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Spring 2010 chapter 3b PowerPoint for BIOL2401 (Human Anatomy & Physiology) at San Antonio College with Alba

Spring 2010 chapter 3b PowerPoint for BIOL2401 (Human Anatomy & Physiology) at San Antonio College with Alba

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  • 1. Active Processes
    • ATP is necessary to transport substances that are:
      • Too large
      • Non-soluble
      • Unable to move across its concentration gradient
    • Active Transport
      • Primary & Secondary Active Transport
    • Vesicular Transport
      • Endocytosis & Exocytosis
  • 2. Primary Active Transport
    • The energy to do work comes directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
    • Example: Sodium-Potassium Pump
  • 3. The Na + - K + Pump
    • Na + -K + ATPase maintains ↑ [K + ] inside cells & ↑ [Na + ] outside cells
    • Binds 3 Na + : 2 K +
    • Creates cell membrane’s electrochemical gradient
    • Crucial to cardiac & skeletal muscle, and nervous functions
    • See video
  • 4. Resting Membrane Potential
    • Selective permeability allows for the generation of a membrane potential (voltage)
    • At rest, the cell membrane has a (-) membrane potential
    • Important to excitable tissue like nervous tissue
  • 5. Secondary Active Transport
    • Indirectly driven by primary active transport through the creation of ionic gradients
    • Molecules or ions move from regions of lower concentration to regions of higher concentration
  • 6. Vesicular Transport
    • Large particles, macromolecules, and larger volumes of fluids do not fit through channels of protein pumps and must be transported in and out of the cell through vesicles
    • Exocytosis: Out of the cell
    • Endocytosis: Into the cell
  • 7. Exocytosis
    • Secretions within vesicles dock at the membrane and are released as the cell & vesicular membranes fuse
    • Used during hormone secretion, neurotransmitter release, mucus secretion & waste elimination
  • 8. Endocytosis: Clathrin-mediated
    • The main process used for endocytosis
    • Clathrin-mediated transport is used during phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis
    • Clathrin is a lattice-like protein that cages in cargo for transport into the cell
  • 9. Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
    • Primarily used by defense cells like WBCs and macrophages
    • Large, solid substances such as bacteria and dead cells are engulfed and subsequently destroyed
  • 10. Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
    • Droplets of extracellular fluid containing dissolved particles are folded into the plasma membrane
    • Nutrients dissolved in extracellular fluid are taken into the cell
    • Particularly important in the lining of the small intestine
  • 11. Endocytosis: Receptor-mediated
    • Selective mechanism for bringing specific macromolecules into the cell
    • Receptors bind with their specific ligands (enzymes, insulin, hormones) and are endocytosed
  • 12. The Cytoplasm
    • Gel-like material, consistency of room temperature butter
    • Contains the cytosol (viscous, clear liquid), organelles (“cell machinery”), the cytoskeleton (scaffolding & motor units), and inclusion bodies (stored nutrients, pigmentation)
    • Most cellular activities take place in the cytoplasm
  • 13. Mitochondria
    • Organelle whose inner membrane is folded into shelf-like partitions called “cristae”
    • Abundance depends on cell type
    • Function: "Power plants of the cell”
  • 14. Ribosomes
    • Small granules dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and on the membranes of Rough ER, composed of ribosomal RNA and protein
    • Function: protein synthesis
  • 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Network of interconnected parallel membranes that is continuous with the nuclear membrane
    • Rough ER : Studded with ribosomes
    • Smooth ER : No ribosomes
  • 16. RER & Protein Synthesis
    • Newly synthesized proteins are taken into the RER cisternae where they undergo modification before they are transported where needed
    • RER is also a “membrane factory”. External face is site for phospholipid synthesis
  • 17. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Contains enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of lipids and steroids
    • Plays a role in lipid metabolism and drug detoxification
    • Catalyzes the decomposition of glycogen to release glucose
    • In muscle, stores Ca +2
  • 18. Golgi Apparatus
    • Flattened membranous sacs ("cisternae") arranged in stacks associated with many vesicles
    • Function: modification, packaging, and transport of proteins, the cell’s “traffic director”
  • 19. Lysosomes
    • Spherical membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolase)
    • Lysosome Function: “demolition crew of the cell“
  • 20. Review: Endomembrane System
  • 21. Peroxisomes
    • Membrane sacs that look like lysosomes abundant in liver and kidney cells containing oxidases
    • Oxidases detoxify harmful substances & neutralize free radicals by converting them into hydrogen peroxide and water