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Us chapter 11 the first world war Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 11 The First WorldChapter 11 The First World WarWar  Section 1: World War I Begins (372-Section 1: World War I Begins (372- 380)380)
  • 2. I. Causes of World War II. Causes of World War I A.A. NationalismNationalism 1.1. NationalismNationalism —a devotion to the interest and culture of one’s nation—a devotion to the interest and culture of one’s nation 2.2. competition and antagonistic rivalries amongcompetition and antagonistic rivalries among nationsnations 3.3. ethnicethnic groups resented be dominated by anothergroups resented be dominated by another 4.4. RussiaRussia viewed protector of all Slavsviewed protector of all Slavs 5.5. RussiaRussia andand HungaryHungary were rivals for the influence of Serbiawere rivals for the influence of Serbia B.B. ImperialismImperialism 1.1. EuropeanEuropean nations had been extending political and economic control overnations had been extending political and economic control over various peoplevarious people 2.2. GermanyGermany built up a rivalry to England and Francebuilt up a rivalry to England and France C.C. MilitarismMilitarism 1.1. MilitarismMilitarism—the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of—the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacydiplomacy 2.2. strongest on continent wasstrongest on continent was GermanyGermany 3.3. BritainBritain relied on their navyrelied on their navy 4.4. KaiserKaiser Wilhelm IIWilhelm II wanted to be a major sea powerwanted to be a major sea power 5.5. Germany andGermany and EnglandEngland started naval build-up along with France, Italy,started naval build-up along with France, Italy, Japan and U.S.Japan and U.S. D.D. Alliance SystemAlliance System 1.1. Triple Entente (laterTriple Entente (later AlliesAllies) consisted of France, Britain and Russia) consisted of France, Britain and Russia 2.2. Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy laterTriple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy later Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire formed theGermany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire formed the CentralCentral PowersPowers The idea that there will be a maintaining of theThe idea that there will be a maintaining of the balance of powerbalance of power
  • 3. II. An Assassination Leads to WarII. An Assassination Leads to War A. June 28, 1914A. June 28, 1914 1.1. Balkan Peninsula was known as “Balkan Peninsula was known as “the powder keg of Europethe powder keg of Europe ”” 2.2. RussiaRussia wanted access andwanted access and GermanyGermany hoped for rail link withhoped for rail link with OttomansOttomans 3.3. Serbia wanted influence overSerbia wanted influence over BosniaBosnia which was under Austrianwhich was under Austrian controlcontrol 4.4. ArchdukeArchduke Franz FerdinandFranz Ferdinand , heir to Austrian thrown visited, heir to Austrian thrown visited SarajevoSarajevo 5.5. Gavrilo PrincipGavrilo Princip stepped from crowd and shot the wifestepped from crowd and shot the wife SophieSophie Chotek and the ArchdukeChotek and the Archduke 6.6. conspirators were from theconspirators were from the Black HandBlack Hand and were trained byand were trained by SerbiaSerbia 7.7. July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war onJuly 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaSerbia 8.8. August 1, Germany declares war onAugust 1, Germany declares war on RussiaRussia 9.9. August 3, Germany declares war onAugust 3, Germany declares war on FranceFrance 10.10. Britain declares war after Germany invadesBritain declares war after Germany invades BelgiumBelgium
  • 4. FYI (Relation to the Kaiser)FYI (Relation to the Kaiser) Nobel RelationshipsNobel Relationships Czar Nicholas II cousin Russia King Edward VII uncle Britain King George V cousin Britain Queen Victoria grandmother Britain
  • 5. III. The Fighting StartsIII. The Fighting Starts A.A. SchlieffenSchlieffen PlanPlan A.A. holding action againstholding action against RussiaRussia….Russia should be slow to mobilize….Russia should be slow to mobilize (not case because Russia started mobilization early)(not case because Russia started mobilization early) B.B. allowallow FranceFrance to try to recapture Alsace-Lorraine (revenge fromto try to recapture Alsace-Lorraine (revenge from Franco-Prussian War)Franco-Prussian War) C.C. Germany will put full might onGermany will put full might on BelgiumBelgium and sweep across to Parisand sweep across to Paris than march to the Rhine to cut off French retreatthan march to the Rhine to cut off French retreat D.D. problems with plan….time tablesproblems with plan….time tables unrealisticunrealistic, German troops, German troops spread too thinlyspread too thinly E.E. Battle of MarneBattle of Marne stopped German advancestopped German advance F.F. Race to the SeaRace to the Sea —both—both sides try to flank each othersides try to flank each other G.G. TrenchTrench warfarewarfare—armies fought for yards of ground and in—armies fought for yards of ground and in between the trenches was a barren landscape called “no man’sbetween the trenches was a barren landscape called “no man’s land”land” a.a. FrontFront line trenchline trench b.b. SupportSupport trenchtrench c.c. ReserveReserve trenchtrench d.d. Main defensive weapon was the heavyMain defensive weapon was the heavy machine gunmachine gun
