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  • 1. Russian Revolution: Study Guide Part I B. Bergey, 2007
  • 2. Before the Revolution
  • 3. Question 1: Fill in the Blank
    • 1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched _______________ miles from east to west.
    • 1b. The Russian Empire had a population of _______________.
    • 1c. More than ______________ languages were spoken.
  • 4. Question 1: Fill in the Blank
    • 1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched 7,000 miles from east to west.
    • 1b. The Russian Empire had a population of 74 million .
    • 1c. More than 100 languages were spoken.
  • 5. How was Russia governed?
    • Tsar; Romanov family since 1613
    • Nobles and Clergy: Landowning class
    • Serfs: 90%, lived in 750,000 small villages
    • No political parties
    • No legislator
    • No constitution
  • 6. What were the political groups struggling for?
    • Largely supportive of the Tsar
    • Generations of repression and suffering left intellectual groups seeking change
    • Non-Russian minorities (Poles, Jews, Finns, Ukrainians) wanted to free themselves from tsar
    • Groups roughly divided into two categories:
        • Liberal Reformers
        • Socialists
  • 7. Q2: List the general goals of the:
    • Liberal Reformers:
    • Implement Enlightenment ideas
    • Emphasize individual freedom
    • Protect individual right
    • Rule of law through constitutional practices
  • 8. Q2: List the general goals of the:
    • Socialists:
    • End exploitation of peasants and workers
    • By giving “means of production” to workers
    • Dismantle capitalism
    • Create a classless society
  • 9. Marx’s Ideas
    • German philosopher
    • Communist Manifesto , 1848; Capital , 1867
    • History is struggle between class struggle
    • Fundamental crisis between property owners and those who labor on that property
    • Stages of economic development; industrial capitalism is last stage
    • In each stage, oppressed class rises up against owners,
    • Eventually, private property abolished and collectively owned
  • 10. Q3: List three characteristics of serfs
    • Poor
    • Uneducated
    • Average life expectancy: 35 years
    • Lived in communes of 4-8 households
    • Used out-dated farming techniques
    • Little communication with world outside their village
  • 11. Volga Barge Haulers
  • 12. Q4: List four reforms of Alexander II
    • Land transference (starting 1861)
    • Jury trials
    • Relaxed censorship laws
    • Elected assembles ( zemstvos ) for local issues (e.g., roads, primary education, taxation)
    • State-support industries (e.g., rail construction)
    • Encouraged foreign & domestic entrepreneurs
  • 13. Q5: Why did the populists go “to the people” in 1873-1874?
    • Established personal connection with downtrodden
    • Convince “simple folk” of revolutionary ideas
  • 14. Q6: List two consequences of the famine of 1891
    • Small-scale revolts
    • Land seizures
    • Banned newspaper reports of famine
    • “ Crystallized political and social awakening of the educated class ”
  • 15. Q7: Why was Karl Marx important to Russian intellectuals
    • Criticized changes that came with industrialization and that Russia was experiencing
    • Explained the social world systematically
    • Explained the famine
    • Socially and economically optimistic
  • 16. Problems in the cities
    • Peasants flocked to cities to work industrial jobs
    • Urban pop. From 7 to 21 million
    • Overcrowded cities
    • Unsanitary housing
    • Low pay
    • Unsafe work conditions
    • Hostility of workers grows
    • Workers banded together
    • Increasingly large-scale strikes
  • 17. Discontent Groups
    • Middle-class liberals
    • Repressed minorities
    • Landless peasants
    • Industrial workers
  • 18. Q8: Political groups & goals/methods Help workers; overthrow capitalism; gradual change ; Mensheviks (masses participate) Bolsheviks (elite, intellectual leadership) Socialist Democrats Party for the peasants; most radical of 3; socialize all land and transfer to peasants; monarchy with democratic republic; political terrorism Social Revolutionaries W. European style gov; individual liberty; individual rights; private property; gradual, peaceful change Liberals
  • 19. Growth of Russia
  • 20. Permafrost in Russia
  • 21. Peasant Unrest
  • 22. Agricultural Areas in Russia
  • 23. 1905 Revolution
  • 24. 1905 Revolution
    • Sunday Jan. 9, 1905
    • Bloody Sunday
    • 150,000 workers, women and children
    • Peaceful march on Tsar’s Winter Palace, St. Petersburg
    • Forty killed, hundreds wounded
    • Clashes elsewhere in city, 200 dead
  • 25. Q9: How did Bloody Sunday change people’s attitudes toward the Tsar?
