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Ch07

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  • 1. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 7 Supporting Windows 9x/Me
  • 2. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Windows 9x/Me Architecture • Encompasses a number of releases: – Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me • Two components of the OS: shell and kernel • Shell – Relates to the user and applications – User component: manages I/O – Graphic Devices Interface (GDI): supports graphics • Kernel – Interacts with the hardware – Fulfills requests for service passed from the shell 2
  • 3. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Virtual Machines • Application programming interface (API) call – Used by application to access hardware or software • Virtual machine (VM) – Set of resources made available through APIs – Analogy: virtual machines are like logical drives • Virtual machines allocated by OS based on need – DOS program: provided with its own VM – Windows 16-bit application: shares VM and addresses – Windows 32-bit application: shares VM only • General Protection Fault: caused by 16-bit programs 3
  • 4. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Virtual Memory • Virtual memory: hard drive space acting like memory • Functions of Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) – Stores virtual memory in a file called a swap file – Moves 4KB pages into and out of physical RAM • Disk thrashing: caused by excess memory paging • Settings you can change in Virtual Memory dialog box – Minimum and maximum file size – The location of the swap file (Win386.swp) • Swap files can be placed on a compressed drive 4
  • 5. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 7-2 Minimum and recommended hardware requirements for Windows 9x/Me 5/31
  • 6. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued) • Choosing a file system – FAT16: 16-bit cluster entries allowing 65,535 clusters – FAT32: 28-bit cluster entries allowing more clusters – FAT32 drives are less likely to have slack • Installing a Windows 9x/Me as a clean installation – Prepare your system first; e.g., verify boot sequence – Install Windows 98/Me from a bootable setup CD – If PC does not boot from CD, boot from a floppy disk • Then insert the CD and enter D:Setup.exe – When dialog box opens, follow onscreen instructions 6
  • 7. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued) • Installing Windows 9x/Me as an upgrade – Prepare for installation; e.g., create a rescue disk – Start the PC, loading the current operating system – Close all open applications – Insert CD in CD-ROM drive or floppy disk in floppy drive – Enter the command D:Setup.exe in Run Dialog box – Follow the instructions on the setup screen • Installation process from the setup screen forward – Four options: Typical, Portable, Compact, Customer – Installation logs: Setuplog.txt, Detlog.txt, Detcrash.log 7
  • 8. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing Windows 9x/Me (continued) • Downloading/installing updates for Windows 9x/Me – Updates include service packs or patches – Microsoft is no longer updating Windows 9x/Me – Find previous updates at windowsupdate.microsoft.com • Use Windows Update on Start menu to access page • Configuring Windows 9x/Me Startup with Msdos.sys – Msdos.sys is a hidden, read-only system file – Msdos.sys has parameters affecting how the OS boots – You must change Msdos.sys file attributes before use – Table 7-3 (partially reproduced): details file contents 8
  • 9. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing and Managing Hardware with Windows 9x/Me • Driver: interfaces application and OS with a device • Ways to begin device driver installation process – Install device, power on PC, launch install wizard – Run installation program on setup disk or CD – Download driver from Internet, run setup file • Scenario: view and change current video driver – Open the Control Panel and double-click Display – Go to Settings tab to view the installed display driver – To change driver, go to AvancedAdapterChange 9
  • 10. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing and Managing Hardware with Windows 9x/Me (continued) • Plug and Play (PnP) – Specifications simplifying the installation of hardware • Criteria for use of PnP – The system BIOS must be PnP – All devices and expansion cards must be PnP-compliant – The OS must support PnP – A 32-bit device driver must be available • DriveSpace utility – Used to compress FAT16 volumes in Windows 9x 10
  • 11. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 7-20 ScanDisk results 11/31
  • 12. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing and Managing Software in Windows 9x/Me • Preparing for the software installation – Check available resources – Protect the original software – Back up the registry and system configuration files • Installing software – Open Control Panel – Double-click Add/Remove Programs – Insert software CD or disk in appropriate drive • Alternatively, download software file from the Internet – Follow directions on setup screen 12
  • 13. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Installing and Managing Software in Windows 9x/Me (continued) • Troubleshooting software installations – Delete all files and folders under WindowsTemp – Look for guidance in Readme.htm hypertext file • Supporting DOS applications under Windows 9x/Me – Access the Properties feature of DOS program file – Select Program tab and then click Advanced tab • Example: select Specify a new MS-DOS configuration – Changes are stored in program’s information file (PIF) 13