  • 6. B. BattlesB. Battles 1.1. TannenbergTannenberg August 1914 Germany destroys a millionAugust 1914 Germany destroys a million man Russian Armyman Russian Army 2.2. YpresYpres, May 1915 Germany first used Chemical, May 1915 Germany first used Chemical weaponsweapons 3.3. GallipoliGallipoli, April 1915-Jan. 1916 Britain fails to open, April 1915-Jan. 1916 Britain fails to open supply line to Russiasupply line to Russia 4.4. VerdunVerdun, Feb.-July 1916 first battle of attrition, German, Feb.-July 1916 first battle of attrition, German commanders hoped to bleed France from the warcommanders hoped to bleed France from the war 5.5. SommeSomme, July-Nov. 1916 Britain lost 60,000 in one day, July-Nov. 1916 Britain lost 60,000 in one day worst single day loss in British Historyworst single day loss in British History
  • 7. IV. Americans Question NeutralityIV. Americans Question Neutrality A. Divided LoyaltiesA. Divided Loyalties 1.1. SocialistSocialist complained the war as a capitalist ad imperialist strugglecomplained the war as a capitalist ad imperialist struggle between Germany and Englandbetween Germany and England 2.2. immigrantsimmigrants favored their homelandfavored their homeland 3.3. Americans felt closer to England because of commonAmericans felt closer to England because of common ancestryancestry and languageand language 4.4. Americans upset of the invasion ofAmericans upset of the invasion of BelgiumBelgium,, BritainBritain propagandapropaganda told tales oftold tales of GermanGerman atrocitiesatrocities 5.5. EconomicEconomic ties stronger to the Allies than Central Powersties stronger to the Allies than Central Powers 6.6. AmericanAmerican manufacturersmanufacturers made huge profits from the Alliesmade huge profits from the Allies 7.7. Washington’s Farewell AddressWashington’s Farewell Address
  • 8. V. The War Hits HomeV. The War Hits Home A. The British BlockadeA. The British Blockade 1.1. preventprevent GermanGerman ports from receiving war goods including foodports from receiving war goods including food 2.2. neutralneutral ports were included along with mining of theports were included along with mining of the North SeaNorth Sea 3.3. 19171917 faminefamine hit Germany and an estimated 750,000 Germanshit Germany and an estimated 750,000 Germans starved to deathstarved to death B. German U-Boat ResponseB. German U-Boat Response 1.1. UnterseebootUnterseeboot (submarine) was used to blockade Britain(submarine) was used to blockade Britain 2.2. rules of war one was to give warning eventually Germany wasrules of war one was to give warning eventually Germany was forced to useforced to use unrestricted submarineunrestricted submarine warfare—sink withoutwarfare—sink without warningwarning 3.3. May 7, 1915May 7, 1915 LusitaniaLusitania was sunk off the southern coast of Irelandwas sunk off the southern coast of Ireland killing 1198 persons 128 Americanskilling 1198 persons 128 Americans a. Ship carrieda. Ship carried weaponsweapons , Britain denied until the end of the war, Britain denied until the end of the war 4.4. ArabicArabic sank killing two Americanssank killing two Americans 5.5. SussexSussex killing 80 and some Americanskilling 80 and some Americans a. Germany promised to stop unrestricted sub warfare if they coulda. Germany promised to stop unrestricted sub warfare if they could persuade Britain to lift blockade againstpersuade Britain to lift blockade against foodfood andand fertilizersfertilizers if notif not Germany may renew unrestricted warfareGermany may renew unrestricted warfare C. 1916 ElectionC. 1916 Election 1.1. WilsonWilson defeated Supreme Court Justicedefeated Supreme Court Justice Charles EvansCharles Evans HughesHughes in a very close electionin a very close election - Two main reasons for war 1) ensure Allied repayment of debt and prevent Germany to threaten U.S. Trade
  • 9. VI. The Untied States Declares WarVI. The Untied States Declares War A. German ProvocationA. German Provocation 1.1. January 31 kaiser announcedJanuary 31 kaiser announced unrestrictedunrestricted submarinesubmarine warfarewarfare 2.2. ZimmermanZimmerman NoteNote—telegram from German minister to the—telegram from German minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, it proposed an alliance in whichGerman ambassador in Mexico, it proposed an alliance in which Mexico would get Texas New Mexico and Arizona backMexico would get Texas New Mexico and Arizona back 3.3. four unarmedfour unarmed merchantmerchant ships sunk killing 36ships sunk killing 36 4.4. RussiaRussia had a revolution which the monarch was abolished (Warhad a revolution which the monarch was abolished (War for Democracyfor Democracy B. America ActsB. America Acts 1.1. April 2, 1917April 2, 1917 WilsonWilson asked Congress to declare war on theasked Congress to declare war on the Central PowersCentral Powers 2.2. few days later war wasfew days later war was declareddeclared
