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Russian Revolution:  Study Guide Part I B. Bergey, 2007
Before the Revolution
Question 1:  Fill in the Blank <ul><li>1a.  The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched _______________ miles from east to west. ...
Question 1:  Fill in the Blank <ul><li>1a.  The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched  7,000  miles from east to west. </li></u...
How was Russia governed? <ul><li>Tsar; Romanov family since 1613 </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles and Clergy:  Landowning class </...
What were the political groups struggling for? <ul><li>Largely supportive of the Tsar </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of rep...
Q2:  List the general goals of the: <ul><li>Liberal Reformers: </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Enlightenment ideas </li></ul><...
Q2:  List the general goals of the: <ul><li>Socialists: </li></ul><ul><li>End exploitation of peasants and workers </li></...
Marx’s Ideas <ul><li>German philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Manifesto , 1848;  Capital , 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Hi...
Q3: List three characteristics of serfs <ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>Average life expectanc...
Volga Barge Haulers
Q4: List four reforms of Alexander II <ul><li>Land transference  (starting 1861) </li></ul><ul><li>Jury trials </li></ul><...
Q5:  Why did the  populists  go “to the people” in 1873-1874? <ul><li>Established personal connection with downtrodden </l...
Q6:  List two consequences of the famine of 1891 <ul><li>Small-scale revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Land seizures </li></ul><ul...
Q7:  Why was Karl Marx important to Russian intellectuals <ul><li>Criticized changes that came with industrialization and ...
Problems in the cities <ul><li>Peasants flocked to cities to work industrial jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Urban pop. From 7 to 2...
Discontent Groups <ul><li>Middle-class liberals </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Landless peasants...
Q8:  Political groups & goals/methods Help workers; overthrow capitalism;  gradual change ;  Mensheviks (masses participat...
Growth of Russia
Permafrost in Russia
Peasant Unrest
Agricultural Areas in Russia
1905 Revolution
1905 Revolution <ul><li>Sunday Jan. 9, 1905  </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 workers, women and ...
Q9:  How did Bloody Sunday change people’s attitudes toward the Tsar? <ul><li>No longer protective “Little Father” </li></...
1905 Revolution <ul><li>Previously, mostly intellectuals who called for limits to the Tsar’s authority </li></ul><ul><li>I...
1905 Revolution <ul><li>Workers struck </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers & sailors mutinied </li></ul><ul><li>Culminates in gener...
October Manifesto <ul><li>Expansion of civil liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Legislator ele...
Failure of the October Manifesto <ul><li>By May 1906, Nicholas had reclaimed almost all autocratic powers </li></ul><ul><l...
October Manifesto <ul><li>Splits Liberals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Octobrists :  View manifesto as a good starting point ...
Q1 and Q2: Stolypin’s Reform <ul><li>Believed Tsar needed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Q3: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>“ Stolypin wanted to drive the  poorer  and  inefficient  peasants off the land allowing the...
Q3: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>“ Stolypin wanted to drive the  poorer  and  inefficient  peasants off the  land  allowing t...
Q4: Pos/Neg Economic Indicators <ul><li>Renewed growth of Russian and foreign industry </li></ul><ul><li>Iron/coal product...
Russia in WWI <ul><li>After initial success, Russia suffers badly in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Poor transportation left the fr...
Q5:  Russia financed WWI by: <ul><li>Securing foreign loans </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Increasin...
Q6: Rasputin <ul><li>“ Cured” Alexi’s hemophilia  </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed with suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>Self-proclaime...
 
Q7:  Workers called for change b/c: <ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel shortages during an especially cold wint...
February Revolution <ul><li>Women, solders, sailors, workers march on Petrograd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Down with the Monar...
Competing Leadership <ul><li>Socialists : Petrograd Soviet reconvenes  </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals: Duma leaders set up a  ...
Q9: Soviet’s gained loyalty by: <ul><li>“Order Number One” which gave Soviets the ability to overrule the military, thereb...
Q10: Political Reforms by Provisional Government <ul><li>Freedom of assembly, speech, press </li></ul><ul><li>Universal su...
Alexander Kerensky <ul><li>Socialist </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in both provisional government and Petrograd soviet </li></u...
