Carbohydrates <ul><li>Commonly known as sugars & starches </li></ul><ul><li>Function:  Provides energy to the cell, some s...
 
<ul><li>Starch:   Formed by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen:   Formed by animal tissues </li></ul>
Lipids <ul><li>Triglycerides  (fats) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function:  Energy source/ storage, insulation </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Composition:  glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fats (“Bad” Fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatu...
<ul><li>Composition:  Phosphorus-containing group + glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acid chains </li></ul>
Phospholipids <ul><li>Structure:   Water soluble “head” and water insoluble “tail” </li></ul><ul><li>Function:   Major com...
<ul><li>Structure:   4 interconnected carbon rings </li></ul><ul><li>Function:   Chemical messaging/ Hormones </li></ul><u...
Proteins <ul><li>Functions:   Structure, Transport, Movement, Defense, Catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers:  amino acids ...
Amino Acids
Peptides & Proteins <ul><li>Dipeptide, Tripeptide: 2-3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide:  10 or more amino acids ...
Protein Structure Primary structure:   “ chained” polypeptides Secondary structure:   β -pleated sheet or  α -helix coil
Protein Structure <ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure:   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ 3D”, unique folding pattern ...
Protein Denaturation <ul><ul><li>Loss of 3D conformation = Loss of function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some causes: </li><...
Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are globular, protein catalysts that increase the rate of a chemical (metabolic) reaction without ...
Enzymes <ul><li>Some enzymes are holoenzymes (composed of two parts), an apoenzyme (protein itself) + a cofactor </li></ul...
Enzyme Activity
Enzyme Action <ul><li>E+S    E-S    P+ E </li></ul>
Denatured Enzymes <ul><li>All enzymes are proteins.  </li></ul><ul><li>Not all proteins are enzymes. </li></ul>
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Commonly known as DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers: Nucleotides (sugar + base + phosphate) </l...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) <ul><li>Sugar:  Deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Bases:  A-T, G-C </li></ul><ul><li>Structure:   ...
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Sugar:  Ribose Bases:  A-U, G-C Structure:  Single stranded Function:  Carries out code for the syn...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) <ul><li>Function:   Immediate energy source that drives cellular work </li></ul><ul><li>Struc...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) ATP ADP + P H 2 O H 2 O
Organic Compounds: Review DNA & RNA Hair Hemoglobin Antibodies Fats Phospholipids Steroids Lactose, Starch Example Nucleot...
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Chapter2b

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Spring 2010 chapter 2b PowerPoint for BIOL2401 (Human Anatomy & Physiology) at San Antonio College with Alba.

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Transcript of "Chapter2b"

  1. 1. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Commonly known as sugars & starches </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Provides energy to the cell, some structural purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers: Monosaccharides or simple sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Dimers: Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers: Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Glucose, Lactose, Starch </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Starch: Formed by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen: Formed by animal tissues </li></ul>
  3. 4. Lipids <ul><li>Triglycerides (fats) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: Energy source/ storage, insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids (main component of cell membranes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: Structural integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steroids (cholesterol, hormones, bile salts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: Chemical messaging </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Composition: glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fats (“Bad” Fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated Fats (“Good” Fat) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Composition: Phosphorus-containing group + glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acid chains </li></ul>
  6. 7. Phospholipids <ul><li>Structure: Water soluble “head” and water insoluble “tail” </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Major component of cell membranes </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Structure: 4 interconnected carbon rings </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Chemical messaging/ Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone, bile salts, vitamin D </li></ul>
  8. 9. Proteins <ul><li>Functions: Structure, Transport, Movement, Defense, Catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers: amino acids (w/ different R groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers: peptides, polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Hair, Hemoglobin, Actin & Myosin, Antibodies, Enzymes </li></ul>Cysteine Phenylalanine
  9. 10. Amino Acids
  10. 11. Peptides & Proteins <ul><li>Dipeptide, Tripeptide: 2-3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide: 10 or more amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Protein: 50 or more amino acids </li></ul>
  11. 12. Protein Structure Primary structure: “ chained” polypeptides Secondary structure: β -pleated sheet or α -helix coil
  12. 13. Protein Structure <ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ 3D”, unique folding pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 or more “3D” structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>combined </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Protein Denaturation <ul><ul><li>Loss of 3D conformation = Loss of function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some causes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Frying an egg, High fevers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes are globular, protein catalysts that increase the rate of a chemical (metabolic) reaction without being consumed by the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes regulate and coordinate metabolic reactions within the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic reactions: building and breaking down carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically end in –ase (hydrolase, oxydase, peptidase) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Enzymes <ul><li>Some enzymes are holoenzymes (composed of two parts), an apoenzyme (protein itself) + a cofactor </li></ul><ul><li>Some enzymes remain inactive until activated by a cofactor or a coenzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactors: Metal ions (iron, zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzymes: Vitamins </li></ul>
  16. 17. Enzyme Activity
  17. 18. Enzyme Action <ul><li>E+S  E-S  P+ E </li></ul>
  18. 19. Denatured Enzymes <ul><li>All enzymes are proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all proteins are enzymes. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Commonly known as DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Monomers: Nucleotides (sugar + base + phosphate) </li></ul><ul><li>Bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil </li></ul>
  20. 21. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) <ul><li>Sugar: Deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>Bases: A-T, G-C </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: Double stranded helix </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Information storage, directs protein synthesis…DNA contains all necessary information needed to sustain and reproduce life! </li></ul>
  21. 22. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Sugar: Ribose Bases: A-U, G-C Structure: Single stranded Function: Carries out code for the synthesis of proteins A G U C U A
  22. 23. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) <ul><li>Function: Immediate energy source that drives cellular work </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: Adenine, Ribose sugar, 3 phosphate groups </li></ul>
  23. 24. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) ATP ADP + P H 2 O H 2 O
  24. 25. Organic Compounds: Review DNA & RNA Hair Hemoglobin Antibodies Fats Phospholipids Steroids Lactose, Starch Example Nucleotides Amino acids Depends Monosaccharides Building Blocks Genetic material Structural materials Energy storage Energy source Main Function DNA & RNA Protein Fats Sugars & Starches Common Name Nucleic Acids Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates
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