    • No longer protective “Little Father”
        • Violent reaction to peaceful protest
        • Unable to meet needs of the people
  • 26. 1905 Revolution
    • Previously, mostly intellectuals who called for limits to the Tsar’s authority
    • Increased violence across Russia; Lawlessness increases
    • Tsar is generally oblivious to the gravity of the situation
    • Exiled radicals and political dissidents return
    • Intellectuals/revolutionaries organize soviets (grass-roots councils)
    Leon Trotsky
  • 27. 1905 Revolution
    • Workers struck
    • Soldiers & sailors mutinied
    • Culminates in general strike Sept/Oct. 1905
  • 28. October Manifesto
    • Expansion of civil liberties
    • Limited Monarchy
    • Legislator elected by universal suffrage, called Duma
    • Legalization of trade unions and political parties
    In response to the October general strike
  • 29. Failure of the October Manifesto
    • By May 1906, Nicholas had reclaimed almost all autocratic powers
    • Was able to appoint half of the Duma
    • Shut down 4 Dumas from 1906-1916
    • Could make laws by decree when Duma not in session
    • Complete control over army, foreign police and secret police
  • 30. October Manifesto
    • Splits Liberals
        • Octobrists : View manifesto as a good starting point for cooperation with Tsar; favored limited suffrage and gradual change
        • Kadets : questioned Tsars’ willingness to deliver; worked for further concessions
    • Socialist: rejected manifesto, called for radical political and social change
    • Conservatives: Pro-Tsar groups (Union of the Russian People, Black Hundreds) beat ethnic minorities and those having democratic sympathies
  • 31. Q1 and Q2: Stolypin’s Reform
    • Believed Tsar needed:
      • Establish order
      • Genuinely work with Duma
      • Eliminate causes of discontentment
    • Enacted land reform
    • Land given to millions of peasants, creating a new prosperous class of farmers
    • Shut-down radical newspapers and trade unions
    • Executed, imprisoned or exiled 60,000 political prisoners
    • Stolypin’s necktie = hangman’s noose
  • 32. Q3: Fill in the Blank
    • “ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants”
  • 33. Q3: Fill in the Blank
    • “ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants”
  • 34. Q4: Pos/Neg Economic Indicators
    • Renewed growth of Russian and foreign industry
    • Iron/coal production 
    • Imports/exports 
    • World’s leading grain exporter
    • Capitalists made record profits
    • 17,000 peasant disturbances
    • 3 million workers participate in 9,000 strikes
    • Prices triple while wages double
    • 6 million war refugees and new hires in cities
  • 35. Russia in WWI
    • After initial success, Russia suffers badly in WWI
    • Poor transportation left the front lacking guns, ammunition, and materials
    • By 1915, supply of riffles exhausted; fought with clubs
    • Peasants drafted
    • Nicholas, though inexperienced, takes control
    Increasing numbers of troops desert the front
  • 36. Q5: Russia financed WWI by:
    • Securing foreign loans
    • Increasing taxes
    • Increasing the supply of paper money
    • What effects do you think the last two methods had on Russian workers?
  • 37. Q6: Rasputin
    • “ Cured” Alexi’s hemophilia
    • Viewed with suspicion
    • Self-proclaimed holy man
    • Increasingly influential while Nicholas on the front with Germany
    • Killed by members of the cabinet
  • 38.  
  • 39. Q7: Workers called for change b/c:
    • Food shortages
    • Fuel shortages during an especially cold winter
    Q8: Important of soldiers’ mutiny
    • Feb. 27
    • 66,000 soldiers mutinied
    • Military cohesion gone
  • 40. February Revolution
    • Women, solders, sailors, workers march on Petrograd
      • “Down with the Monarchy”
      • “Peace Now”
      • “Bread for All”
    • Mob violence
    • Duma leaders vacate
    • Tsar abdicates
  • 41. Competing Leadership
    • Socialists : Petrograd Soviet reconvenes
    • Liberals: Duma leaders set up a provisional government
  • 42. Q9: Soviet’s gained loyalty by:
    • “Order Number One” which gave Soviets the ability to overrule the military, thereby absolving the soldiers who had mutinied
  • 43. Q10: Political Reforms by Provisional Government
    • Freedom of assembly, speech, press
    • Universal suffrage
    • Repealed legal restrictions on religion, class, and race
    • Outlawed capital punishment
    • Brought police under local government
  • 44. Alexander Kerensky
    • Socialist
    • Leader in both provisional government and Petrograd soviet
    • Believed Russia should stay in the WWI
  • 45. Lenin
    • Bolshevik Socialist
    • Believed in elite leadership
    • Germany grants passage from Switzerland (1917)
    • Opposed the war on capitalist grounds
  • 46. Red Guard Take Over
    • General Kornilov attempts to take Petrograd, seeking military dictatorship
    • Provisional gov’t sought help from Red Guard, the Bolshevik militia