Lenin <ul><li>Bolshevik Socialist </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in elite leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Germany grants passage ...
Red Guard  Take Over <ul><li>General Kornilov attempts to take Petrograd, seeking military dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>...
Civil War <ul><li>Only Bolsheviks were selected to lead </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Bolshevik forces formed in provinces, calle...
Civil War <ul><li>Lenin nationalized all land (no private property) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant farmed in the name of the pa...
Treaty of  Brest-Litovsk <ul><li>Signed cease-fire with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33% ...
After the Civil War: Chaos in Russia <ul><li>Civil War ends 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of casualties from WWI </li></...
New Economic Policy (NEP) <ul><li>Reintroduced limited capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>“ One step backwards to take two steps...
Communist Society <ul><li>With an improved economy, Lenin started to construct the society he envisioned </li></ul><ul><li...
Communist Society <ul><li>Desired to be industrially self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to educate peasants (literac...
Lenin Dies <ul><li>1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Series of rehabilitating strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Body was preserved and displa...
Building the Communist Soviet Union <ul><li>1922 Constitution both Democratic and Socialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected ...
Stalin takes power <ul><li>Stalin = “Man of Steel” </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin politically outmaneuvers Trotsky as Lenin’s su...
Stalin’s Five-Year Plans <ul><li>Moved away from Lenin’s New Economic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Command Economy </li></ul><ul...
5 year plans successful? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives to those who met high expectations; punishment for those...
Revolution in Agriculture <ul><li>Reclaimed small farming units from Lenin’s NEP </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivization </li><...
Collectivization <ul><li>Huge death toll from famine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-8 million in Ukraine alone </li></ul></ul><u...
The Great Purge <ul><li>Secret police crack down </li></ul><ul><li>Show trials </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to labor camps </li>...
Totalitarian Control <ul><li>Marx said the state would wither away under communism </li></ul><ul><li>Under Stalin, it beca...
<ul><li>YouTube:  “Propaganda Stalin” </li></ul>
War on Religion <ul><li>Atheism </li></ul><ul><li>Marx:  Religion is the opiate of the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted R...
Changes in Society
New Elite <ul><li>Noble class destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Party official become new elite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Social Benefits and Drawbacks <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Free education </li></ul><ul><li>Free meidacal care </li>...
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  1. 1. Russian Revolution: Study Guide Part I B. Bergey, 2007
  2. 2. Before the Revolution
  3. 3. Question 1: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched _______________ miles from east to west. </li></ul><ul><li>1b. The Russian Empire had a population of _______________. </li></ul><ul><li>1c. More than ______________ languages were spoken. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Question 1: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched 7,000 miles from east to west. </li></ul><ul><li>1b. The Russian Empire had a population of 74 million . </li></ul><ul><li>1c. More than 100 languages were spoken. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How was Russia governed? <ul><li>Tsar; Romanov family since 1613 </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles and Clergy: Landowning class </li></ul><ul><li>Serfs: 90%, lived in 750,000 small villages </li></ul><ul><li>No political parties </li></ul><ul><li>No legislator </li></ul><ul><li>No constitution </li></ul>
  6. 6. What were the political groups struggling for? <ul><li>Largely supportive of the Tsar </li></ul><ul><li>Generations of repression and suffering left intellectual groups seeking change </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Russian minorities (Poles, Jews, Finns, Ukrainians) wanted to free themselves from tsar </li></ul><ul><li>Groups roughly divided into two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal Reformers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socialists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Q2: List the general goals of the: <ul><li>Liberal Reformers: </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Enlightenment ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize individual freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Protect individual right </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of law through constitutional practices </li></ul>
  8. 8. Q2: List the general goals of the: <ul><li>Socialists: </li></ul><ul><li>End exploitation of peasants and workers </li></ul><ul><li>By giving “means of production” to workers </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantle capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Create a classless society </li></ul>
  9. 9. Marx’s Ideas <ul><li>German philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Manifesto , 1848; Capital , 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>History is struggle between class struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental crisis between property owners and those who labor on that property </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of economic development; industrial capitalism is last stage </li></ul><ul><li>In each stage, oppressed class rises up against owners, </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, private property abolished and collectively owned </li></ul>
