the client is female in which case there is a✶ 40% to 50% of people prefer Thinking, while 50% 65% to 76% likelihood that she has a Feeling preference. to 60% prefer Feeling. What does this data mean? If you play the odds, you canNote that the Thinking/Feeling dichotomy is the only guess that many clients’ preferred communication styles willMBTI preference pair where a significant gender bias is be represented by the SF function pair. However, you’ll stillevident. While 65% to 76% of females prefer Feeling, only want to “tune in” to each individual client and be prepared to33% to 45% of males assess with a Feeling preference. adapt to their communication needs in the moment. Exercise Identifying Client Preferences Let’s check your understanding and see how you do at identifying the following client statements. Match each group of statements with the appropriate function pair. A = ST B = SF C = NF D = NT ––––– 1. “I need to know that the person talking to me has my best interests at heart.” “I need someone to spend time with me talking over the treatment options and possible long-term outcomes.” “I want to be confident in the treatment that is recommended and understand why it has been chosen.” ––––– 2. “I just want the facts, as much information as I can take in.” “I don’t want a lot of sentiment or personal stuff.” “I want to know the pros and cons from someone who really knows what they are talking about.” ––––– 3. “ I need to know the reason for the recommended treatment, the full extent of its effect, both good and bad. I’m not just going to act on faith on this.” “I want someone I respect to give me the information, but not necessarily all the details.” “I need to be confident in their competence. If I have it, I’ll pretty much do what I’m told.” ––––– 4. “ I need to trust the person who is providing the information and have confidence in them.” “I want individual attention and the other person’s full concentration. And I don’t want a whole lot of wild options and alternatives.” “I like to be channeled into the right solution.” Answers: 1. C; 2. A; 3. D; 4. B
20 Four Stages of Client CommunicationHow Can You Connect WithClients with Preferences forST, SF, NF, and NT?The MBTI function pairs make the greatest difference in howpatients want information and interaction from members of theveterinary health care team. With this in mind, here are somespecific things you can do to ensure that you are communicatingmost effectively with each client.ST (Sensing/Thinking): SF (Sensing/Feeling):The Facts with Practicality Approach The Personal Service ApproachTypically, clients with a preference for Sensing and Clients with a preference for Sensing and Feeling want aThinking desire fact-based interaction with their veterinary warm, personal connection with their veterinary healthpractice. Specific “to do’s” for ST’s include: care professional. Specific “to do’s” for SF’s include:✦ Be brief, give concise facts. ✦ Listen carefully to them, give them your time and✦ Be straightforward, honest, and realistic. complete attention.✦ Be competent and pay attention to detail. ✦ Be warm, friendly and cheerful.✦ Present information in a logical way; do not go off ✦ Give them factual information honestly, but with a on a tangent. personal touch; for example, remember what you’ve✦ Know the facts about their pet’s condition and expect to already told them. be questioned on them. ✦ Strive for harmony in the interaction, find points of✦ Give them information on the specific treatment options agreement. so they can weigh them. ✦ Provide practical information and examples about their✦ Do not treat their pet without first giving them all the pet’s condition. facts and relevant details. ✦ Tell them about similar cases and what other pet owners✦ Give them factual written information about their pet’s in the same situation have done. condition and treatment. ✦ Explain any options clearly and allow them time to✦ Have relevant data available for comparison and review. decide.NF (Intuition/Feeling): NT (Intuition/Thinking):The Supporting Their Vision Approach The Logical Options With Competence ApproachThose with a preference for Intuition and Feeling want Clients with a preference for Intuition and Thinking wantpersonalized support that respects their values and the veterinary health care team to offer logical options andconsiders the implications of their situation on others will often “test” the competence of the doctor and perhapsand for the future. Specific “to do’s” for NF’s include: even the staff. Specific “to do’s” for NT’s include:✦ Treat them with respect, involve them in the decision- ✦ Respect their intelligence and their need to understand. making process, and value their unique perspective. ✦ Demonstrate your competence and show that you✦ Be honest, kind, and sincere. continually update your knowledge.✦ Listen to and acknowledge their concerns. ✦ Do not expect or assume a personal relationship—that✦ Provide bottom line solutions—an overview without too will be built when competence is shown. many details. ✦ Answer their questions in an honest, open way; do not✦ Get to know them as a person. hide anything.✦ Be open to discussing alternate or complimentary ✦ Share multiple options and involve them in decisions. treatments with them. ✦ Listen to their views and ask before giving advice.✦ Be consistent in words and actions. ✦ Be informed about new, innovative treatment options.
20 Four Stages of Client CommunicationThe Challenges of “Flexing” Your Style“Flexing” your style to connect with your client will be most challenging when the client’spreferred communication style is exactly opposite to yours.Take, for instance, Dr. Jung, the INTP practice owner to each approach and what would be required of them in theat River City Veterinary Hospital (RCVH). Dr. Jung’s way of home care, etc.natural communication style, considering his NT function In the same way, RCVH’s practice manager, Jean, with an ESTJpair, is to get straight to the point and present treatment type preference, would be challenged to adapt her normallyoptions in a logical and fairly impersonal way. He would short, crisp, businesslike style to meet the needs of an NF clienttypically share the pros and cons of each potential ap- who had lodged a complaint about the hospital’s billing policy.proach at a fairly high level, without providing much inthe way of specific detail. When attempting to commu- With a little practice, though, every member of your practicenicate with an SF client, Dr. Jung’s style could easily get team can develop the skills needed to “flex” and connect within the way. The SF client would first want to feel like Dr. clients with different communication styles. Try the followingJung cared about him or her as a human being. Then, they exercise to help you reflect and learn from your daily clientwould need a lot more detail about the “how to’s” related communication experiences. Exercise Develop Your Skills Exercise Think of two recent client interactions that you were involved in: one where the outcome was good and one where it was unsatisfactory from your perspective. Describe each one using the following headings: ◆ What was the situation? ◆ Who was involved? ◆ What did you think, feel, or want to do in this situation? ◆ What did you actually do? ◆ What was the outcome? Then consider these questions: 1. Looking at the functional pairs in particular, 4. For the instances where your behavior what type mode would best describe you in cues matched those of your client, what this interaction? were the positive outcomes, what were the negative outcomes? ST – Specifics/logical implications SF – Specifics/impact on people NF – Big picture/impact on people 5. For the instances where your behavior cues did not match those of your client, NT – Big picture/logical implications what were the positive outcomes, what were the negative outcomes? 2. How would you describe the clients’ type mode? 6. What insights are coming up for you that could inform how you can be more 3. In what ways did your mode match the effective in the future? clients’ mode? In what ways did you What do you want to do differently perceive a mismatch? next time?
