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Russian Revolution

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    Russian Revolution Russian Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • Russian Revolution: Study Guide Part I B. Bergey, 2007
    • Before the Revolution
    • Question 1: Fill in the Blank
      • 1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched _______________ miles from east to west.
      • 1b. The Russian Empire had a population of _______________.
      • 1c. More than ______________ languages were spoken.
    • Question 1: Fill in the Blank
      • 1a. The Russian Empire in 1861 stretched 7,000 miles from east to west.
      • 1b. The Russian Empire had a population of 74 million .
      • 1c. More than 100 languages were spoken.
    • How was Russia governed?
      • Tsar; Romanov family since 1613
      • Nobles and Clergy: Landowning class
      • Serfs: 90%, lived in 750,000 small villages
      • No political parties
      • No legislator
      • No constitution
    • What were the political groups struggling for?
      • Largely supportive of the Tsar
      • Generations of repression and suffering left intellectual groups seeking change
      • Non-Russian minorities (Poles, Jews, Finns, Ukrainians) wanted to free themselves from tsar
      • Groups roughly divided into two categories:
          • Liberal Reformers
          • Socialists
    • Q2: List the general goals of the:
      • Liberal Reformers:
      • Implement Enlightenment ideas
      • Emphasize individual freedom
      • Protect individual right
      • Rule of law through constitutional practices
    • Q2: List the general goals of the:
      • Socialists:
      • End exploitation of peasants and workers
      • By giving “means of production” to workers
      • Dismantle capitalism
      • Create a classless society
    • Marx’s Ideas
      • German philosopher
      • Communist Manifesto , 1848; Capital , 1867
      • History is struggle between class struggle
      • Fundamental crisis between property owners and those who labor on that property
      • Stages of economic development; industrial capitalism is last stage
      • In each stage, oppressed class rises up against owners,
      • Eventually, private property abolished and collectively owned
    • Q3: List three characteristics of serfs
      • Poor
      • Uneducated
      • Average life expectancy: 35 years
      • Lived in communes of 4-8 households
      • Used out-dated farming techniques
      • Little communication with world outside their village
    • Volga Barge Haulers
    • Q4: List four reforms of Alexander II
      • Land transference (starting 1861)
      • Jury trials
      • Relaxed censorship laws
      • Elected assembles ( zemstvos ) for local issues (e.g., roads, primary education, taxation)
      • State-support industries (e.g., rail construction)
      • Encouraged foreign & domestic entrepreneurs
    • Q5: Why did the populists go “to the people” in 1873-1874?
      • Established personal connection with downtrodden
      • Convince “simple folk” of revolutionary ideas
    • Q6: List two consequences of the famine of 1891
      • Small-scale revolts
      • Land seizures
      • Banned newspaper reports of famine
      • “ Crystallized political and social awakening of the educated class ”
    • Q7: Why was Karl Marx important to Russian intellectuals
      • Criticized changes that came with industrialization and that Russia was experiencing
      • Explained the social world systematically
      • Explained the famine
      • Socially and economically optimistic
    • Problems in the cities
      • Peasants flocked to cities to work industrial jobs
      • Urban pop. From 7 to 21 million
      • Overcrowded cities
      • Unsanitary housing
      • Low pay
      • Unsafe work conditions
      • Hostility of workers grows
      • Workers banded together
      • Increasingly large-scale strikes
    • Discontent Groups
      • Middle-class liberals
      • Repressed minorities
      • Landless peasants
      • Industrial workers
    • Q8: Political groups & goals/methods Help workers; overthrow capitalism; gradual change ; Mensheviks (masses participate) Bolsheviks (elite, intellectual leadership) Socialist Democrats Party for the peasants; most radical of 3; socialize all land and transfer to peasants; monarchy with democratic republic; political terrorism Social Revolutionaries W. European style gov; individual liberty; individual rights; private property; gradual, peaceful change Liberals
    • Growth of Russia
    • Permafrost in Russia
    • Peasant Unrest
    • Agricultural Areas in Russia
    • 1905 Revolution
    • 1905 Revolution
      • Sunday Jan. 9, 1905
      • Bloody Sunday
      • 150,000 workers, women and children
      • Peaceful march on Tsar’s Winter Palace, St. Petersburg
      • Forty killed, hundreds wounded
      • Clashes elsewhere in city, 200 dead
    • Q9: How did Bloody Sunday change people’s attitudes toward the Tsar?