  • 10.  He was the Emperor of Germany, and he gave Franz Joseph of Austria a blank check to invade Serbia.He was the Emperor of Germany, and he gave Franz Joseph of Austria a blank check to invade Serbia.  Wilhelm IIWilhelm II  He was trained by the Black Hand and he assonated the Archduke of Austria.He was trained by the Black Hand and he assonated the Archduke of Austria.  Gavrilo PrincipGavrilo Princip  He was heir of the Austrian thrown, he was considered a moderate and the Black Hand wanted hisHe was heir of the Austrian thrown, he was considered a moderate and the Black Hand wanted his deathFranz FerdinanddeathFranz Ferdinand  This is the devotion to the interest and culture of one’s nation.This is the devotion to the interest and culture of one’s nation.  NationalismNationalism  This is one of the causes of WWI that dealt with conquering weaker peopleThis is one of the causes of WWI that dealt with conquering weaker people  ImperialismImperialism  This is the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.This is the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.  MilitarismMilitarism  This is the Alliance of United States, England, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia.This is the Alliance of United States, England, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia.  Allied PowersAllied Powers  This is the Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire.This is the Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire.  Central PowersCentral Powers  This was the German plan to fight a two front war.This was the German plan to fight a two front war.  Schlieffen PlanSchlieffen Plan  This warfare consisted of fighting for yards of ground and in between the trenches was called “no man’sThis warfare consisted of fighting for yards of ground and in between the trenches was called “no man’s land”.land”.  Trench WarfareTrench Warfare  This is the spreading of false information to promote your cause.This is the spreading of false information to promote your cause.  PropagandaPropaganda  This is when submarines would sink merchant ships with out warning.This is when submarines would sink merchant ships with out warning.  Unrestricted Submarine WarfareUnrestricted Submarine Warfare  This was the telegram that was intercepted by the British that had the German promise the return ofThis was the telegram that was intercepted by the British that had the German promise the return of southwest United States to Mexico.southwest United States to Mexico.  Zimmerman NoteZimmerman Note
  • 11. Section 2: American PowerSection 2: American Power Tips the Balance (381-387)Tips the Balance (381-387)
  • 12. I. America MobilizesI. America Mobilizes A. Raising an ArmyA. Raising an Army 1.1. 200,000200,000 when war was declaredwhen war was declared 2.2. Selective Service ActSelective Service Act ——May 1917, act required men to registerMay 1917, act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for militarywith the government in order to be randomly selected for military serviceservice a.a. 24 million registered/24 million registered/3 million3 million called upcalled up b.b. Most not graduatedMost not graduated high schoolhigh school and 1/5 were foreign bornand 1/5 were foreign born c.c. 369th Infantry (369th Infantry (African-AmericanAfrican-American ) saw most continuous duty and) saw most continuous duty and received Croix de Guerre “Cross of War”received Croix de Guerre “Cross of War” d.d. EightEight month training neededmonth training needed had to use fake weapons for traininghad to use fake weapons for training e.e. Women allowed inWomen allowed in Army CorpsArmy Corps of Nurses and 13,000 workedof Nurses and 13,000 worked non-combat positionsnon-combat positions B. Mass ProductionB. Mass Production 1.1. early 1917 twice theearly 1917 twice the tonnagetonnage was sunk than was builtwas sunk than was built 2.2. Four crucial stepsFour crucial steps a.a. ShipyardShipyard workers were exempted from the draftworkers were exempted from the draft b.b. Distributed serviceDistributed service flagsflags to families of shipyard workers andto families of shipyard workers and EncouragedEncouraged automobileautomobile owners to drive shipyard workers toowners to drive shipyard workers to workwork c.c. FabricationFabrication techniques, parts built elsewheretechniques, parts built elsewhere d.d. UsedUsed commercialcommercial andand privateprivate ships and converted them forships and converted them for transatlantic war usetransatlantic war use