20 Four Stages of Client Communication Stage 4: Next Steps or Closing The next step is to move to closure. The Myers-Briggs Judging/Perceiving dimension is most evident as the conversation ends. Some patients (those preferring Judging) are eager to achieve closure. Others seem to enjoy gathering information and considering their options and may delay closure (those preferring Perceiving).Clients in a “J” mode may seek to control the Clients in a “P” mode usually like to have optionssituation as much as possible. They may want: and information. They may want:❖ To reach a decision and move quickly on to ❖ To examine the options: the next steps: “What are the treatment options? “What treatment does my pet need? Can we review them again? How soon can it be scheduled?” ❖ To stay open until the last minute:❖ No loose ends: “I’d like to consider all of this before deciding “Is that everything? When do I need to what to do. I need time to do a little more schedule the next appointment?” research.”Similar to the tips outlined in the previous “Adjust Your Approach” section, here aresome communication strategies to try during this stage of the interaction:If your client prefers Judging …✦ Clarify the client’s goals and when they want to achieve them.✦ Provide a timetable and stick with it.✦ Expect a push to “get it done.”✦ Ensure that the client does not make decisions prematurely.If your client prefers Perceiving …✦ Clarify the client’s direction, then be ready to make action easy when they make a decision.✦ Make actions fit the client’s timetable if possible.✦ Expect the client to take action at the last minute and follow-up with them as appropriate.✦ Support the client in gathering the information they need to make a decision.Note: according to MBTI estimates provided by the Center forApplications of Psychological Type, 54%–60% of the general U.S.population prefers Judging, while 40%–46% prefers Perceiving.
21 What are the Benefits of Applying the Four-Stage Model? Veterinary health care practitioners and team members can definitely learn how to recognize and respond to client differences. Applying the simple four- stage process outlined here can improve quality of doctor–client and staff–client communication, client satisfaction, client follow-through, and actual pet health outcomes.Adherence:Communication for Committed ActionEncouraging clients to follow yourclinical recommendations Improving Adherence Using theThe subject of adherence (more commonly referred to as MBTI Frameworkcompliance within the veterinary profession) has been a An understanding of personality type can helphot topic recently. The use of the term “adherence” is more veterinary professionals partner with clientscommonly used in human health care to refer to com- and provide information which will help themmunicating with patients for committed action. While to reach informed decisions—decisions to“compliance” has enjoyed more widespread use within which they are more likely to adhere. Essen-veterinary medicine, in some circles the term adherence is tially, better client communication using thepreferred. The reason? It is not our intent to persuade or lens of MBTI personality type is one key thatmanipulate clients to comply passively with whatever we can help ensure committed action and follow-think might be good for their pet. Our goal is to commu- through on the part of the client.nicate with clients in such a way as to promote an in-formed decision that the patient can own. This ownershipand resulting commitment contribute to a greater chancethat our clinical recommendations—that are in the bestinterest of both the pet and client—will be followed.Poor communication is costly on many fronts and itcontributes to the less-than-optimal levels of adherenceidentified in veterinary practice. Wasted medication,continuous need for medical intervention, a tendencyto wait until emergencies arise versus taking a pre-ventive approach—these are all symptoms of lowadherence. Most importantly, as a result, ourpatients may not achieve the fullest possiblerecovery from disease states or surgical interven-tions and their quality of life (as well as that ofthe client) is negatively impacted.19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
21 What are the Benefits of Applying the Four-Stage Model?Guidelines for ImprovingClient Communicationand AdherenceWhen encouraging clients to adhere with any recommendation,be it a prescription diet or a course of antibiotics, they are morelikely to respond positively if they receive the information in atype mode which reflects their own. So, thinking about what’salready been covered in this module, always remember to:♦ Follow the three simple steps involved in utilizing the eight MBTI preferences to improve your communication with others: 1. Identify your own preferred style of communication. 2. Tune in to the other person’s preferred style or current needs. 3. Adjust your approach, if necessary, to match those needs.♦ Practice using the four-stage model for effective doctor-client and staff-client communication outlined earlier in this module. The “to do” lists for each MBTI function pair (ST, SF, NF, NT) provide clear guidance for influencing clients most effectively.When in Doubt, Ask the Client! Checking it out simply means to ask the client what they meant when they said, did, or failed to do something.There may be times when you just can’t get a lock on what the When asked in a curious and sincere manner, checking itclient’s preferred communication style is at the moment. In those out is neither offensive nor confrontational.instances, follow this simple rule: When in doubt, ask the client!Simply ask the client a few questions to uncover their needs and Here’s what to say …find out what they want from you in the way of communication.Here are a few examples: “When you said (or did) __________,♦ “Would you like me to focus on the details or the big picture?” I interpreted that to mean __________.♦ “What other information would be helpful for you right now?” Did I get it right?”♦ “What criteria will you be using to arrive at a decision?” Many things can affect the way in which clients receive♦ “What do you need from me/us to help you move forward?” information and advice. Pet health care issues can often be emotive and this in itself may lower the client’s ability to♦ “What lingering questions do you have that I/we haven’t assimilate information and make sound decisions. There- adequately answered? fore, it is even more important to match our communica-♦ “What options or steps are you considering?” tion-related behaviors to the patient and their needs.Additionally, one of the greatest benefits that comes with under-standing personality type is an improved ability to differentiatebetween intentional and misunderstood messages. Many misunder-standings are based on differences in personality types, not the resultof intended confrontations or slights.So, how can you prevent misunderstandings? Once again, ask theclient. Always “check it out” when you experience a client interactionthat seems confrontational or otherwise catches you off guard.
