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Chapter2b Chapter2b Document Transcript

  • Carbohydrates • Commonly known as sugars & starches • Function: Provides energy to the cell, some structural purposes • Monomers: Monosaccharides or simple sugars • Dimers: Disaccharides • Polymers: Polysaccharides • Examples: Glucose, Lactose, Starch 1 2 Lipids • Triglycerides (fats) – Function: Energy source/ storage, insulation • Phospholipids (main component of cell membranes) – Function: Structural integrity • Starch: Formed by plants • Steroids (cholesterol, hormones, bile • Glycogen: Formed by animal tissues salts) 3 – Function: Chemical messaging 4 • Composition: glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains • Saturated Fats (“Bad” Fat) • Composition: Phosphorus-containing • Unsaturated Fats (“Good” Fat) group + glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acid 5 chains 6 1
  • Phospholipids • Structure: Water soluble “head” and water insoluble “tail” • Function: Major component of cell membranes • Structure: 4 interconnected carbon rings • Function: Chemical messaging/ Hormones • Examples: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone, 7 bile salts, vitamin D 8 Proteins Amino Acids Cysteine Phenylalanine • Functions: Structure, Transport, Movement, Defense, Catalysts • Monomers: amino acids (w/ different R groups) • Polymers: peptides, polypeptides • Examples: Hair, Hemoglobin, Actin & Myosin, 9 10 Antibodies, Enzymes Peptides & Proteins Protein Structure Primary Secondary structure: structure: β- “chained” pleated sheet or polypeptides α-helix coil • Dipeptide, Tripeptide: 2-3 amino acids • Polypeptide: 10 or more amino acids • Protein: 50 or more amino acids 11 12 2
  • Protein Structure Protein Denaturation Loss of 3D conformation = Loss of function Some causes: Tertiary structure: • Extreme pH “3D”, unique folding pattern • Extreme temperatures • Radiation Quaternary • Harsh chemicals structure: 2 or more “3D” Example: Frying an egg, High fevers structures combined 13 14 Enzymes Enzymes • Enzymes are globular, protein catalysts that increase the rate of a chemical (metabolic) reaction without being consumed by the reaction • Enzymes regulate and coordinate metabolic reactions within the cell. • Some enzymes are holoenzymes (composed of two • Basic reactions: building and breaking down parts), an apoenzyme (protein itself) + a cofactor carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic • Some enzymes remain inactive until activated by a acids. cofactor or a coenzyme • Typically end in –ase (hydrolase, oxydase, • Cofactors: Metal ions (iron, zinc) peptidase) 15 • Coenzymes: Vitamins 16 Enzyme Activity Enzyme Action 17 E+S  E-S  P+ E 18 3 View slide
  • Denatured Enzymes Nucleic Acids • Commonly known as DNA and RNA • Monomers: Nucleotides (sugar + base + phosphate) All enzymes are proteins. • Bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Not all proteins are enzymes. 19 Uracil 20 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A • Sugar: Deoxyribose Sugar: Ribose • Bases: A-T, G-C G • Structure: Double Bases: A-U, G-C stranded helix U • Function: Information Structure: Single stranded storage, directs protein synthesis…DNA C contains all necessary Function: Carries out code for information needed to U the synthesis of proteins sustain and reproduce life! A 21 22 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) • Function: Immediate energy source that drives cellular work • Structure: Adenine, Ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups H2O ATP ADP + P 23 H2O 24 4 View slide
  • Organic Compounds: Review Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Common Sugars & Fats Protein DNA & RNA Name Starches Main Energy source Energy Structural Genetic Function storage materials material Building Monosaccharides Depends Amino acids Nucleotides Blocks Example Lactose, Starch Fats Hair DNA & RNA Phospholipid Hemoglobin s Steroids Antibodies 25 5