  • 13. II. America Turns the Tide A. Fighting in Europe 1. convoy system—heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups 2. helped lay mines from Scotland to Norway 3. 2 million cross the Atlantic (637 died from U-Boats) 4. Americans brought enthusiasm which helped turn the tide III. Fighting “Over There” A. Doughboys 1. American Expeditionary Force (AEF)—called doughboys, this was the name given to the American Army in Europe, they were led by General John J. Pershing B. New Weapons 1. Machine gun could fire more bullets per second 2. tank (Somme) 3. airplane (drop bombs and air combat (interrupter gear)), Eddie Rickinbacker was the most famous American pilot, fought the “Flying Circus” a German air squadron led by the “Red Baron” Manfred von Richtofen 4. Britain used strategic bombings of factories and bases 5. Zeppelins were used by Germany for bombings of London
  • 14. IV. The War Introduces New HazardsIV. The War Introduces New Hazards A. CasualtiesA. Casualties a.a. Lice, rats,Lice, rats, dysenterydysentery b.b. battlebattle fatiguefatigue /shell/shell shockshock c.c. trenchtrench footfoot d.d. trenchtrench mouthmouth
  • 15. A. Successes 1. victories at Cantigney, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood and Second Battle of the Marne stopped German advances 2. Successful offensives at Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne B. American War Hero 1. Alvin York from Tennessee a. Conscientious objector—person who opposes war on moral ground b. Killed 25 Germans and with six others captured 132 Germans C. Collapse of Germany 1. November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrenders 2. German sailors commit mutiny 3. November 9, German socialists established a German republic 4. November 11, an armistice, or truce, was signed at 11 A.M. D. Final Toll 1. 22 million died world wide (half civilian) 2. 20 million wounded 3. 10 million refugees 4. 48,000 Americans died in Battle, 62,000 died of disease and
  • 16.  He led the AEF in Europe, he also led U.S. troops in Cuba and Mexico.He led the AEF in Europe, he also led U.S. troops in Cuba and Mexico.  John PershingJohn Pershing  He was from Tennessee, he objected to the war but when joined he killed 25 German’s andHe was from Tennessee, he objected to the war but when joined he killed 25 German’s and captured another 132.captured another 132. Alvin YorkAlvin York  He was the most famous American Pilot who fought the famed German Flying Circus.He was the most famous American Pilot who fought the famed German Flying Circus.  Eddie RickinbackerEddie Rickinbacker  How did the United States raise a naval force to fight the war?How did the United States raise a naval force to fight the war? a.a. ShipyardShipyard workers were exempted from the draftworkers were exempted from the draft b.b. Distributed serviceDistributed service flagsflags to families of shipyard workers and Encouragedto families of shipyard workers and Encouraged automobileautomobile ownersowners to drive shipyard workers to workto drive shipyard workers to work c.c. FabricationFabrication techniques, parts built elsewheretechniques, parts built elsewhere d.d. UsedUsed commercialcommercial andand privateprivate ships and converted them for transatlantic war useships and converted them for transatlantic war use  This required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for militaryThis required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service.service.  Selective Service ActSelective Service Act  This is when destroyers and other warships protected merchant ships as they crossed theThis is when destroyers and other warships protected merchant ships as they crossed the Atlantic.Atlantic.  Convoy SystemConvoy System  This was the nickname given for the American Expeditionary Force.This was the nickname given for the American Expeditionary Force.  Dough BoysDough Boys  What minority groups won the Croix de Guerre “Cross of War”.What minority groups won the Croix de Guerre “Cross of War”.  African AmericansAfrican Americans  This is a person that opposes the war on moral ground.This is a person that opposes the war on moral ground.  Conscientious ObjectorConscientious Objector  This was the exact time that the armistice or truce was signed.This was the exact time that the armistice or truce was signed.  11 A.M. Nov. 11, 191811 A.M. Nov. 11, 1918