22 References Suggested Reading Books 1. Health Care Communication—Using Personality Type. Allen J, Brock S. Routledge, 2000. 2. Introduction to Type and Communication. Dunning D. CPP, 2003. 3. MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 3rd ed. Myers IB, McCaulley M, Quenk N, Hammer A. CPP, 2003. Articles 1. Communication strategies with people of different psychological types. Carskadon T. Mississippi State University Psychology Department, freshmanseminar. appstate.edu/FS_Students/com_strategies.htm. 2. Doctor-patient communication. Houghton A. BMJ Careers, 2005. 3. Guessing another person’s type without them telling you. mbticlub.com. 4. Personality differences between doctors and their patients: Implications for the teaching of communica- tion skills. Clack GB, Allen J, Cooper D, Head JO, Med Educ 38:177-186, 2004. 5. Tailoring the message. Allen J, Brock SA. Minnesota Medicine, Vol. 83, May 2000.19 Understanding Preferences 20 Client Communication 21 Benefits of Model 22 References
Learning Objectives Course Content Optional and Recommended: All practice members take the MBTI (register at myevt.com) and review MBTI Module 3: their reports to become aware of their type preferences. Type and Teams Module Part 13: Mapping Your Team Introduction to the type table Course Description ✦ Building a type table (Appendix 1) The effectiveness of a veterinary practice depends on how well each team member uses his or her capabilities to contribute to the benefit of all. Part 14: Building Your Team’s Type Table This effectiveness can be gauged on a daily basis as well as when evalu- Team Type Analysis ating the achievement of long- and short-term practice goals. How do ✦ Charting similarities and differences team members interact with each other? What can be done to optimize ✦ Understanding preferences and potential individual job satisfaction, motivation, performance, communication, strengths client satisfaction, and decision-making processes? The answer lies in the ✦ Analyzing preference representation and potential blind spots awareness and application of the psychological type information you will ✦ Knowing usefulness of opposite preferences learn about through completing this module. ✦ Considering use of all preferences for group benefit Learning Objectives ✦ Pondering interaction of the team leader with Learn how the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) type table can the team and individual members facilitate the understanding and advantageous use of team dynamics: Part 15-16: Managing and Motivating Your Team ✦ Become aware of the structure behind the placement of the 16 types Effects of MBTI Type Preferences in Work Settings in the table. ✦ Understanding the effects of preference ✦ Understand how using MBTI type preferences is a means to dichotomies understand ourselves and others, not a means to characterize Bringing Out the Best in Each Team Member ourselves or others. ✦ Assessing your job fit (Appendix 2) ✦ Identify team or practice typology. The Four MBTI Function Pairs ✦ Determining your own “heart of type” ✦ Build awareness of practice member type similarities and differences. ✦ What do the function pairs look like? Communication and the Function Pairs Learn how to bring out the best in each individual and the ✦ Knowing what works and does not work for each practice team: function pair ✦ Analyze and compare personnel type preferences to job tasks. ✦ Using your knowledge of type to communicate more effectively ✦ Identify the “heart of type” and its effect on attitudes and Decision Making and the Function Pairs performance. ✦ Following the process ✦ Demonstrate respect for type preferences, resulting in effective ✦ Improving your team decision making and communication. problem solving (Appendix 3) ✦ Collect information and use S-N-T-F protocol to balance the decision-making process. Part 17: Maximizing Your Team’s Performance ✦ The importance of type diversity in the workplace Apply the knowledge of psychological type to enhance both ✦ What team leaders can do to improve team functioning individual and team performance: ✦ Value type differences within the veterinary team. References Books ✦ Use type preferences to maximize team harmony and productivity. Articles ✦ Learn how type dichotomies can complement each other. Appendix 1 ✦ Consider specific steps team leaders can follow to improve team MBTI Type Table (Part I) functioning. Appendix 2 Become aware of book and article resources about MBTI type. Job Tasks Categorized by Preferred MBTI Functions (Part II) In summary, understand that knowing about MBTI type provides a tool for understanding ourselves and others. Type informs us not of Appendix 3 abilities, but of preferences. Though likely inborn, type preferences Decision Making/Problem Solving for All Types: can be dynamic in social situations. Questions to Stimulate the Use of Each Function (Part II)13 Map Your 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
13 Map Your Team By Jeff Thoren, DVM, ACC No matter where you work within a veterinary practice, no matter what you do, you are part of a team. The practice as a whole represents a team effort to reach a goal and each function within the practice (eg, doctors, technicians, client service staff, etc) serves as a team within the larger team. Any team’s success is directly linked to how well individual members get along and work with each other. In this module, we’ll look at: 1 Mapping your team: How to use the MBTI type table to understand and influence team dynamics. 2 Managing and motivating your team: How to bring out the best in each individual and use type knowledge to improve team communication and decision making. 3 Maximizing your team’s performance: How to use a knowledge of psychological type to en- hance both individual and team performance.13 Map the 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
13 Map Your Team Mapping Your Team: Using the MBTI Type Table to Understand and Influence Team Dynamics Introduction to the Type Table One of the most useful tools for understanding team dynamics is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) type table (see MBTI Learning Modules 1 and 2). The table gives you an instant look at a team or entire veterinary practice and is a helpful tool to raise awareness among team members about individual similarities and differences. Let’s build a type table with all 16 types on it. Isabel Myers and others who designed the table gave us some mnemonics to help us remember the placement of the 16 types. Introverted types I Intuitive types prefer time to like “right-brain” think, so they are S N activities (eg, at the head of the hunches and table. E meanings), so they are on the left. Extraversion/ Sensing/ Sensing types like Extraverted types Introversion Intuition “left-brain” activities prefer action and (eg, careful and movement, so sequential use of they are at the facts), so they are on foot of the table. the left. Thinking/Feeling Judging/Perceiving J T F T PFeeling types like to please and consider others in their Judging types likedecisions, so they are J structure and order, next to each other so they are in the top in the middle of the and bottom rows, table. Perceiving types providing structure Thinking types like like flexibility and for the table. to be objective and stand apart from their adaptability, so they decisions, so they are in the middle are on the outside rows of the table, just columns of the table. “going with the flow.”