      • No longer protective “Little Father”
          • Violent reaction to peaceful protest
          • Unable to meet needs of the people
    • 1905 Revolution
      • Previously, mostly intellectuals who called for limits to the Tsar’s authority
      • Increased violence across Russia; Lawlessness increases
      • Tsar is generally oblivious to the gravity of the situation
      • Exiled radicals and political dissidents return
      • Intellectuals/revolutionaries organize soviets (grass-roots councils)
      Leon Trotsky
    • 1905 Revolution
      • Workers struck
      • Soldiers & sailors mutinied
      • Culminates in general strike Sept/Oct. 1905
    • October Manifesto
      • Expansion of civil liberties
      • Limited Monarchy
      • Legislator elected by universal suffrage, called Duma
      • Legalization of trade unions and political parties
      In response to the October general strike
    • Failure of the October Manifesto
      • By May 1906, Nicholas had reclaimed almost all autocratic powers
      • Was able to appoint half of the Duma
      • Shut down 4 Dumas from 1906-1916
      • Could make laws by decree when Duma not in session
      • Complete control over army, foreign police and secret police
    • October Manifesto
      • Splits Liberals
          • Octobrists : View manifesto as a good starting point for cooperation with Tsar; favored limited suffrage and gradual change
          • Kadets : questioned Tsars’ willingness to deliver; worked for further concessions
      • Socialist: rejected manifesto, called for radical political and social change
      • Conservatives: Pro-Tsar groups (Union of the Russian People, Black Hundreds) beat ethnic minorities and those having democratic sympathies
    • Q1 and Q2: Stolypin’s Reform
      • Believed Tsar needed:
        • Establish order
        • Genuinely work with Duma
        • Eliminate causes of discontentment
      • Enacted land reform
      • Land given to millions of peasants, creating a new prosperous class of farmers
      • Shut-down radical newspapers and trade unions
      • Executed, imprisoned or exiled 60,000 political prisoners
      • Stolypin’s necktie = hangman’s noose
    • Q3: Fill in the Blank
      • “ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants”
    • Q3: Fill in the Blank
      • “ Stolypin wanted to drive the poorer and inefficient peasants off the land allowing them to sell to the more productive and wealthier peasants”
    • Q4: Pos/Neg Economic Indicators
      • Renewed growth of Russian and foreign industry
      • Iron/coal production 
      • Imports/exports 
      • World’s leading grain exporter
      • Capitalists made record profits
      • 17,000 peasant disturbances
      • 3 million workers participate in 9,000 strikes
      • Prices triple while wages double
      • 6 million war refugees and new hires in cities
    • Russia in WWI
      • After initial success, Russia suffers badly in WWI
      • Poor transportation left the front lacking guns, ammunition, and materials
      • By 1915, supply of riffles exhausted; fought with clubs
      • Peasants drafted
      • Nicholas, though inexperienced, takes control
      Increasing numbers of troops desert the front
    • Q5: Russia financed WWI by:
      • Securing foreign loans
      • Increasing taxes
      • Increasing the supply of paper money
      • What effects do you think the last two methods had on Russian workers?
    • Q6: Rasputin
      • “ Cured” Alexi’s hemophilia
      • Viewed with suspicion
      • Self-proclaimed holy man
      • Increasingly influential while Nicholas on the front with Germany
      • Killed by members of the cabinet
    •  
    • Q7: Workers called for change b/c:
      • Food shortages
      • Fuel shortages during an especially cold winter
      Q8: Important of soldiers’ mutiny
      • Feb. 27
      • 66,000 soldiers mutinied
      • Military cohesion gone
    • February Revolution
      • Women, solders, sailors, workers march on Petrograd
        • “Down with the Monarchy”
        • “Peace Now”
        • “Bread for All”
      • Mob violence
      • Duma leaders vacate
      • Tsar abdicates
    • Competing Leadership
      • Socialists : Petrograd Soviet reconvenes
      • Liberals: Duma leaders set up a provisional government
    • Q9: Soviet’s gained loyalty by:
      • “Order Number One” which gave Soviets the ability to overrule the military, thereby absolving the soldiers who had mutinied
    • Q10: Political Reforms by Provisional Government
      • Freedom of assembly, speech, press
      • Universal suffrage
      • Repealed legal restrictions on religion, class, and race
      • Outlawed capital punishment
      • Brought police under local government
    • Alexander Kerensky
      • Socialist
      • Leader in both provisional government and Petrograd soviet
      • Believed Russia should stay in the WWI
    • Lenin
      • Bolshevik Socialist
      • Believed in elite leadership
      • Germany grants passage from Switzerland (1917)
      • Opposed the war on capitalist grounds
    • Red Guard Take Over
      • General Kornilov attempts to take Petrograd, seeking military dictatorship
      • Provisional gov’t sought help from Red Guard, the Bolshevik militia
