Medieval Hats Kwcs 06

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  • 1.
    • Medieval What Not to Wear:
    • The right hat for the right outfit
    THL Berengaria of Outremer, OW, Cygnus Knowne World Costume Symposium The Barony of Jaravellir November 24-26 2006
  • 2. Today’s Agenda
    • Overview of hats/headdresses over time
    • Northern Europe (Britain, Netherlands)
    • Southern Europe (mainly Italy)
    • Men and women
    • Peasant, middle class & noble
    • Choosing the right hat
    • Creating/Reproducing your hat
  • 3.
    • Some background
  • 4. Hats/headdresses became more elaborate over time
  • 5.
    • Heads were generally (but not always)
    • covered or hair was dressed
  • 6.
    • Northern Europeans used headgear
    • more than Southern Europeans
    German, 1502 Florentine, 1505
  • 7.
    • It was more common for women’s
    • heads to be covered than men’s (but not
    • always)
  • 8.
    • Different styles of hats were worn at the
    • same time
  • 9. Hats signalled class/rank, age, ethnicity
  • 10.
    • Hats for nobility or royalty often
    • combined millinery and jewellery
  • 11. Children dressed the same as adults
  • 12. A note about straw hats and snoods: Yes, they’re period… but use with caution!
  • 13. How do you choose the right hat? Research, research, research
  • 14. Research Sources
    • Primary Sources:
      • Artwork of the time
      • Writings of the time – literature, ballads, diaries, wills, etc.
      • Archaeological evidence
    • Secondary sources:
      • Costume histories
      • Art books
      • SCA sources– recommend Cynthia Virtue/Cynthia Du Pre Argent
    • Tertiary Sources:
      • Encyclopedias
      • Pattern books
      • Theatrical/film costumes
  • 15.
    • Primary source = created at the time, by the people who lived it
    • Helps you to develop an “eye” for periods, styles, shapes, fabrics, colours,etc.
    • Helps you to judge relevance of secondary sources like books, articles & websites
    What’s the difference?
  • 16. Primary sources for North Americans
    • Not easy to find – mostly located in museums, galleries, university libraries & archives
    • For us the Internet is crucial, but….use extreme caution!!!
    • Information can range from the sublime to the ridiculous…….
  • 17. Fantasy
  • 18. Reality! http://www.elizabethancostume.net/effigy.htm
  • 19.
    • “ If you want accurate
    • costumes … don't believe web articles,
    • collegium seminars, or offhand
    • r emarks by others who won't show
    • y ou (or refer you to) the medieval or
    • r enaissance original images they base
    • their theories on. ”
    • Cynthia de Pre Argent
    • http://www.virtue.to/bookmarks.html
  • 20. Developing an artistic eye
    • Early detailed visual evidence of costume not easy to find
    • Portraiture not common
    • Human figures not realistically represented
  • 21.
    • Be aware that from 1000-1500 many/most themes were religious or allegorical
    • Even portraits had a lots of religious symbolism
    • Costuming may be in the “Nativity scene” style – an idealized view
  • 22.  
  • 23.
    • Now, a quick romp through hat history
  • 24.
    • Viking and Anglo Saxon Periods – to 1200
  • 25.
    • Characteristics:
      • Simple, flowing
    • Accessorizes:
      • Apron dress, tunic, kirtle & gown
    • Women’s hair loose or braided & pinned
    • Men’s hair longish, could wear caps or hoods except for noble Normans who shaved the back of their heads
    • Women also wore veils (silk, linen) with fillets, allows hair to show
  • 26.  
  • 27. A note on women’s Viking headgear
  • 28.
    • “… The kerchief as understood and worn in the SCA is conspicuous by its absence from the archaeological debate about Viking women's headwear.
    • "But That's How They Look in the Book!": Viking Women's Garb in Art and
    • Archaeology
    • © 1991, 1999 Carolyn Priest-Dorman
    • http://www.cs.vassar.edu/~capriest/roach.html
  • 29. Jorvik Hood reconstruction Dublin Hood reconstruction http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/hairstyl.shtml#WomensHairstyles
  • 30. http://www.sagamuseum.is/enska/figures.html
  • 31.