13 Map Your TeamPutting it all together, we end upwith the complete type table which ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJdisplays the types together thathave the most in common. ISTP ISFP INFP INTPSome people feel boxed in when theylook at the type table. So, instead of abox, many type experts liken the typetable to “a house with 16 rooms.” Yourown best-fit type is your favorite room— ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTPperhaps the one with the large picturewindow or the 52-inch flat-screenTV—but there are other rooms you likealmost as much and probably visit often. ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJA few rooms—the laundry room forexample—may be far less appealing toyou, and yet you know how to function inthose rooms when you have to. Type works the same way, you aren’t stuck being just one type. Personal growth and maturity involves knowing when you have to move to a different room by working outside your preferences in order to meet the needs of a particular situation. Knowing your preferences provides you with a helpful framework for adjustment when you need to step outside them to function effectively both at work and in your personal life.
14 Building Your Team’s Type Table The MBTI type table is a great tool to understand and influence team dynamics. To build your own team’s type table, use the MBTI Type Table provided in Appendix 1 and simply write the names of each team member who has determined his/her best-fit type in the appropriate squares (ie, “rooms”). Make sure that you have each individual’s permission to do this since each person’s type is his or hers to choose to disclose. Now, add up the number of extroverted types, introverted types, sensing types, intuitive types and so on and record the totals in the space provided at the bottom of the table. Team Type Analysis Here are a few initial questions to consider as you evaluate your team from a typological standpoint: ✦ How diverse or similar are the team members? ✦ Which type or types are minority types within the ✦ What preferences does the team emphasize? What team? How can minority voices be heard so that are the potential strengths associated with those everyone’s gifts can be used? preferences? ✦ How might the team leader’s type interact with the ✦ What preferences are less represented? What are the team’s type? With individual member’s types? team’s potential blind spots? Let’s take a look at these using ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ Dr. Hirsh Isabel the type table below for the Mary Barbara fictitious River City Veterinary Judy Hospital (RCVH): ISTP ISFP INFP INTP Charles Donna Linda Dr. Jung1 Sherry How diverse or similar are the team members? Typologically similar individuals and teams share the same ways of being energized, gathering infor- ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP mation, making decisions, and approaching life. Katharine Dr. Kise Paul Because of this, they often find it relatively easy to work together. Teams with high similarity will reach decisions more quickly but are more likely to make ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ errors due to inadequate representation of all type- Jean Naomi Janet related viewpoints. Allen Typologically diverse teams, on the other hand, can struggle to work well together since individuals and team members prefer to operate in such different E=7 S = 12 T=5 J=9 ways. The good news is that, while a diverse team I = 10 N=5 F = 12 P=8 may take longer to accomplish a project and need to manage more conflict during the process, the end result is invariably better since more perspectives and strengths are represented. In RCVH’s case, we can see that although many “rooms” on the type table are filled, almost half (8 out of 17) of the team members are clustered in the upper left-hand corner of the table. Additionally, almost three quarters (12 of 17) of the team members reside on the left-hand side of the table. The team as a whole, then, will undoubtedly reflect some bias toward the characteristics of the types in these sections of the type table.13 Map Your 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
14 Building or Intuition Type Table 8 Sensing Your Team’s 2 What preferences does the team emphasize? What are the potential strengths associated with those preferences? It’s important to be aware of your team’s overall type and where it is over- or underrepresented by a particular preference. Overall, the RCVH team leans toward Introversion (59% of mem- bers), Sensing (71% of members), Feeling (71% of members), and Judging (53% of members). An ISFJ team will tend to behave like and reflect the strengths of an individual who selects ISFJ as their best-fit type. Therefore, like many ISFJs, RCVH is likely to excel at taking care of their client’s needs. Collectively, the team will tend to be quiet, friendly, reliable and thorough, and will value order, stability, and harmony.3 What preferences are less represented? What are the team’s potential blind spots? RCVH’s most obvious blind spots are related to the Sensing/Intuition and Thinking/Feeling preference dichotomies. Preferences for both Intuition and Thinking are underrepresented on the team. So while the team will naturally have a mastery of the facts, an acute awareness of present realities and an appreciation for knowing and doing what works (Sensing), they may have difficulty focusing on where the current trends are leading, doing things they haven’t tried before and recognizing future possibilities for the team (Intuition). And while they will be especially sensitive to the impact of their actions and decisions on other people (Feeling), they may have less capacity for making decisions more objectively and placing an equal emphasis on tasks and bottom-line results (Thinking).Mutual Usefulness of Opposite PreferencesOpposite types can complement each other, filling in each other’s blind spots and balancing decisionmaking. Here are a few ideas: Intuitive Types Need Sensing Types ... Sensing Types Need Intuitive Types ... To bring up pertinent facts To bring up new possibilities To face the realities of the current situation To anticipate future trends To apply experience to solving problems To apply insight to solving problems To focus on what needs attention now To focus on long-term goals To keep track of essential details To watch for new essentials To face difficulties with realism To face difficulties with zest To remind them that the joys of the present are important To show that the joys of the future are worth looking for Feeling Types Need Thinking Types ... Thinking Types Need Feeling Types ... To analyze consequences and implications To forecast how others will react and feel To hold consistently to a policy To make needed individual exceptions To stand firm for important principles To stand firm for human-centered values To create rational systems To organize people and tasks harmoniously To be fair To appreciate the Thinking type along with everyone else
14 Building or Intuition Type Table 8 Sensing Your Team’s4Which type or types are minority types within the team?How can minority voices be heard so that everyone’s gifts can be used?RCVH has several opportunities to insure that the value of minority preferencesare recognized and utilized:✦ From the previous question we already know that it would be beneficial for the team to seek out the perspectives and strengths of those team members who prefer Intuition (N) and Thinking (T).✦ RCVH’s team of veterinarians includes the practice owner, Dr. Karl Jung (INTP), his business partner, Dr. Sandra Hirsh (ISTJ), and their new associate, Dr. Jane Kise (ENFP). Dr. Kise brings needed balance to the doctor team with her preference for Feeling (F). Drs. Jung and Hirsh will naturally zero in on the work to be accomplished while Dr. Hirsh will be able to offer insight into the “people” aspects of the situation.✦ As an ENTP, Paul represents the exact opposite of the team type (ISFJ). As such, he has the potential to provide an important and unique perspective. Unlike the team, he will be constantly generating ideas and on the lookout for new and better ways to do things. But without a conscious effort by the team to value and welcome his perspective, he is likely to be ignored or even margin- alized because his personality preferences are so different from the team norm. 5 How might the team leader’s type interact with the team’s type? With individual member’s types? ✦ As an INTP the practice owner, Dr. Jung probably enjoys problem-solving and is natu- rally curious, logical, and analytical. With his preferences for Intuition (N) and Think- ing (T), he offers the team needed balance with his ability to see the big picture and think strategically. ✦ He may become frustrated, though, by the team’s apparent disinterest in his long- range vision and their reticence to consider change. He may also find that leadership and team building are particularly challenging since he tends to be more quiet and independent and handling people issues requires more effort than he’d prefer to put into it. ✦ Understanding these differences and related challenges is a critical first step for Dr. Jung in taking the necessary steps to improve his ability to engage and lead his team. Psychological type and the MBTI provide a rational structure for understanding normal, everyday differences between people. Appreciating and making constructive use of those differences is also part of the theory and the ethic underlying the MBTI. Moving from recognizing and understanding to appreciating and effectively using differences is a challenge because we all have a natural bias for our own way of seeing things and making decisions.
