Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
Evolving Data Center switching with TRILL
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Evolving Data Center switching with TRILL

  • 1,262 views
Published

Setting the stage for TRILL, rethinking data center switching. …

Setting the stage for TRILL, rethinking data center switching.
By Brad Hedlund

Published in Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,262
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Evolving Data Center Switching
    Part 1. Setting the Stage for Layer 2 Multi-pathing (TRILL)
    v 1.0
    Brad Hedlund
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 2. - About the Author -
    Brad Hedlund
    Technical Solutions Architect, Data Center
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    CCIE #5530
    http://www.internetworkexpert.org/about/
    Blog: http://www.internetworkexpert.org
    Twitter: http://twitter.com/bradhedlund
    E-mail: bhedlund@cisco.com
    Comments welcome.
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 3. Why Evolve Data Center Switching?
    Transformational Paradigm Shifts
    From Connectivity to Virtualization
    New Requirements
    Large, Flat, Scalable L2 fabrics
    Simpler, Smarter Networks
    Ultra High Availability
    Storage/Ethernet consolidation
    More bandwidth
    The Server is a fluid object
    The virtual machine is the new Server
    The physical machine is the new Network
    Miniaturization & Scale
    Any server, any VLAN, anywhere, anytime
    What’s Next?
    The “Data Center” becomes a fluid object
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 4. Revisiting Classic Ethernet
    What works? What needs to be improved?
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
    Narrative of this section located at: http://www.internetworkexpert.org/2010/05/07/setting-the-stage-for-trill/
  • 5. Flooding Behavior
    Plug & Play
    Unknown UNICAST
    BROADCAST
    B
    B
    MAC Table
    A Eth 1/1
    B Eth 1/2
    C Eth 1/3
    • Allows Plug & Play
    • 6. Assists in MAC Learning
    • 7. Foundational Behavior
    • 8. Assists in Discovery
    • 9. Assists in MAC Learning
    • 10. Plug & Play
    A L L
    A L L
    A L L
    C
    SW1
    SW1
    D
    D
    D
    C
    A
    A
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 11. Classical Ethernet MAC Learning
    All switches learn all MACs
    • Plug & Play
    • 12. Inefficient
    Improvement Area (TRILL*)
    SW1 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 1
    C -- Eth 2
    D -- Eth 2
    B
    SW1
    Unnecessary
    2
    1
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    A
    A L L
    D
    A L L
    C
    A L L
    A L L
    B
    A L L
    A L L
    A L L
    A L L
    A L L
    A L L
    SW3 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 2
    C -- Eth 3
    D -- Eth 3
    SW4 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 3
    B -- Eth 3
    C -- Eth 1
    D -- Eth 2
    SW4
    SW3
    3
    3
    1
    2
    2
    1
    C
    D
    Useful
    A
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 13. Flooding with Multiple Paths
    Plug & Play loop prevention is needed…
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    SW4
    No Ethernet TTL
    Infinite Loop
    Broadcast
    Unknown Unicast
    Flooding Required
    A
    B
    Improvement Area (TRILL)
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 14. Classical Ethernet Loop Prevention
    Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    STP Enforced Tree Topology
    SW2
    SW1
    SW1
    R
    R
    SW3
    SW2
    SW4
    SW3
    SW4
    • Plug & Play
    • 15. Loop Free for flooded traffic
    • 16. Single Topology for all traffic
    • 17. Single Path for Unicast
    • 18. Single Path for Multicast
    • 19. 50% Bandwidth Unused
    • 20. Timer based recovery
    Improvement Areas (TRILL*)
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 21. Scaling the data center network
    Challenges, Approaches,
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    SW4
    SW5
    SW6
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
    Narrative of this section located at: http://www.internetworkexpert.org/2010/05/07/setting-the-stage-for-trill/
  • 22. Scaling out Tier 1
    SW1
    SW2
    SW5
    SW6
    Why scale out Tier 1?
    • More Bandwidth at Tier 2
    • 23. Larger Tier 2 Scalability
    • 24. Smaller Tier 1 switches
    • 25. Spread Risk (RAID)
    • 26. Pay as you grow
    • 27. Lower latency
    Tier 2
    SW3
    SW4
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 28. Scaling out Tier 1 with Classic Ethernet
    with Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    SW1
    SW2
    SW5
    SW6
    R
    Tier 1
    SW3
    SW4
    Improvement Areas (TRILL)
    Tier 2
    Why scale out Tier 1?