  • 17. Countries Total Mobilized Killed & Died Wounded Prisoners & Missing Total Casualties Casualties % of Mobilized Allied Powers             Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 76.3 France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800 76.3 British Empire 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 35.8 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 39.1 United States 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500 364,800 8.2 Japan 800,000 300 907 3 1,210 0.2 Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706 71.4 Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958 331,106 46.8 Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061 34.9 Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000 17,000 11.7 Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318 33,291 33.3 Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 40.0 Total 42,188,810 5,152,115 12,831,004 4,121,090 22,104,209 52.3
  • 18. Section 3: The War at HomeSection 3: The War at Home (388-395)(388-395)
  • 19. I. Congress Gives Power to WilsonI. Congress Gives Power to Wilson A. War Industries BoardA. War Industries Board 1.1. War Industries BoardWar Industries Board (WIB)—under the control of(WIB)—under the control of Bernard M.Bernard M. BaruchBaruch, encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques, encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase output and set production quotas and allocated rawto increase output and set production quotas and allocated raw materialsmaterials 2. applied price controls only at the2. applied price controls only at the wholesalewholesale level, companies profitslevel, companies profits soared (chemicals, meatpacking, oil and steel)soared (chemicals, meatpacking, oil and steel) 3.3. Railroad AdministrationRailroad Administration —controlled railroads and transportation of goods—controlled railroads and transportation of goods 4.4. Fuel AdministrationFuel Administration —monitored coal supplies and rationed—monitored coal supplies and rationed gasoline and heating oilgasoline and heating oil 5. March 19185. March 1918 daylight-savingdaylight-saving time was adoptedtime was adopted B. War EconomyB. War Economy 1.1. incomes grew but that was offset by the risingincomes grew but that was offset by the rising foodfood andand housinghousing costscosts 2.2. unionsunions grew because of the “sped ups”, poor conditions and child laborgrew because of the “sped ups”, poor conditions and child labor 3.3. National War Labor BoardNational War Labor Board —established 8 hour work day, stop of child—established 8 hour work day, stop of child labor, told strike to stop or “Work or Fight”labor, told strike to stop or “Work or Fight” C. Food AdministrationC. Food Administration 1.1. Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover , Belgium Relief, conserved food resources (1 meatless, 1, Belgium Relief, conserved food resources (1 meatless, 1 Sweetless, two wheatless and two porkless days)Sweetless, two wheatless and two porkless days) 2.2. Homeowners plantedHomeowners planted VictoryVictory GardensGardens 3.3. Hoover set up high prices forHoover set up high prices for wheatwheat and other staplesand other staples
  • 20. II. Selling the WarII. Selling the War A. War Financing ($33.5 Billion) 1. 1/3 raised through taxes including the progressive tax 2. war-profits tax, higher taxes on tobacco, liquor and luxury goods 3. 4 Liberty Loan (Bonds) and 1 Victory Bond B. Committee on Public Information 1. Committee on Public Information—headed by George Creel was a propaganda agency which was designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions 2. paintings, sculptures etc. promoting the war 3. “Four Minute Men” gave spoke of draft, rationing etc. 4. printing 25 million copies “How the War Came to America” 5. though it promoted patriotism it inflamed hatred and violation of civil liberties of immigrants
  • 21. Central Powers Cost in Dollars in 1914-18 Germany 37,775,000,000 Austria-Hungary 20,622,960,000 Turkey 1,430,000,000 Bulgaria 815,200,000 Total of all Costs 60,643,160,000 Allied Powers Cost in Dollars in 1914-18 United States 22,625,253,000 Great Britain 35,334,012,000 France 24,265,583,000 Russia 22,293,950,000 Italy 12,413,998,000 Belgium 1,154,468,000 Romania 1,600,000,000 Japan 40,000,000 Serbia 399,400,000 Greece 270,000,000 Canada 1,665,576,000 Australia 1,423,208,000 New Zealand 378,750,000 India 601,279,000 South Africa 300,000,000 British Colonies 125,000,000 Others 500,000,000 Total of all Costs 125,690,477,000
  • 22. III. Attacks on Civil Liberties IncreaseIII. Attacks on Civil Liberties Increase A. Anti-Immigrant HysteriaA. Anti-Immigrant Hysteria 1.1. GermanGerman/Austrian-Hungary picked on the most/Austrian-Hungary picked on the most 2.2. GermanGerman music, books language bannedmusic, books language banned 3.3. flogging/hazing went onflogging/hazing went on 4.4. GermanGerman food names changedfood names changed B. Espionage and Sedition ActsB. Espionage and Sedition Acts 1.1. Espionage and Sedition ActsEspionage and Sedition Acts —a person could be fined up—a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentence to 20 years in jail for interfering withto $10,000 and sentence to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or saying anything disloyal, profane