8 Sensing or Intuition 15 Managing and Motivating Your Team Bringing Out the Best in Each Team Member The right job enhances your life. It is personally fulfilling because it nourishes the most important aspects of your personality. It suits the way you like to do things and reflects who you are. It lets you use your innate strengths in ways that come naturally to you. Now it’s time to bring out the best in each individual and use type knowledge to improve team communication and decision making. Effects of the MBTI Preferences in Work Settings The following are typical contributions of the eight individual type preferences in work environments. Mutual Usefulness of Opposite Preferences Opposite types can complement each other, filling in each other’s blind spots and balancing decision making. Here are a few ideas: People Who Prefer Extraversion (E) ... People Who Prefer Introversion (I) ... - Like variety and action - Like quiet for concentration - Enjoy interacting with people - Enjoy focusing on a project or task - Develop their ideas through discussion - Develop their ideas internally - Learn new tasks by talking and doing - Learn new tasks by reading and reflecting - Are interested in how other people do their work - Enjoy working alone with no interruptions People Who Prefer Sensing (S) ... People Who Prefer Intuition (N) ... - Focus on immediate issues - Follow their inspirations - Provide a realistic and practical perspective - Provide connections and meanings - Like to perfect standard ways to do things by fine tuning - Like solving new, complex problems - Build to conclusion by collecting facts - Start with the big picture, fill in the facts - Draw on their own and others’ experience - Prefer change, new ways of doing things People Who Prefer Thinking (T) ... People Who Prefer Feeling (F) ... - Focus on the tasks - Focus on people’s interactions - Use logical analysis to understand and decide - Use values to understand and decide - Want mutual respect and fairness among colleagues - Want harmony and support among colleagues - Are firm-minded, can give criticism when appropriate - Are empathetic, prefer to accommodate and reach consensus - Apply principles consistently - Apply values consistently People Who Prefer Judging (J) ... People Who Prefer Perceiving (P) ... - Want to plan their work and follow their plan - Want to have flexibility in their work - Like to get things settled and finished - Like to be spontaneous - Feel supported by structure and schedules - Feel restricted by structure and schedules - Reach closure by deciding quickly - Leave things open as long as possible - Focus on timely completion of a project - Focus on enjoying the process13 Map Your 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
8 Sensing or Intuition 15 Managing and Motivating Your TeamPeople choose occupations and jobs for many reasons, but one of the most important motivations is a desire for workthat will permit them to use their type preferences and that will entail relatively little use of their nonpreferences. Typepreferences are likely to affect activities as well as environments that people find energizing and satisfying.If you’re in the right job, you should: When in a job that is ill-suited to their✢ Look forward to going to work personality type, people often report that✢ Feel energized (most of the time) by what you do they feel one or more of the following: ✢ Tired or stressed✢ Feel your contribution is respected and appreciated ✢ Inadequate or incompetent✢ Feel proud when describing your work to others ✢ Undervalued✢ Enjoy and respect the people you work with ✢ Misunderstood✢ Feel optimistic about your futureUnchecked, these may eventually lead to performance problems, health problems, or both. No job provides a perfect match,but knowledge of your preferences can help you avoid major mismatches, understand sources of job fit-related stress, and guideyou in assessing future options or adapting your current role to enable you to use your type preferences more. Assess Your Job Fit Let’s be realistic. You’re not always going to look forward to going to work and you’re not going to be energized by what you do 100% of the time. Your goal is to find a job where you can play to your strengths and use your natural personality prefer- ences at least 51% of the time. The more, the better. To bring out the best in yourself and others, it’s important to evaluate and potentially adjust roles and responsibilities to insure the best possible job fit. The more type preferences that fit, the more satisfying each day’s work will be. To get started, review your MBTI best-fit type preference and then use the following questions to assess your job fit for any particular job or position. ✢ How much of the job is Extraverted (E)—dealing with ✢ How much of the job is Thinking (T)—involving objec- the public, handling phones, attending meetings, taking tive and impersonal decision making, and careful, analyti- care of client relations—and how much of it is Introvert- cal handling of what needs to be done, regardless of what ed (I)— working alone without much interaction with others think or feel—and how much of it is Feeling (F)— coworkers or outsiders? involving interpersonal dynamics and making decisions ✢ How much of the job is Sensing (S)—dealing with tan- that promote individual and group harmony? gible and immediate issues and using practical hands-on ✢ How much of the job is Judging (J)—meeting deadlines, skills—and how much of it is Intuitive (N)—requiring staying punctual and organized, and being accountable— an overview of an entire project or system and making and how much of it is Perceiving (P)—dealing with the connections between and among several ideas, projects, unplanned, tending to emergencies, and responding to and people? whatever comes up? How do the common job tasks of your current position com- After reading the Section 16 pare with your preferred function pair (ie, ST, SF, NF, or NT)? on MBTI Function Pairs (ie, the middle two letters of your With a little effort, any type can potentially perform any job. However, there 4-letter type code), refer are natural fits, and the more you know about your personality preferences, the more to Appendix 2, Job Tasks your career choices can be made from a position of self-confidence. The key to success Categorized by Preferred is raising your self awareness and understanding your MBTI type is a great way to learn MBTI Functions, to further more about what makes you tick and what work tasks and environments might bring out assess your job fit the best in you.