    • More Bandwidth at Tier 2
    • 29. Larger Tier 2 Scalability
    • 30. Smaller Tier 1 switches
    • 31. Spread Risk
    • 32. Pay as you grow
    • 33. Low latency
    • 34. Spanning Tree still required
    • 35. Blocking on all but one path
    • 36. Did not gain scalability
    • 37. Did not gain bandwidth
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 38. Scaling out Tier 1 with Classic Ethernet
    with Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    SW1
    SW2
    SW5
    SW6
    Tier 1
    R
    SW3
    SW4
    Tier 2
    Improvement Area (TRILL)
    Why Scale Tier 1?
    • More Bandwidth at Tier 2
    • 39. Larger Tier 2 Scalability
    • 40. Smaller Tier 1 switches
    • 41. Pay as you grow
    • 42. Low latency
    • 43. Spanning Tree still required
    • 44. Blocking on all but one path
    • 45. Did not gain scalability
    • 46. Did not gain bandwidth
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 47. Scaling out Tier 1 with Classic Ethernet
    with Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    SW1
    SW2
    SW5
    SW6
    Tier 1
    R
    SW3
    SW4
    Tier 2
    Alternate Topology
    Why Scale Tier 1?
    • More Bandwidth at Tier 2
    • 48. Larger Tier 2 Scalability
    • 49. Smaller Tier 1 switches
    • 50. Pay as you grow
    • 51. Low latency
    • 52. Unbalanced at Tier 2
    • 53. Only 1 switch with all paths
    • 54. Did not gain scalability
    • 55. Did not gain bandwidth
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 56. Scaling UP Tier 1 with Classic Ethernet
    Rigid (2) Switch Tier 1 design constraint forces Scaling UP – not OUT
    SW2
    SW1
    Improvement Area (TRILL)
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    SW4
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 57. Multi Path with Classic Ethernet
    Multi Chassis Ether Channel (MCEC) aka Virtual Port Channel (vPC)
    STP finds a Loop Free Topology
    No Blocking Paths, All links active
    State Synchronization at Tier 1
    SW2
    SW1
    SW1
    R
    R
    SW3
    SW3
    SW4
    SW3
    Not a trivial accomplishment!
    Several different states must be synced
    Improvement area (TRILL)
    Multi path with minimal state/sync complexity
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 62. Scaling Tier 2 with Classical Ethernet
    Scale Bandwidth or Size? – Pick one, you can’t have both!
    SCALING BANDWITH
    SCALING SIZE
    OR
    SW1
    SW2
    SW2
    SW1
    Tier 1
    SW4
    SW3
    Tier 2
    SW5
    SW6
    SW4
    SW3
    Trade-off between Bandwidth or Size
    Tier 1 switch density key scaling factor
    Improvement Area (TRILL)
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 63. Scaling out Tier 1 with MCEC
    Increasingly Complex State Synchronization across (4) or more Tier 1 switches
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    SW5
    R
    SW1
    R
    States & Role Sync X 4
    SW3
    SW4
    SW3
    SW4
    STP still present
    Increased Complexity = Difficult & Fragile scaling
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 68. Scaling out Tier 1 with MPLS
    Replacing L2 switching with L3 + MPLS and L2 pseudo wire full mesh Overlay via VPLS
    Sound complicated? That’s because it is.
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    SW5
    IP + MPLS +VPLS
    L2 pseudo wires
    (full mesh required)
    SW3
    SW4
    SW7
    SW8
    SW9
    SW10
    N * (N-1) / 2
    Complex overlay of L2 services over L3
    MPLS skill sets?
    Configuration Intense
    NOT Plug & Play!