    • Princess Leia Strikes Back: 1200-1400
    Marie France 1327
  • 32.
    • Characteristics: Fillets, crowns/veils
    • Accessorizes: Kirtle & gown, open surcoat, tunic
    • Hair begins to be hidden
    • Wimples, barbettes develop
    • Secured with fillet or crown
    • Hair sometimes worn loose underneath but more typically netted
    • Men’s hair same as previously
    • Men’s hats incl. liripipes, capuchons
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • Netting begins to take on a life of its own – development of the crespine – occurs mid-late in the 1300s
    Philippa of Hainault 1365
  • 35. Styles in north and south begin to diverge
  • 36. Cinderella’s Ugly Sisters: 1400-1450
  • 37.
    • Characteristics: Extreme shapes – men & women Hidden hair – women
    • Accessorizes: Houppelande, both men & women
    • Hats become headdresses in this century, except for Italy
    • Exaggerations of previous trends, esp. women’s
    • Shapes are : reticulated, horned, heart-shaped, turbans,rolls – the escoffion
    • Veils are optional; have moved away from functionality of hiding the hair and are purely decorative
    • Materials go from simple linens and silks to brocades; metal is common in the netting; jewels are part of the design
    • Middle class copy noble fashions
  • 38. Italian 1436 French 1430s Flemish 1439
  • 39. 1430 Flemish 1430 Flemish 1440 Italian 1440 Italian More similarities for men???
  • 40. Fairytale Princesses:1450-1485
  • 41.
    • Characteristics: Pointed or tubular shapes – women Close-fitting caps/bonnets,”top hats”
    • Accessorizes: Houppelande, v-necked gown&kirtle –women Houppelande,short tunics – men Pointy shoes for both
    • Hats more streamlined – emphasis on height
    • Veiling is very lightweight, complicated for hennins; wired and starched to shape
    • Middle class uses heavier veiling, pins, less exaggerated shapes
    • Hair hidden, heads partially shaved/plucked
    • Completely different in Italy : jewelled hair, ribbon coifs, pageboy haircuts (men)
  • 42. Northern 1460s-80s
  • 43. Southern 1460s-80s
  • 44. Gables & the Hood: 1485-1550
  • 45.
    • Characteristics: Rounded shapes, close-fitting – men & women Hair allowed to show
    • Accessorizes: Square-necked gown & kirtle Doublet
    • Hennins shrink and become gables ca. 1485 in Northern Europe & England
    • Turban shapes retained in Germany
    • Hair still the focus in Italy – both men & women
    • English hood evolves from gable/kennel in early 1500s
    • French hood introduced by Anne Boleyn
    • Men wear flat caps & berets –both north & south
  • 46. 1496 German vs Venetian
  • 47. 1505 English 1515 Italian
  • 48. Shakespeare in Love: 1550-1600
  • 49.
    • Characteristics: Smaller, flatter, unisex
    • Accessorizes: Farthingale, doublet, ruffs
    • Hats become smaller and set off hair, which is poofy
    • Usually worn with undercap/coif
    • Some “top hat” styles: “Spanish toque”
    • Court hats can be bigger
    • Little to no veiling – feathers the big accessory
    • Unisex style –both men & women wore, although women’s more delicate and closer-fitting
    • Italian, French – favour styled hair
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52. Summary
    • Hats became more elaborate over time
    • Heads were generally (but not always) covered or hair was dressed
    • Northern Europeans used headgear more than Southern Europeans
    • It was more common for women’s heads to be covered than men’s
    • Different styles of hats were worn at the same time
    • Children were dressed the same as adults
    • Hats for nobility or royalty often combined millinery and jewellery
    • Straw hats & snoods are period – but not all-purpose
  • 53.
    • Up to 13 th century: simple, flowing
      • Veil (women), Cap (men)
    • 1300-1400: structure, braids, netting
      • Wimple, Crespine (women), Chaperon (men)
    • 1400-1485: big hats, horns, turbans
      • Escoffion(women),Turban(men)
    • 1485-1550: smaller,rounded,flatter
      • Gable,French hood(women), Bonnet, Flat cap(men)
    • 1550-1600: small,fitted,plumed
      • Caps, Spanish toque – men & women
  • 54. Thank you!
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