16 The Four MBTI Function Pairs Determining Your Own To get started, here’s a short self- “Heart of Type” assessment to help you select the function pair that is most like you. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes you? One of the key aspects of psychological type is the combination of the Sensing or Intuition preference with the Thinking or Feeling preference. 1 “I am someone who is decisive, quick to take action, values facts and logic, and pays attention to details.” The possible combinations (ST, SF, NF, and NT), which form the four columns 2 “I am someone who is service-minded, seeks of the type table, are called function pairs to help people in very practical ways, and is because they say so much about how we unselfish, kind, and understanding.” function in life. 3 “I am someone who is guided by my passions and beliefs, has a sixth sense about people, and works to Since these preference pairs form the middle two ensure harmony in the workplace.” letters of each person’s four-letter type code and define how we prefer to gather information and make decisions—our core mental priorities—they are 4 “I am someone who is an agent of change, a person with a vision who values logical argu- sometimes referred to as “the heart of type.” ment, competence, and independence.” Now that you’ve made your selection, review these descriptions of the function pairs that correspond with each statement: Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 Sensing/Thinking (ST) Sensing/Feeling (SF) Intuition/Feeling (NF) Intuition/Thinking (NT) STs like facts, are practi- SFs like using facts to NFs are interested in NTs are interested in possi- cal and analytical, and provide the right practi- ideas, possibilities, and bilities and ideas. They like like using technical and cal and immediate help theories. They like using their analytical skills administrative skills for for people, and to create using their insight to to solve complex problems finding tangible solutions happy and harmonious understand and develop and develop theoretical to immediate problems. environments. people, both individuals frameworks. and more widely. Did the function pair you selected seem like a good fit? Don’t worry if you’re still not sure ... let’s dig a little deeper into this concept.13 14 15 16 17 18 Appendices Map Your Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team Table Motivate Pairs Performance
16 The Four MBTI Function PairsWhat Do the FunctionPairs Look Like?All four perspectives add value to a team or veterinarypractice. When one or more perspectives are missingor underrepresented, client service, quality of care,practice profitability, and other important outcomes can benegatively impacted.The table below provides a quick overview of what eachof the four perspectives contributes to team performance. ST SF NF NT Motto: “Let’s be accurate “Let’s be practical and “Let’s be insightful “Let’s be theoretical and responsible.” service-oriented.” and inspiring.” and entrepreneurial.” Like work that is: efficient and social and creative and effective and data-oriented. service-oriented. growth-oriented. competition-oriented. Contribute by: developing policies delivering internal describing ideals designing theoretical and procedures. and external customer worth striving for. concepts. service. Look for: atability, accountabil- affiliation, personal personal meaning, rationality, opportu- ity, and control. interaction, and self-expression, and nity, and long-range support. growth. visions. Have as a goal: Efficiency Helping others Empowerment Mastery Ask questions “How will it be done “Who will it affect? “How will it be com- “What is the latest such as: and how much does Who will do it and municated and who and most relevant it cost?” how?” will it impact?” theory or strategy?” Experience conflict work is not done people disagree values are ignored principles are incor- when: correctly or crossed rect or faulty Want teams to the bottom line. offering support. giving encourage- systems. focus on: ment. Think about where some of your friends and coworkers fit on this table. How are they similar or different from you?
16 The Four MBTI Function Pairs ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ Dr. Hirsh Isabel Mary Barbara These function Judy pairings—ST, SF, NF, ISTP ISFP INFP INTP and NT—are quite Charles Donna Linda Dr. Jung useful in looking Sherry at communication patterns, group decision making, and practice ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP Katharine Dr. Kise Paul culture. Let’s return and take a look at our team at River City Veterinary Hospital (RCVH). ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Jean Naomi Janet Allen ST = 3 SF = 9 NF = 3 NT = 2 By adding up the number of team members populating each column of the type table, it’s obvious that the most prevalent function pair represented within the RCVH team is SF. The other pairs—ST, NF, and NT—are under- represented by comparison. Let’s see how this distribution affects team dynamics in the following areas.Communication and the Function PairsTo communicate effectively with others, it’s important to connect with them in away that satisfies their preferences for gathering information and making decisions.For the majority of team members at RCVH including Isabel and Katharine—the licensed technicians we met in the last module—that means emphasizing SF. SFs enjoy communication that is: SFs are turned off by: ✲ Personalized ✲ Theoretical possibilities ✲ Sequential ✲ Criticism of others ✲ Empathetic with their position ✲ A “cookie-cutter” mentality ✲ Practical and results-oriented ✲ Logic without soul ✲ Complete with examples ✲ Future projections ✲ Centered on building the relationship Keys for connecting with SFs: ✲ Be friendly ✲ Allow for hands-on experience ✲ Value their inputAs you may recall, Dr. Jung sometimes gets frustrated by Isabel and Katharine’s apparent lack of interest in his long-range vision and their reticence to consider change. Knowing their preference for SF, Dr. Jung can immediately becomemore effective when introducing potential changes in the practice by spending less time talking about future projectionsand abstract possibilities (his forte) and providing detailed plans and information with lots of specific examples.