    • Red Guard easily defeats military troops, gains weapons, respect and experience
    • Three weeks later, Red Guard overtake the provisional gov’t
    • Little resistance
  • 47. Civil War
    • Only Bolsheviks were selected to lead
    • Anti-Bolshevik forces formed in provinces, called Whites
  • 48. Civil War
    • Lenin nationalized all land (no private property)
    • Peasant farmed in the name of the party
    • War Communism: State could seize grain from peasants to help Red guard and city workers
    • Harsh police-state tactics
    • Secret police: Cheka
  • 49. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    • Signed cease-fire with Germany
    • Enormous loss
      • 33% population
      • 25% territory
      • 33% crop land
      • 25% income
      • 50% industry
  • 50. After the Civil War: Chaos in Russia
    • Civil War ends 1921
    • Millions of casualties from WWI
    • Billions of dollars lost in WWI
    • Wages at 1/10 of pre-war levels
    • Inflation = 1000%
    • De-urbanization
      • 50% in Moscow
      • 60% in Petrograd
  • 51. New Economic Policy (NEP)
    • Reintroduced limited capitalism
    • “ One step backwards to take two steps forward”
    • Peasants could sell food on open markets
    • Retail shops allowed
    • Entrepreneurs encouraged to sell consumer goods
    • Gov’t controlled major industries (mining, steel, transportation)
    • Huge success
  • 52. Communist Society
    • With an improved economy, Lenin started to construct the society he envisioned
    • Equality between men and women
    • Universal suffrage
    • Disallowed titles of mobility and rank
    • Church stripped of land, money and influence in education and gov’t
  • 53. Communist Society
    • Desired to be industrially self-sufficient
    • Needed to educate peasants (literacy campaign)
    • Hospitals and clinics
    • Trained doctors (including women)
  • 54. Lenin Dies
    • 1924
    • Series of rehabilitating strokes
    • Body was preserved and displayed in Moscow’s Red Square
  • 55. Building the Communist Soviet Union
    • 1922 Constitution both Democratic and Socialist
      • Elected Legislature
      • All rights to all people
      • Universal suffrage
    • In reality:
      • Communist Party ruled, not people
      • Army and secret police maintained order
      • Russia—the largest republic of the Union—ruled the others
  • 56. Stalin takes power
    • Stalin = “Man of Steel”
    • Stalin politically outmaneuvers Trotsky as Lenin’s successor
    • Trotsky criticizes Stalin and goes into exile
    • Killed by Stalin supporter in Mexico, 1940
  • 57. Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
    • Moved away from Lenin’s New Economic Plan
    • Command Economy
      • Vs. Capitalist economy
    • Attempted to:
      • Building up heavy industry
      • Improving transportation
      • Increasing farm output
  • 58. 5 year plans successful?
    • Yes
    • Incentives to those who met high expectations; punishment for those who failed
    • Larger factories
    • Hydorelectric power stations
    • Oil, coal, steel production grew
    • Mining expanded
    • More railroads built
    • No
    • Peasants’ and workers’ lives improved little
    • Wages low
    • Consumer goods scarce
    • Central planning inefficient
      • Shortages & surpluses
    • Low quality goods
  • 59. Revolution in Agriculture
    • Reclaimed small farming units from Lenin’s NEP
    • Collectivization
    • Created large collectives
    • Peasants reacted by killing animals, destroying tools, burning crops
    • Resistance was met with brutality
  • 60. Collectivization
    • Huge death toll from famine:
      • 5-8 million in Ukraine alone
    • Feeding population remained serious problem
  • 61. The Great Purge
    • Secret police crack down
    • Show trials
    • Sent to labor camps
    • 4+ million killed during Stalin’s rule
  • 62. Totalitarian Control
    • Marx said the state would wither away under communism
    • Under Stalin, it became the ultimate power
    • Totalitarianism:
      • State controls all aspects of society
    • Through terror
    • Through propaganda
  • 63.
    • YouTube: “Propaganda Stalin”
  • 64. War on Religion
    • Atheism
    • Marx: Religion is the opiate of the masses
    • Targeted Russian Orthodox Church
    • Also Jews, and to a lesser extent Muslims
    • Communist texts became “sacred texts”
  • 65. Changes in Society
  • 66. New Elite
    • Noble class destroyed
    • Communist Party official become new elite
      • Industrial managers
      • Military leaders
      • Scientists
    • Special homes
    • Special stores for consumer goods
  • 67. Social Benefits and Drawbacks
    • Benefits
    • Free education
    • Free meidacal care
    • Day care
    • Inexpensive housing
    • Gender equality
    • Drawbacks
    • Standard of living remained low
    • Continued urbanization
    • Massive apartment complexes
    • Large families in small apartments
    • Meat, fruit and other food shortages