Ch 12 Bio 120


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Ch 12 Bio 120

  1. 1. Chapter 12: trophic and phasia Brittany P Bio 120
  2. 2. -trophic ● Means “pertaining to development” ● Examples are: ○ atrophic or atrophy ○ amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ○ muscular dystrophy
  3. 3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ● Also called “Lou Gehrig’s disease” after famous baseball player Lou Gehrig who died of the disease ● Rapidly progressing degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons ● Causes a general loss of voluntary movement ● Death usually occurs within 3-5 years
  4. 4. Signs and Symptoms of ALS ● Initial symptoms either begin in the limbs, in 75% of cases, or the bulbar muscles, 23%. A small amount of cases start with the respiratory muscles ● With limb onset, patients have twitching, cramping, muscle weakness, a “dropped foot”, and problems with fine dexterity skills ● With bulbar onset, patients have difficulty with speaking and swallowing ● Respiratory onset is rare. The ability to breathe will be decreased in these patients
  5. 5. Signs and Symptoms of ALS ● The disease will progress to where the patient will not be able to walk and use their hands, they will be bed bound, they will not be able to speak or swallow, and most will need a ventilator to breathe ● Progression is slower in patients whose onset is before 40, have the disease primarily in one limb, and those with only upper motor neuron symptoms ● Progression of the disease is quicker with patients who have bulbar or respiratory onset
  6. 6. Lou Gehrig
  7. 7. -phasia ● Means “speech” ● Examples are: ○ dysphasia ○ aphasia
  8. 8. Aphasia ● Aphasia is usually caused by stroke or brain injury ● There are many different types ○ ○ ○ ○ Expressive aphasia Receptive aphasia Anomic aphasia Global aphasia
  9. 9. Expressive Aphasia ● A person understands what is being communicated to them ● They know what they want to say but are unable to communicate with others by either speaking or writing ● Indicates damage to Broca’s area, the area responsible for speech production
  10. 10. Receptive Aphasia ● Patients are unable to understand spoken or written forms of communication ● They may be able to speak with normal grammar and rate but it is usually meaningless ● Indicates damage to Wernicke’s area, the area for speech comprehension
  11. 11. Anomic Aphasia ● Patients understand written and spoken communications ● They can write and speak but persistently forget specific words they wish to talk about, usually nouns and verbs
  12. 12. Global Aphasia ● This is the most severe type of aphasia ● Patients are unable to speak or write and cannot read or understand spoken language
  13. 13. Works Cited ● "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. ● "Aphasia: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatments." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013
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