  • 14. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Files Used to Customize the Startup Process • Autoexec.bat and Config.sys – Contain settings for loading 16-bit drivers and TSRs – Supported for backwards compatibility with DOS • Initialization files (those with .ini extension) – Custom settings used to load Windows 3.x programs – Supported for backwards compatibility with Windows 3.x • You can edit text files with various tools; e.g., Sysedit • Comment line: information ignored by application 14
  • 15. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 7-22 Sysedit can be used to edit Windows system files 15/31
  • 16. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 7-4 Windows .ini files 16/31
  • 17. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 7-24 Windows 9x/Me core components and the loading process 17/31
  • 18. A+ Guide to Software, 4e System Monitor • Monitors how system resources are being used • Items monitored – The file system – Memory – The kernel – Printer sharing services – Network performance data 18
  • 19. A+ Guide to Software, 4e System Configuration Utility (Msconfig) • Used to reduce startup to core components – Similar to Safe Mode • How to access the System Configuration Utility – Enter Msconfig in the Run Dialog Box • How to isolate a problem using Msconfig – Select Diagnostic startup, click OK and restart PC – Next, select Selective startup from the dialog box – Methodically add items until the problem reappears – Source of problem is related to the last added item • A few alternatives: Registry Checker, CMOS setup 19
  • 20. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Dr. Watson • Used to troubleshoot problems running a program • Information logged by Dr. Watson – Detailed system information – Errors – Programs that caused errors • Using Dr. Watson – Start the utility – Reproduce the application error – Go to Diagnosis tab to view events – Cross-check information to support.microsoft.com 20
  • 21. A+ Guide to Software, 4e The Windows 9x/Me Registry and Registry Checker • Registry – Database of configuration information and settings – Takes over the essential functions of .ini files – 16-bit applications cannot access the Registry • Organization of the Registry – Hierarchical database appearing as an inverted tree – Six major keys appearing in the left pane – Values and value data appear in the right pane • System.dat and User.dat – Files used to store the Windows 95/98 registry 21
  • 22. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 7-7 Six major branches, or keys, of the Windows 9x/Me registry 22/31
  • 23. A+ Guide to Software, 4e The Windows 9x/Me Registry and Registry Checker (continued) • Ways to recover registry data in Windows 95 – OS replaces System.dat with backup System.da0 – OS enters Safe Mode and prompts recovery process – If backups are missing, restore registry from setup disk • Ways to recover registry data in Windows 9x/Me – Recover using backups made by Registry Checker – Registry Checker types: Scanreg.exe, Scanregw.exe • Modifying the registry – Automatically performed in most cases – Manually edit the registry using Regedit.exe 23
  • 24. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me • Problems are categorized by phase of OS operation – Windows installation – Startup process – Normal Windows operations • Troubleshooting techniques are tailored to problem 24
  • 25. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 7-9 Some problems and solutions when installing Windows 9x/Me 25/31
  • 26. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 7-9 Some problems and solutions when installing Windows 9x/Me (continued) 26/31
  • 27. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued) • Press F8 during startup to open startup menu • Windows 9x/Me startup menu options – 1. Normal – 2. Logged (BOOTLOG.TXT) – 3. Safe Mode – 4. Safe Mode with network support – 5. Step-by-step confirmation – 6. Command prompt only (not in Windows Me) – 7. Safe Mode command prompt only (not in Win Me) – 8. Previous version of MS-DOS 27
  • 28. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued) • A few tips for troubleshooting with the startup menu – Try a hard boot – If you have not already done so, try Safe Mode next – Look for errors using Step-by-Step confirmation – Use Logged option and examine Bootlog.txt • Using the startup disk for troubleshooting – If the emergency disk is not available, make one – Check disk for viruses before inserting it into PC – Disk should have drivers needed to access CD drive 28
  • 29. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Problems After Windows 9x/Me Startup • A few questions to ask the user – When did the problem start? – Did you move your computer system recently? – Has someone else been using your computer recently? • Some general tips for troubleshooting hardware – Try rebooting the computer – Test the device with another application – Check Device Manager for errors reported on device – The driver might be corrupted or need updating – Try reseating an expansion card 29
  • 30. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Problems After Windows 9x/Me Startup (continued) • Some tips for troubleshooting application problems – Address error messages appearing during program use – Try uninstalling and reinstalling the software • Some tips for troubleshooting a shortcut icon – Decide if the icon on the desktop is actually a shortcut – Check name and location of target file for the shortcut • Some tips for troubleshooting a slow system – Check for applications unnecessarily loaded at startup – Verify Windows is using optimum caching on hard drive 30
  • 31. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 7-37 Troubleshooter making a suggestion to resolve a hardware conflict 31/31