    Increased Complexity = Difficult & Fragile scaling
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 69. TRILL - Layer 2 multi Pathing
    An Introduction
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
    Narrative of this section to be posted at: http://www.internetworkexpert.org/topic/trill/
  • 70. Design Goals for TRILL
    TRILL
    Switching
    Routing
    Minimal Configuration
    Plug & Play
    Auto Discovery
    Auto Learning
    Flat Addressing
    Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    Slow Convergence
    Single Path
    Edge-to-Root Rigid Design
    Single Multicast Tree
    Constrained Scaleability
    Configuration Intense
    Configured Learning
    Configured Discovery
    Plan & Play
    Fast Convergence
    Multiple Paths
    Load Balancing
    Multiple Multicast Trees
    Hierarchical Forwarding
    Any-to-any Flexible Design
    Highly Scalable
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 71. MAC Learning -- Evolved
    All switches learn all MACs
    • Plug & Play
    • 72. Flat & Inefficient
    Hierarchical
    Converstation Based Learning
    • Plug & Play
    • 73. Hierarchical, Efficient
    • 74. Scalable
    Improvement Area (TRILL*)
    SW1 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 1
    C -- Eth 2
    D -- Eth 2
    B
    SW3 -- Eth 1
    SW4 -- Eth 2
    Conversation
    Learning
    SW1
    Unnecessary
    2
    1
    SW3 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 2
    C -- Eth 3
    D -- Eth 3
    SW4 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 3
    B -- Eth 3
    C -- Eth 1
    D -- Eth 2
    B – SW3
    AFTER
    SW4
    SW3
    3
    3
    BEFORE
    C -- SW4
    1
    2
    2
    1
    C
    D
    Useful
    A
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 75. MAC Learning -- Evolved
    All switches learn all MACs
    • Plug & Play
    • 76. Flat & Inefficient
    Improvement Area (TRILL*)
    SW1 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 1
    C -- Eth 2
    D -- Eth 2
    B
    SW1
    Unnecessary
    2
    1
    SW3 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 2
    C -- Eth 3
    D -- Eth 3
    SW4 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 3
    B -- Eth 3
    C -- Eth 1
    D -- Eth 2
    SW4
    SW3
    3
    3
    BEFORE
    C -- SW4
    1
    2
    2
    1
    C
    D
    Useful
    A
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 77. MAC Learning -- Evolved
    Hierarchical
    Converstation Based Learning
    • Plug & Play
    • 78. Hierarchical, Efficient
    • 79. Scalable
    SW1 MAC Table
    B
    SW3 -- Eth 1
    SW4 -- Eth 2
    Conversation
    Learning
    SW1
    2
    1
    SW3 MAC Table
    A -- Eth 1
    B -- Eth 2
    SW4 MAC Table
    C -- Eth 1
    D -- Eth 2
    B – SW3
    AFTER
    SW4
    SW3
    3
    3
    C -- SW4
    1
    2
    2
    1
    C
    D
    Useful
    A
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 80. Multi Pathing -- Evolved
    16-way Equal Cost Multi Path (ECMP) Layer 2 Forwarding
    SW5
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    16
    SW3
    SW4
    2
    1
    3
    4
    2
    1
    3
    4
    MAC Table
    B -- SW4
    A -- Eth5
    MAC Table
    A -- SW3
    B -- Eth5
    5
    5
    Per Flow L2-L4 hashing
    SW Table
    SW4 -- Eth 1,2,3,4
    SW Table
    SW3 -- Eth 1,2,3,4
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 81. Loop Free Flooding -- Evolved
    A unique loop free forwarding topology for Broadcast & Unknown UnicastONLY
    SW5
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    16
    SW3
    2
    1
    3
    4
    5
    A
    B
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
    SW4
    2
    1
    3
    4
    Does not punish path availability for known unicast & multicast conversations
    5
  • 82. Multicast -- Evolved
    More Bandwidth for Multicast – All possible Topologies Used
    SW5
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    16
    SW3
    SW4
    Per (S,G) Topologies
    S1
    S2
    R1
    R2
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 83. Scaling out Tier 1 with TRILL
    Plug & Play L2 fabric with L3 Scalability and Robustness
    SW5
    SW1
    SW2
    SW6
    16
    Tier 1
    SW3
    SW4
    Why scale out Tier 1?
    • More Bandwidth at Tier 2
    • 84. Larger Tier 2 Scalability
    • 85. Smaller Tier 1 switches
    • 86. Spread Risk (RAID)
    • 87. Pay as you grow
    • 88. Low latency
    Tier 2
    • No complicated MCEC state sync
    • 89. No Spanning Tree
    • 90. No complicated MPLS overlay
    • 91. Simple Configuration
    • 92. Flexible any-to-any design
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 93. Scaling Tier 2 with TRILL
    Flexible design can scale both Bandwidth and Size
    SCALING BANDWITH
    SCALING SIZE
    AND
    SW2
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    SW4
    SW1
    Tier 1
    SW4
    SW3
    Tier 2
    SW5
    SW8
    SW7
    SW6
    Minimal Trade-off between Bandwidth or Size
    Tier 1 switch density less of a scaling factor
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010
  • 94. Part 1. Summary
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    Plug and Play Layer 2 with Layer 3 Scalability and Robustness
    Addressing scalability
    • Conversational MAC Learning*
    • 95. Hierarchical MAC Forwarding*
    Robust L3 characteristics
    • Link State Topology Awareness
    • 96. Fast Convergence
    Bandwidth scalability
    • 16 active paths
    • 97. Multiple Multicast Topologies*
    Plug & Play
    • Auto Learning
    • 98. Simple Configuration**
    Domain Size scalability
    • Flexible 16-switch Tier 1 design options
    * Not present in current RFC 5556 (TRILL)
    * Present in Cisco specific enhancements, Cisco driving PARs to improve current RFC
    ** (3) NX-OS commands per Nexus switch, subject to change
    5/7/2010
  • 99. Stay tuned for more details…
    http://www.internetworkexpert.org/topics/trill/
    SW1
    SW2
    SW3
    INTERNETWORK EXPERT .ORG
    5/7/2010