  10. 10. Q3: List three characteristics of serfs <ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>Average life expectancy: 35 years </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in communes of 4-8 households </li></ul><ul><li>Used out-dated farming techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Little communication with world outside their village </li></ul>
  11. 11. Volga Barge Haulers
  12. 12. Q4: List four reforms of Alexander II <ul><li>Land transference (starting 1861) </li></ul><ul><li>Jury trials </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed censorship laws </li></ul><ul><li>Elected assembles ( zemstvos ) for local issues (e.g., roads, primary education, taxation) </li></ul><ul><li>State-support industries (e.g., rail construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged foreign & domestic entrepreneurs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Q5: Why did the populists go “to the people” in 1873-1874? <ul><li>Established personal connection with downtrodden </li></ul><ul><li>Convince “simple folk” of revolutionary ideas </li></ul>
  14. 14. Q6: List two consequences of the famine of 1891 <ul><li>Small-scale revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Land seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Banned newspaper reports of famine </li></ul><ul><li>“ Crystallized political and social awakening of the educated class ” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Q7: Why was Karl Marx important to Russian intellectuals <ul><li>Criticized changes that came with industrialization and that Russia was experiencing </li></ul><ul><li>Explained the social world systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Explained the famine </li></ul><ul><li>Socially and economically optimistic </li></ul>
  16. 16. Problems in the cities <ul><li>Peasants flocked to cities to work industrial jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Urban pop. From 7 to 21 million </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded cities </li></ul><ul><li>Unsanitary housing </li></ul><ul><li>Low pay </li></ul><ul><li>Unsafe work conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility of workers grows </li></ul><ul><li>Workers banded together </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly large-scale strikes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discontent Groups <ul><li>Middle-class liberals </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Landless peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial workers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Q8: Political groups & goals/methods Help workers; overthrow capitalism; gradual change ; Mensheviks (masses participate) Bolsheviks (elite, intellectual leadership) Socialist Democrats Party for the peasants; most radical of 3; socialize all land and transfer to peasants; monarchy with democratic republic; political terrorism Social Revolutionaries W. European style gov; individual liberty; individual rights; private property; gradual, peaceful change Liberals
  19. 19. Growth of Russia
  20. 20. Permafrost in Russia
  21. 21. Peasant Unrest
  22. 22. Agricultural Areas in Russia
  23. 23. 1905 Revolution
  24. 24. 1905 Revolution <ul><li>Sunday Jan. 9, 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody Sunday </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 workers, women and children </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful march on Tsar’s Winter Palace, St. Petersburg </li></ul><ul><li>Forty killed, hundreds wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes elsewhere in city, 200 dead </li></ul>
  25. 25. Q9: How did Bloody Sunday change people’s attitudes toward the Tsar? <ul><li>No longer protective “Little Father” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent reaction to peaceful protest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to meet needs of the people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 1905 Revolution <ul><li>Previously, mostly intellectuals who called for limits to the Tsar’s authority </li></ul><ul><li>Increased violence across Russia; Lawlessness increases </li></ul><ul><li>Tsar is generally oblivious to the gravity of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Exiled radicals and political dissidents return </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectuals/revolutionaries organize soviets (grass-roots councils) </li></ul>Leon Trotsky
  27. 27. 1905 Revolution <ul><li>Workers struck </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers & sailors mutinied </li></ul><ul><li>Culminates in general strike Sept/Oct. 1905 </li></ul>
  28. 28. October Manifesto <ul><li>Expansion of civil liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Legislator elected by universal suffrage, called Duma </li></ul><ul><li>Legalization of trade unions and political parties </li></ul>In response to the October general strike
  29. 29. Failure of the October Manifesto <ul><li>By May 1906, Nicholas had reclaimed almost all autocratic powers </li></ul><ul><li>Was able to appoint half of the Duma </li></ul><ul><li>Shut down 4 Dumas from 1906-1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Could make laws by decree when Duma not in session </li></ul><ul><li>Complete control over army, foreign police and secret police </li></ul>
  30. 30. October Manifesto <ul><li>Splits Liberals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Octobrists : View manifesto as a good starting point for cooperation with Tsar; favored limited suffrage and gradual change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kadets : questioned Tsars’ willingness to deliver; worked for further concessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialist: rejected manifesto, called for radical political and social change </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives: Pro-Tsar groups (Union of the Russian People, Black Hundreds) beat ethnic minorities and those having democratic sympathies </li></ul>