or abusivethe war effort or saying anything disloyal, profane or abusive about the American Government and war effortabout the American Government and war effort 2.2. violated 1st Amendmentviolated 1st Amendment SchenckSchenck v. United States allowedv. United States allowed U.S. to suspend rights in times of warU.S. to suspend rights in times of war 3.3. Victor BergerVictor Berger a Socialist leader not allowed his seat ina Socialist leader not allowed his seat in CongressCongress 4.4. Eugene V. DebsEugene V. Debs was given a 10 sentence speaking againstwas given a 10 sentence speaking against war and draftwar and draft 5.5. Emma GoldmanEmma Goldman was given two year prison sentence andwas given two year prison sentence and deported back to Russiadeported back to Russia 6.6. Big Bill HaywoodBig Bill Haywood of the IWW was arrested, skip bail andof the IWW was arrested, skip bail and fled to Russia, IWW collapsedfled to Russia, IWW collapsed
  • 23. Changing of NamesChanging of Names  In England, anti-German sentiment was so severe thatIn England, anti-German sentiment was so severe that the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha became thethe ruling House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha became the House of Windsor, Battenberg became Mountbatten andHouse of Windsor, Battenberg became Mountbatten and the German Shepherd was renamed the Alsatian. Inthe German Shepherd was renamed the Alsatian. In New Orleans, Berlin St. was renamed for GeneralNew Orleans, Berlin St. was renamed for General Pershing (head of the Allied Expeditionary Force), andPershing (head of the Allied Expeditionary Force), and sauerkraut came to be called (by some) Libertysauerkraut came to be called (by some) Liberty Cabbage. In Canada, the Ontario city of Berlin changedCabbage. In Canada, the Ontario city of Berlin changed its name to become Kitchener, after the British militaryits name to become Kitchener, after the British military hero pictured on the famous "I want YOU!" recruitinghero pictured on the famous "I want YOU!" recruiting poster. The English Kennel Club only re-authorised theposter. The English Kennel Club only re-authorised the term 'German Shepherd' to be used as an official nameterm 'German Shepherd' to be used as an official name in 1977.in 1977.
  • 24. IV. The War Encourages Social ChangeIV. The War Encourages Social Change A. African Americans and the WarA. African Americans and the War 1.1. W.E.B. Du BoisW.E.B. Du Bois believed blacks should help in the war effort, while othersbelieved blacks should help in the war effort, while others likelike William Monroe TrotterWilliam Monroe Trotter believed blacks shouldn’t because of thebelieved blacks shouldn’t because of the inequalitiesinequalities 2.2. mostmost African-AmericansAfrican-Americans backed the warbacked the war B. The Great MigrationB. The Great Migration 1.1. Great MigrationGreat Migration —large-scale movement of southern blacks to cities in the—large-scale movement of southern blacks to cities in the NorthNorth 2.2. escapeescape Jim Crow LawsJim Crow Laws, boll Weevil infestation, recruitment were all factors, boll Weevil infestation, recruitment were all factors in the movementin the movement 3.3. overcrowding in theovercrowding in the NorthNorth increased racial tensionsincreased racial tensions C. Women in the WarC. Women in the War 1.1. started working instarted working in malemale occupationsoccupations 2.2. volunteer forvolunteer for Red CrossRed Cross 3.3. did not getdid not get equalequal pay for equal work but involvement helped the passage ofpay for equal work but involvement helped the passage of women’s suffragewomen’s suffrage 4.4. Jane AddamsJane Addams founded Women’s Peace Party in 1915 to promote Worldfounded Women’s Peace Party in 1915 to promote World PeacePeace D. The Flu EpidemicD. The Flu Epidemic 1.1. ¼ of U.S.¼ of U.S. populationpopulation affectedaffected 2.2. economy shut down, sporting events cancelled, poor people were unburied for weekseconomy shut down, sporting events cancelled, poor people were unburied for weeks and coffins were in short supply (aboutand coffins were in short supply (about 500,000500,000 Americans died)Americans died) 3.3. over ¼ of soldiers were sickover ¼ of soldiers were sick 4.4. 30 million30 million died worldwidedied worldwide