16 The Four MBTI Function PairsOn the flip side, when team members want to communicate effectively with Dr. Jung, many ofthem will need to shift away from their normal style of communicating and “talk NT.” NTs enjoy communication that is: NT’s are turned off by ... ✲ Organized ✲ Being told all the answers ✲ Big picture-oriented, considers future implications ✲ Hype ✲ Straightforward ✲ Administrative detail ✲ Complete with underlying theory, research ✲ Repetition ✲ Full of options ✲ Short-term outlook ✲ Balanced, with pros and cons Keys for connecting with NTs: ✲ Be prepared to be challenged ✲ Let them draw their own conclusions ✲ Establish credibility quicklyEffectively connecting with Dr. Jung will require that team members do their homework so that they project competence andcan logically defend their ideas when challenged. He will naturally be interested in technical developments and strategic im-provements that have the potential to better the practice in the long run.RCVH’s practice manager, Jean, has identified ESTJ as her best-fit type, not surprising for someone who has migrated to amanagement role. Dr. Hirsh, one of the co-owners of the practice prefers ISTJ (a common MBTI type for veterinarians).When talking with Jean and Dr. Hirsh, other team members will want to keep the following “ST” tips in mind. STs enjoy communication that is: ST’s are turned off by ... ✲ Short, crisp, businesslike ✲ Vague statements ✲ Impersonal ✲ Errors of fact ✲ Factual and credible ✲ “Surprises” ✲ Sequential ✲ Untried methods ✲ Nonbiased ✲ Brainstorming with no practical outcome ✲ Relevant Keys for connecting with STs: ✲ Be brief ✲ Be sequential ✲ Be responsible
16 The Four MBTI Function PairsA small number of RCVH team members, including their new associate veterinarian, Dr. Kise, prefer NF. NFs enjoy communication that is: NF’s are turned off by ... ✲ Full of new insights and perspectives ✲ Playing politics ✲ Enjoyable and fun ✲ Put-downs ✲ Big picture-oriented ✲ Pushiness ✲ Associative, not sequential ✲ Documentation, paperwork ✲ Concerned with harmony ✲ Insensitivity ✲ Fuel for brainstorming Keys for connecting with NFs: ✲ Be idealistic ✲ Focus on enabling growth in others ✲ Find the funDecision Making and the Function PairsTeam decision making and problem solving involves collecting information and then making a decision—the two behaviors that form the heart of psychological type. Isabel Myers believed that the best way tomake a decision or solve a problem is to use the four type functions deliberately and in a specific order:Sensing, Intuition, Thinking, and then Feeling. The diagram below illustrates this process. Sensing (S) Intuition (N) ✲ Identify relevant facts ✲ Consider all possibilities ✲ Act based on experience ✲ Brainstorm alternatives ✲ Determine realistic constraints ✲ Solve multiple problems at the same time ✲ Devise and implement incremental solutions ✲ Consider the future ✲ Question radical new approaches ✲ Identify trends and patterns Thinking (T) Feeling (F) ✲ Analyze the underlying issue ✲ Involve all parties ✲ Dissect the problem ✲ Consider effects of decisions on others ✲ Debate or argue to surface all opinions ✲ Use values to evaluate options ✲ Create or apply a model ✲ Get buy-in from stakeholders ✲ Question fundamental assumptions ✲ Work to get harmony on the team
16 The Four MBTI Function PairsIn reality, when most teams deliberate, they tend to rely more on their two preferred type functions instead of usingall four functions in order. For RCVH with their ISFJ team type, that translates into relying more on Sensing andFeeling (SF) since those behaviors come more easily to the team. Questions like “What already exists and works?”(Sensing) and “How will others react and respond to our decision?” (Feeling) come quite naturally.As a whole, RCVH will have lessinterest and spend less time on,behaviors associated with Intuitionand Thinking. The team will bemuch less inclined to ask questionslike “What could we do that wouldbe completely different from whatwe’ve done before?” (Intuition) and“What are the purely logical con-sequences of the options we areconsidering?” (Thinking)Team performance may suffer if allfour functions aren’t considered inthe decision-making process. So toovercome this tendency to overlookcertain less-preferred views, theteam must pay particular attentionto provide balance to the processand give equal voice to all fourfunctions. Improve Your Team Decision Making and Problem Solving 1 The next time your team faces a decision, try working through the steps in the order indicated in the diagram above. 2 Refer to the list of questions provided in Appendix 3 to stimulate the intentional consideration of each function. 3 Identify team members, or someone from outside the team, who can help address the functions that you tend to overlook.
17 Maximizing Your Team’s Performance MBTI type theory is vital for developing a better understanding of both individual and team behavior. You can then use that understanding to boost team success. The Importance of Type Diversity in team’s performance is to honor type diversity within your team. The demands of today’s the Workplace One surefire way to maximize your business climate are increasingly requiring that we successfully tap into all of the different preferences represented within our team. Our willingness and ability to value all personality types will become increasingly important in the future. Here are a few important things to remember related to creating type diversity in the workplace: ◆ A business that values some behaviors over others will inevitably perform relatively poorly in the op- posite behaviors and will adversely affect people in the system who have different preferences. It will also create a culture that attracts some types and deters others. ◆ People with preferences different from those most represented in the prevailing work culture are likely to pay a personal price from having to subjugate their preferences, and the business is likely to pay a price too, in failing to encourage these talents. ◆ The trick in having a diverse workforce is to address the weaknesses of the traditional culture by supporting those within it to develop and value the culture’s less preferred The ideal veterinary practice behaviors, while holding on to what it does well. culture is one where there is a good understanding of personal preferences at all levels of the practice, where all types are valued for what they do best, and where different kinds of people can work together in ways that are complementary. A diverse culture will attract a wide range of types, capitalize on all their talents, and provide a more congenial and productive working environment. This, of course, means better care and service for your patients and clients.13 Map Your 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
17 Maximizing Your Team’s PerformanceWhat Team Leaders Can Doto Improve Team WorkingHere’s a summary of some of the specific steps you can take to enhance individual and team performance:1 Have each team member complete the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment at myEVT.com andraise awareness of the benefits of understanding personalitytype differences.2 Do a Team Type Analysis as outlined in this module to assess your team’s strengths and potential blind spots.Be aware of what your team is likely to do well, and where itmight tend to struggle.3 Evaluate and potentially adjust roles and responsibili- ties to insure the best possible job fit for yourself andeach of your team members. The more type preferences thatfit, the more satisfying each day’s work will be—and the bet-ter the results will be for individuals and the team alike.4 Arrange the work and run meetings so as to provide solitary tasks and advance thinking time for Intro-verted (I) types and plenty of action and time for discussionfor Extraverted (E) types. Recognize type-related skills andbehaviors that people find more difficult and support themto develop in those areas.5 Use your knowledge of the MBTI Function Pairs— ST, SF, NF, and NT—to communicate effectively withothers by connecting with them in a way that honors theirpreferences for gathering information and making decisions.6 When making decisions and solving problems, seek input from each of the four functions (S, N, T, andF). Team performance may suffer if all four functions aren’tconsidered in the decision making process. So the teammust pay particular attention to provide balance and giveequal voice to all four functions.7 Explicitly value the contributions of all personality types and actively seek ideas and opinions of teammembers who don’t say much or who represent minoritytypes within your team.