  31. 31. Q1 and Q2: Stolypin’s Reform <ul><li>Believed Tsar needed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genuinely work with Duma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate causes of discontentment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enacted land reform </li></ul><ul><li>Land given to millions of peasants, creating a new prosperous class of farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Shut-down radical newspapers and trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>Executed, imprisoned or exiled 60,000 political prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Stolypin’s necktie = hangman’s noose </li></ul>
  32. 32. Q3: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>“ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Q3: Fill in the Blank <ul><li>“ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Q4: Pos/Neg Economic Indicators <ul><li>Renewed growth of Russian and foreign industry </li></ul><ul><li>Iron/coal production  </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/exports  </li></ul><ul><li>World’s leading grain exporter </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalists made record profits </li></ul><ul><li>17,000 peasant disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>3 million workers participate in 9,000 strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Prices triple while wages double </li></ul><ul><li>6 million war refugees and new hires in cities </li></ul>
  35. 35. Russia in WWI <ul><li>After initial success, Russia suffers badly in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Poor transportation left the front lacking guns, ammunition, and materials </li></ul><ul><li>By 1915, supply of riffles exhausted; fought with clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants drafted </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas, though inexperienced, takes control </li></ul>Increasing numbers of troops desert the front
  36. 36. Q5: Russia financed WWI by: <ul><li>Securing foreign loans </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the supply of paper money </li></ul><ul><li>What effects do you think the last two methods had on Russian workers? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Q6: Rasputin <ul><li>“ Cured” Alexi’s hemophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed with suspicion </li></ul><ul><li>Self-proclaimed holy man </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly influential while Nicholas on the front with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Killed by members of the cabinet </li></ul>
  38. 39. Q7: Workers called for change b/c: <ul><li>Food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel shortages during an especially cold winter </li></ul>Q8: Important of soldiers’ mutiny <ul><li>Feb. 27 </li></ul><ul><li>66,000 soldiers mutinied </li></ul><ul><li>Military cohesion gone </li></ul>
  39. 40. February Revolution <ul><li>Women, solders, sailors, workers march on Petrograd </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Down with the Monarchy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Peace Now” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Bread for All” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mob violence </li></ul><ul><li>Duma leaders vacate </li></ul><ul><li>Tsar abdicates </li></ul>
  40. 41. Competing Leadership <ul><li>Socialists : Petrograd Soviet reconvenes </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals: Duma leaders set up a provisional government </li></ul>
  41. 42. Q9: Soviet’s gained loyalty by: <ul><li>“Order Number One” which gave Soviets the ability to overrule the military, thereby absolving the soldiers who had mutinied </li></ul>
  42. 43. Q10: Political Reforms by Provisional Government <ul><li>Freedom of assembly, speech, press </li></ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed legal restrictions on religion, class, and race </li></ul><ul><li>Outlawed capital punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Brought police under local government </li></ul>
  43. 44. Alexander Kerensky <ul><li>Socialist </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in both provisional government and Petrograd soviet </li></ul><ul><li>Believed Russia should stay in the WWI </li></ul>
  44. 45. Lenin <ul><li>Bolshevik Socialist </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in elite leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Germany grants passage from Switzerland (1917) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed the war on capitalist grounds </li></ul>
  45. 46. Red Guard Take Over <ul><li>General Kornilov attempts to take Petrograd, seeking military dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Provisional gov’t sought help from Red Guard, the Bolshevik militia </li></ul><ul><li>Red Guard easily defeats military troops, gains weapons, respect and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Three weeks later, Red Guard overtake the provisional gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Little resistance </li></ul>
  46. 47. Civil War <ul><li>Only Bolsheviks were selected to lead </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Bolshevik forces formed in provinces, called Whites </li></ul>
  47. 48. Civil War <ul><li>Lenin nationalized all land (no private property) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant farmed in the name of the party </li></ul><ul><li>War Communism: State could seize grain from peasants to help Red guard and city workers </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh police-state tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Secret police: Cheka </li></ul>
  48. 49. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk <ul><li>Signed cease-fire with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33% population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% crop land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% industry </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. After the Civil War: Chaos in Russia <ul><li>Civil War ends 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of casualties from WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Billions of dollars lost in WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Wages at 1/10 of pre-war levels </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation = 1000% </li></ul><ul><li>De-urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% in Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% in Petrograd </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. New Economic Policy (NEP) <ul><li>Reintroduced limited capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>“ One step backwards to take two steps forward” </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants could sell food on open markets </li></ul><ul><li>Retail shops allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs encouraged to sell consumer goods </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t controlled major industries (mining, steel, transportation) </li></ul><ul><li>Huge success </li></ul>
