• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,568
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
88
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Adult Learning Principles
  • 2. Notes :
    • Educating adults involves 8 basic principles that form the basis for the adult learning environment.
  • 3. The Principles of Adult Learning *
    • Principles support the practices used in planning, conducting, and evaluating adult education activities.
    • To facilitate learning, adult educators must understand the adult learning process.
    • Principles provide guidelines for decision making.
    • CAVEAT: The one universal truth about principles of adult learning is that there are no universal truths.
    * Birkenholz, R.A (1999). Effective Adult Learning . Danville, IL: Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  • 4. Notes :
    • Principles support the practices used in planning, conducting, and evaluating adult education activities.
    • To facilitate learning, adult educators must understand the adult learning process.
    • Principles provide guidelines for decision making.
    • CAVEAT: The one universal truth about principles of adult learning is that there are no universal truths.
  • 5. 1. Learning is change
    • Learning is a change in behavior .
    • Change in knowledge or skill .
    • Acquiring new information and knowledge is part of everyday adult life.
    • Adults seek out learning opportunities.
    • Learning is an individual process .
  • 6. Notes :
    • Learning is functionally defined as a change in behavior .
    • Change in knowledge is the most common result of adult learning.
    • Acquiring new information and knowledge is part of everyday adult life.
    • Some adults seek out learning opportunities.
    • Learning is an individual process .
  • 7. 2. Adults must want to learn
    • Adults choose to become in learning activities.
    • Some programs require participation.
    • Learning efficiency and achievement is correlated with personal motivation.
    • Identify factors in adult learning.
    • Develop a “felt need” for participants.
  • 8. Notes :
    • Adults are free to choose to become in learning activities.
    • Some programs require participation.
      • Potential for learning diminishes
    • Learning efficiency and achievement is directly correlated with personal motivation.
      • Lack of internal motivation
      • Inservice programs, update training workshops
    • Be prepared to identify factors in adult learning
    • Must develop a “felt need” for participants.
  • 9. 3. Adults learn by doing
    • Adults learn best through direct participation.
    • Plan programs that begin at the “entry level.”
    • Significant barriers to learning:
      • Low self-esteem
      • Unconfident in own abilities
      • Fear of ridicule or failure
    • Organize activities that ensure success.
  • 10. Notes :
    • Adults learn best through direct participation in the learning process.
    • Adult educators must plan programs that begin at the “entry level” then increase opportunities for adults to become engaged in learning.
    • Significant barriers to learning:
      • Low self-esteem
      • Unconfident in own abilities
      • Fear of ridicule or failure
    • Organize activities that ensure success.
  • 11. 4. Focus on realistic problems
    • Knowledge and skills with immediate application.
    • Adults do not have time or patience to learn irrelevant information.
    • Use the inductive approach to learning.
      • Use realistic situations
      • Identify and define problem
      • Propose alternative solutions
      • Develop conclusions
  • 12. Notes :
    • Focus on knowledge and skills that have immediate application.
    • Most adults do not have time, patience, or inclination to learn irrelevant information.
      • Eliminate: “What does this have to do with me?”
    • Use the inductive approach to learning.
      • Educators use realistic situations
        • Case studies, role play, demonstrations, etc.
      • Identify and define problem
      • Propose alternative solutions
      • Conclusions involve a general principle or concept
  • 13. Inductive versus Deductive Ex. 2 Ex. 2 General Principle General Principle Ex. 1 Ex. 3 Ex. 1 Ex. 3
  • 14. Notes :
    • Inductive strategy is more effective than the deductive approach with adult learners.
    • Use many examples that lead to solving the problem or increase knowledge, skills, and ability.
    • Information and knowledge are retained longer for adults using the inductive approach.
  • 15. 5. Experience affects learning
    • Experience influences (+ or -) adult learning.
      • Experience is a cumulative characteristic
      • Varies widely among adult groups
      • Participants’ sets of previous experiences
      • May be broad or lacking in scope
      • Adding new knowledge or skill is “life dependent”
    • Recognize + and - affects.
    • Unlearning and relearning is necessary in today’s society.
  • 16. Notes :
    • Experience influences (+ or -) adult learning.
      • Experience is a cumulative characteristic
      • Varies widely among adult groups
      • Participants’ sets of previous experiences
      • Foundation may be broad and firm or lacking in scope
      • Adding new knowledge or skill is “life dependent”
    • Educators must recognize + and - affects.
      • Positive experiences enhance quality of learning
      • Negative experiences inhibit the effect of learning
    • Adults may need to unlearn and relearn in today’s society to be successful.
  • 17. Foundation for Learning Knowledge, Skills, and Experience Base
  • 18. Notes :
    • Your job may require you to fill in the blocks of experience, knowledge, or skills for another adult.
  • 19. 6. Informal learning environments
    • Rules inhibit adult learners.
    • Full immersion in the educational process.
    • Most adults accept behavioral guidelines.
    • Refreshment breaks are a necessity.
      • Scheduled breaks enhance the learning process
      • Allows for interaction among all participants
      • Promotes informal and relaxed discussion
  • 20. Notes :
    • Rigid adherence to rules inhibits adult learners.
    • Empower adults to become fully immersed in the educational process.
    • Most adults accept behavioral guidelines.
      • Acceptance depends on involvement
      • Adults should establish own operating rules
        • Promotes self-directed learning
        • Enables focus on positive aspects of learning
    • Refreshment breaks are a necessity.
      • Scheduled breaks enhance the learning process
      • Allows for interaction among all participants
      • Promotes informal and relaxed discussion
  • 21. 7. Variety in teaching methods
    • Adults learn through their senses.
    • Multiple senses promote retention rates.
    • Trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness.
    • Recognize this trade-off when planning programs.
      • Purpose of the program
      • Objectives of the program
  • 22. Notes :
    • Adults learn through their senses.
      • Inclusion of all senses increases learning effectiveness for adults
      • Incorporate activities that require sensory stimulation
    • Multiple use of senses promotes retention rates.
    • Trade-off between instructional efficiency and instructional effectiveness in adult education.
      • Maximize effectiveness: long-term retention
      • Maximize efficiency: transmission of information
    • Educators must recognize this trade-off when planning programs.
      • Purpose of the program
      • Objectives of the program
  • 23. 8. Guidance, not grades Adults are individualistic in evaluating their achievements or performance. Avoid application of rigid performance standards except when required by certification. Adults benefit from encouragement of their capabilities as learners.
  • 24. Notes :
    • Adults are individualistic in evaluating their achievements or performance.
      • Do not enjoy being used as an example to others
      • Fear humiliation or ridicule
      • Desire external affirmation of progress - peer group
    • Avoid application of rigid, external performance standards except when required by certification.
      • Offer suggestions for improvement in performance
        • Use tactful non-threatening manner
        • Incorporate self-evaluations among adult learners
    • Adults benefit from encouragement of their capabilities as learners.