17 Maximizing Your Team’s PerformanceFinally, when looking at personality type, always remember:✔ We can all do everything—type tells us about our preferences, not our abilities.✔ None of the preferences exist in isolation. Type is dynamic and “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.” ✔ People often say they behave differently in different situations. The best guide to your preferences is how you behave in situations where you feel most natural and at ease. ✔ Type is useful for gaining understanding and self-awareness and for personal development; it should not be used as an excuse for doing or not doing anything, or for criticizing or typecasting others. ✔ Type is probably inborn, but its expression is affected by a person’s personal circumstances, life stage, culture, upbringing, etcSuggested ReadingBooks1. Developmental career counseling. Grutter J. In Kummerow J (ed): New Directions in Career Planning and the Workplace. Davies-Black, 2000.2. Do What You Are. Tieger PD, Barron B. Little, Brown, 2007.3. Introduction to Type and Coaching. Hirsh SK, Kise JAG, CPP, 2000.4. Introduction to Type and Teams. Hirsh E, Hirsh KW, Hirsh SK. CPP, 2003.5. Introduction to Type in Organizations by Hirsh SK, Kummerow JM. CPP, 1998.6. Introduction to Type. Myers IB. CPP, 1998.7. MBTI Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 3rd ed. Myers IB, McCaulley M, Quenk N, Hammer A. CPP, 2003.8. People Types & Tiger Stripes, 3rd ed. Lawrence G. CAPT, 1993.9. Type Talk at Work. Kroeger O. Tilden Press, 2002.10. Work it Out: Using Personality Type to Improve Team Performance. Hirsh SK, Kise J. Davies-Black Publishing, 2006.11. Making it in today’s organizations using the Strong and MBTI. Grutter J, Lund S. CPP, 2000.Articles1. The importance of having all types in the workforce. Houghton A. BMJ Careers, February 2005.2. The whole type, and how it relates to job satisfaction. Houghton A. BMJ Careers, December 2004.3. Type and teams. Houghton A. BMJ Careers January 2005.
18 Appendices Appendix 1 MBTI Type Table ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ E= S= T= J= I= N= F= P= ST = SF = NF = NT =13 Map Your 14 Table 15 Motivate 16 Pairs 17 Performance 18 Appendices Teams Manage, Function Maximize Team
18 Appendices Appendix 2 Job Tasks Categorized by Preferred MBTI Functions ST SF NF NT Analyzing information Providing practical Encouraging others to Developing systems that in a detached, objective services for others grow and develop contribute to the under- way standing of knowledge. Controlling Helping people with Motivating others to Mastering knowledge. information information use information to their own benefit Instructing Caretaking Mentoring Teaching Cost-benefit analyses Planning social events Designing projects Doing research Finding more efficient Following written Changing the way Starting from scratch ways of doing things procedures people do things to make things better Applying principles Being patient with others Motivating and Applying theoretical consistently inspiring others. principles. Managing projects Finding resources for Creating programs Strategic planning people that enrich others Doing budgets and Making others feel Helping others resolve Developing systems overseeing them comfortable and at ease conflict and models Collecting and keeping Getting answers for Solving new and complex Solving theoretical track of data people now problems that will benefit problems without set the future of humanity guidelines Focusing on what needs Focusing on what Focusing on personal Focusing on theoretical to be done now people need meaning and self- systems expression Improving Serving Performing Understanding Getting things right Making others happy Empowering others Designing systemsSource: Developmental career counseling. Grutter J. In Kummerow J (ed): New Directions in Career Planningand the Workplace. Davies-Black, 2000.
18 Appendices ? Appendix 3 Decision Making/Problem Solving for All TypesQuestions to Stimulate the Use of Each FunctionQ ?Step 1: SensingWhat are the verifiable facts of the situation? The givens?What is the current situation?How did we get into this situation?What data has been gathered so far?What has been done and by whom?What is the history of this issue?What resources are available and what strengths/liabilities do people bring?What already exists and works?Step 2: IntuitionWhat interpretations can be made from the facts?What are the patterns in the data? What insights and hunches come to mind?What is this problem analogous to?What options and possibilities are open to us?What would the possibilities be if there were no restrictions?What if we looked at this issue a different way? ?What could we do that would be completely different from what we’ve done before?What are ways of changing this situation? ?Step 3: ThinkingWhat are the pros and cons of acting on each option?What are the logical consequences of each alternative?What do we see objectively about this situation? What objective criteria must be satisfied?What are the costs of each choice?What do we see if we look at the issue and ourselves in an impersonal way?What would everyone agree is true about this issue?What are the strategies for getting us to each potential outcome?What is the most reasonable course of action?What are the integrity issues?Step 4: FeelingWhat are the people consequences for acting on each option?What is really important in this situation?What are my/our own values?What are the underlying values involved for each choice?What are my personal likes and dislikes about each alternative?What do I/we care about in the long run?What is the impact of these options on the values of others?How will others react and respond to the options?Who is committed to carrying out this solution?