  • 25.  He was in charge of Belgian Relief, he later was placed in charge of the FoodHe was in charge of Belgian Relief, he later was placed in charge of the Food Administration.Administration.  Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover  How did the United States Finance the War?How did the United States Finance the War?  1/3 raised through taxes including the progressive tax  war-profits tax, higher taxes on tobacco, liquor and luxury goods  4 Liberty Loan (Bonds) and 1 Victory Bond  Bernard Baruch encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques and allocatedBernard Baruch encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques and allocated resources.resources.  War Industries BoardWar Industries Board  This established an eight hour workday and halted strikes.This established an eight hour workday and halted strikes.  National War Labor BoardNational War Labor Board  This was headed by George Creel, they tried to influence people’s thought and actions inThis was headed by George Creel, they tried to influence people’s thought and actions in order to promote the war.order to promote the war.  Committee on Public InformationCommittee on Public Information  and Sedition Acts fined a person $10,000 and sentence to 20 years in jail for interferingand Sedition Acts fined a person $10,000 and sentence to 20 years in jail for interfering with the ware effort or saying anything disloyal.with the ware effort or saying anything disloyal.  EspionageEspionage  This describe the large scale movement of African Americans to the north.This describe the large scale movement of African Americans to the north.  Great MigrationGreat Migration  What killed 30 million people worldwide from fall of 1918 to Spring 1919.What killed 30 million people worldwide from fall of 1918 to Spring 1919.  InfluenzaInfluenza  How does W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter views on African AmericanHow does W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter views on African American involvement in WWI differ?involvement in WWI differ?  Name me two prominent Americans that were arrested of being disloyal Americans.Name me two prominent Americans that were arrested of being disloyal Americans.
  • 26. Section 4: Wilson Fights forSection 4: Wilson Fights for Peace (398-403)Peace (398-403)
  • 27. I. Wilson Presents His PlanI. Wilson Presents His Plan A.A. Fourteen PointsFourteen Points 1. There should be no1. There should be no secretsecret treaties amongst nationstreaties amongst nations 2. Freedom of the2. Freedom of the seasseas should be maintained for allshould be maintained for all 3. Tariffs and other3. Tariffs and other economiceconomic barriers among nations should be lowered orbarriers among nations should be lowered or abolished in order to foster free tradeabolished in order to foster free trade 4.4. ArmsArms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domesticshould be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses” duringsafety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses” during diplomatic crisesdiplomatic crises 5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonialcolonial peoples aspeoples as well as the interest ofwell as the interest of imperialistimperialist powerspowers 6. next eight points dealt with6. next eight points dealt with boundaryboundary changes with ethnic groupschanges with ethnic groups 7.7. League of NationsLeague of Nations would provide a forum for nations to discuss and settlewould provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to wartheir grievances without having to resort to war B. The Allies Reject Wilson’s PlanB. The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan 1. French Premier1. French Premier Georges ClemenceauGeorges Clemenceau went through two Germanwent through two German invasionsinvasions of France and wanted Germany weakenedof France and wanted Germany weakened 2.2. David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George , British Prime Minister, won reelection on the, British Prime Minister, won reelection on the promisepromise that Germany will be punishedthat Germany will be punished 3.3. Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando , Prime Minister of Italy, wanted Austrian lands promised, Prime Minister of Italy, wanted Austrian lands promised his countryhis country 4. “4. “Big FourBig Four”—Wilson, Clemenceau, George, and Orlando”—Wilson, Clemenceau, George, and Orlando 5. Wilson gave up on most of the Fourteen Points in order to get the5. Wilson gave up on most of the Fourteen Points in order to get the LeagueLeague
  • 28. II. Debating the Treaty of VersaillesII. Debating the Treaty of Versailles A. Provisions of the TreatyA. Provisions of the Treaty 1. created1. created ninenine new countries,new countries, mandatemandate system (temporarysystem (temporary colonies) for Ottoman landscolonies) for Ottoman lands 2. barred Germany from maintaining2. barred Germany from maintaining armyarmy 3. gave France3. gave France Alsace-LorraineAlsace-Lorraine 4. Germany to pay4. Germany to pay $33 Billion$33 Billion dollars in reparations, wardollars in reparations, war damages, to the Alliesdamages, to the Allies B. Treaty WeaknessesB. Treaty Weaknesses 1.1. Treaty did not have the strength for a lastingTreaty did not have the strength for a lasting peacepeace 2.2. humiliated Germany,humiliated Germany, war-guiltwar-guilt clause, forced Germany admit soleclause, forced Germany admit sole responsibility for starting WWIresponsibility for starting WWI 3.3. too high oftoo high of reparationsreparations , lacked resources with the taking away of, lacked resources with the taking away of oversea possessionsoversea possessions 4.4. RussiaRussia (Soviet Union) lost more land than Germany and wanted lands(Soviet Union) lost more land than Germany and wanted lands backback 5.5. colonized people did not getcolonized people did not get self-determinationself-determination