  51. 52. Communist Society <ul><li>With an improved economy, Lenin started to construct the society he envisioned </li></ul><ul><li>Equality between men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Disallowed titles of mobility and rank </li></ul><ul><li>Church stripped of land, money and influence in education and gov’t </li></ul>
  52. 53. Communist Society <ul><li>Desired to be industrially self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to educate peasants (literacy campaign) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals and clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Trained doctors (including women) </li></ul>
  53. 54. Lenin Dies <ul><li>1924 </li></ul><ul><li>Series of rehabilitating strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Body was preserved and displayed in Moscow’s Red Square </li></ul>
  54. 55. Building the Communist Soviet Union <ul><li>1922 Constitution both Democratic and Socialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All rights to all people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In reality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist Party ruled, not people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army and secret police maintained order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia—the largest republic of the Union—ruled the others </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Stalin takes power <ul><li>Stalin = “Man of Steel” </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin politically outmaneuvers Trotsky as Lenin’s successor </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky criticizes Stalin and goes into exile </li></ul><ul><li>Killed by Stalin supporter in Mexico, 1940 </li></ul>
  56. 57. Stalin’s Five-Year Plans <ul><li>Moved away from Lenin’s New Economic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Command Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vs. Capitalist economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempted to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building up heavy industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing farm output </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. 5 year plans successful? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives to those who met high expectations; punishment for those who failed </li></ul><ul><li>Larger factories </li></ul><ul><li>Hydorelectric power stations </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, coal, steel production grew </li></ul><ul><li>Mining expanded </li></ul><ul><li>More railroads built </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants’ and workers’ lives improved little </li></ul><ul><li>Wages low </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer goods scarce </li></ul><ul><li>Central planning inefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortages & surpluses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low quality goods </li></ul>
  58. 59. Revolution in Agriculture <ul><li>Reclaimed small farming units from Lenin’s NEP </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivization </li></ul><ul><li>Created large collectives </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants reacted by killing animals, destroying tools, burning crops </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance was met with brutality </li></ul>
  59. 60. Collectivization <ul><li>Huge death toll from famine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-8 million in Ukraine alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeding population remained serious problem </li></ul>
  60. 61. The Great Purge <ul><li>Secret police crack down </li></ul><ul><li>Show trials </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to labor camps </li></ul><ul><li>4+ million killed during Stalin’s rule </li></ul>
  61. 62. Totalitarian Control <ul><li>Marx said the state would wither away under communism </li></ul><ul><li>Under Stalin, it became the ultimate power </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State controls all aspects of society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Through terror </li></ul><ul><li>Through propaganda </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>YouTube: “Propaganda Stalin” </li></ul>
  63. 64. War on Religion <ul><li>Atheism </li></ul><ul><li>Marx: Religion is the opiate of the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>Also Jews, and to a lesser extent Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Communist texts became “sacred texts” </li></ul>
  64. 65. Changes in Society
  65. 66. New Elite <ul><li>Noble class destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Party official become new elite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special homes </li></ul><ul><li>Special stores for consumer goods </li></ul>
  66. 67. Social Benefits and Drawbacks <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Free education </li></ul><ul><li>Free meidacal care </li></ul><ul><li>Day care </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive housing </li></ul><ul><li>Gender equality </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of living remained low </li></ul><ul><li>Continued urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Massive apartment complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Large families in small apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Meat, fruit and other food shortages </li></ul>
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