      • Red Guard easily defeats military troops, gains weapons, respect and experience
      • Three weeks later, Red Guard overtake the provisional gov’t
      • Little resistance
    • Civil War
      • Only Bolsheviks were selected to lead
      • Anti-Bolshevik forces formed in provinces, called Whites
    • Civil War
      • Lenin nationalized all land (no private property)
      • Peasant farmed in the name of the party
      • War Communism: State could seize grain from peasants to help Red guard and city workers
      • Harsh police-state tactics
      • Secret police: Cheka
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
      • Signed cease-fire with Germany
      • Enormous loss
        • 33% population
        • 25% territory
        • 33% crop land
        • 25% income
        • 50% industry
    • After the Civil War: Chaos in Russia
      • Civil War ends 1921
      • Millions of casualties from WWI
      • Billions of dollars lost in WWI
      • Wages at 1/10 of pre-war levels
      • Inflation = 1000%
      • De-urbanization
        • 50% in Moscow
        • 60% in Petrograd
    • New Economic Policy (NEP)
      • Reintroduced limited capitalism
      • “ One step backwards to take two steps forward”
      • Peasants could sell food on open markets
      • Retail shops allowed
      • Entrepreneurs encouraged to sell consumer goods
      • Gov’t controlled major industries (mining, steel, transportation)
      • Huge success
    • Communist Society
      • With an improved economy, Lenin started to construct the society he envisioned
      • Equality between men and women
      • Universal suffrage
      • Disallowed titles of mobility and rank
      • Church stripped of land, money and influence in education and gov’t
    • Communist Society
      • Desired to be industrially self-sufficient
      • Needed to educate peasants (literacy campaign)
      • Hospitals and clinics
      • Trained doctors (including women)
    • Lenin Dies
      • 1924
      • Series of rehabilitating strokes
      • Body was preserved and displayed in Moscow’s Red Square
    • Building the Communist Soviet Union
      • 1922 Constitution both Democratic and Socialist
        • Elected Legislature
        • All rights to all people
        • Universal suffrage
      • In reality:
        • Communist Party ruled, not people
        • Army and secret police maintained order
        • Russia—the largest republic of the Union—ruled the others
    • Stalin takes power
      • Stalin = “Man of Steel”
      • Stalin politically outmaneuvers Trotsky as Lenin’s successor
      • Trotsky criticizes Stalin and goes into exile
      • Killed by Stalin supporter in Mexico, 1940
    • Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
      • Moved away from Lenin’s New Economic Plan
      • Command Economy
        • Vs. Capitalist economy
      • Attempted to:
        • Building up heavy industry
        • Improving transportation
        • Increasing farm output
    • 5 year plans successful?
      • Yes
      • Incentives to those who met high expectations; punishment for those who failed
      • Larger factories
      • Hydorelectric power stations
      • Oil, coal, steel production grew
      • Mining expanded
      • More railroads built
      • No
      • Peasants’ and workers’ lives improved little
      • Wages low
      • Consumer goods scarce
      • Central planning inefficient
        • Shortages & surpluses
      • Low quality goods
    • Revolution in Agriculture
      • Reclaimed small farming units from Lenin’s NEP
      • Collectivization
      • Created large collectives
      • Peasants reacted by killing animals, destroying tools, burning crops
      • Resistance was met with brutality
    • Collectivization
      • Huge death toll from famine:
        • 5-8 million in Ukraine alone
      • Feeding population remained serious problem
    • The Great Purge
      • Secret police crack down
      • Show trials
      • Sent to labor camps
      • 4+ million killed during Stalin’s rule
    • Totalitarian Control
      • Marx said the state would wither away under communism
      • Under Stalin, it became the ultimate power
      • Totalitarianism:
        • State controls all aspects of society
      • Through terror
      • Through propaganda
      • YouTube: “Propaganda Stalin”
    • War on Religion
      • Atheism
      • Marx: Religion is the opiate of the masses
      • Targeted Russian Orthodox Church
      • Also Jews, and to a lesser extent Muslims
      • Communist texts became “sacred texts”
    • Changes in Society
    • New Elite
      • Noble class destroyed
      • Communist Party official become new elite
        • Industrial managers
        • Military leaders
        • Scientists
      • Special homes
      • Special stores for consumer goods
    • Social Benefits and Drawbacks
      • Benefits
      • Free education
      • Free meidacal care
      • Day care
      • Inexpensive housing
      • Gender equality
      • Drawbacks
      • Standard of living remained low
      • Continued urbanization
      • Massive apartment complexes
      • Large families in small apartments
      • Meat, fruit and other food shortages