  • 29. C. Opposition to the TreatyC. Opposition to the Treaty 1.1. Herbert HooverHerbert Hoover thought it was too harsh and there would bethought it was too harsh and there would be economic consequenceseconomic consequences 2.2. Others felt it was a sell out for ImperialismOthers felt it was a sell out for Imperialism 3.3. Goes from having many Poles living inGoes from having many Poles living in GermanyGermany to manyto many GermansGermans living in Polandliving in Poland D. Debate Over the League of NationsD. Debate Over the League of Nations 1.1. Henry Cabot LodgeHenry Cabot Lodge was had of conservative senatorswas had of conservative senators (irreconcilables) that wanted the constitutional right for Congress to(irreconcilables) that wanted the constitutional right for Congress to declare war included in the Treatydeclare war included in the Treaty E. Wilson Refuses to CompromiseE. Wilson Refuses to Compromise 1.1. Wilson would have compromiseWilson would have compromise he may have had enoughhad enough (reservationalists) Republicans to get the Treaty(reservationalists) Republicans to get the Treaty ratifiedratified 2.2. October 2, Wilson suffered aOctober 2, Wilson suffered a strokestroke and was partially paralyzedand was partially paralyzed 3.3. CongressCongress fear that membership in the League would force the Unitedfear that membership in the League would force the United States to form its foreign policy in accord with the LeagueStates to form its foreign policy in accord with the League 4.4. Separate attempts for the Treaty ratifications failed in theSeparate attempts for the Treaty ratifications failed in the SenateSenate 5.5. United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 afterUnited States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 after WilsonWilson left office and never joined theleft office and never joined the LeagueLeague
  • 30. III. The Legacy of the WarIII. The Legacy of the War A. American Moves OnA. American Moves On 1.1. Warren G. HardingWarren G. Harding won the 1920 election on thewon the 1920 election on the promise to return to “normalcy”promise to return to “normalcy” 2.2. U.S.U.S. militarymilitary expanded as did Government controlexpanded as did Government control 3.3. in Europe loss of life severely damaged social andin Europe loss of life severely damaged social and politicalpolitical systemssystems 4.4. CommunismCommunism started in Russiastarted in Russia 5.5. FascismFascism found strength in post war Europefound strength in post war Europe 6.6. The mistakes of Versailles will be felt in the years toThe mistakes of Versailles will be felt in the years to comecome
  • 31.  He was the Prime Minister of Italy who wanted Austrian lands that wereHe was the Prime Minister of Italy who wanted Austrian lands that were promised when they entered the war.promised when they entered the war.  Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando  He was the British Prime Minister who was elected on the promise thatHe was the British Prime Minister who was elected on the promise that Germany would be weakened.Germany would be weakened.  David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George  He was the French Premier who lived through two German invasions of hisHe was the French Premier who lived through two German invasions of his country.country.  Georges ClemenceauGeorges Clemenceau  He led the Irreconcilable Republicans in trying to block the U.S. participationHe led the Irreconcilable Republicans in trying to block the U.S. participation in the League of Nations.in the League of Nations.  Henry Cabot LodgeHenry Cabot Lodge  He was the author of the Fourteen points.He was the author of the Fourteen points.  Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson  Describe three weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles.Describe three weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles.  What was the nickname of the leaders of France, Italy, England and theWhat was the nickname of the leaders of France, Italy, England and the United States.United States.  Big FourBig Four  This clause humiliated many Germans.This clause humiliated many Germans.  war-guilt clausewar-guilt clause  These are the Republicans who would sign the treaty of Versailles if theThese are the Republicans who would sign the treaty of Versailles if the League of Nations was amended.League of Nations was amended.  ReservationalistsReservationalists