● The ovum is a haploid gamete
○ It only has a single set of chromosomes
● It develops in the ovary before being released into the
● The ova has only 12-24 hours to be fertilized by a
sperm before it begins to degenerate
● If fertilized, the ova divides until it becomes a morula
and eventually an embryo
● If unfertilized, the ova will eventually be eliminated
The three stages of delivery
and labor are the dilation
stage, the expulsion stage,
and the placental stage.
First Stage: Dilation
● This is the longest stage of labor
● It starts once the cervix begins dilating
● It ends once it is fully dilated at 10 cm
● Has three substages
○ Latent: cervix is 0-3 or 4 cm
○ Active: cervix is 4-8 cm
○ Transition: cervix is 8-10 cm
Second Stage: Expulsion
● Begins when the cervix is fully dilated
● Finishes once the infant has fully passed through the
birthing canal and is born
● Can last from 20 minutes to 2 hours
Third Stage: Placental
● Shortest stage of labor
● Begins once child is born
● Ends once placenta has detached and passed through
● Can last a few minutes to 20 minutes
One of the largest terms used in
medical terminology refers to the
removal of the uterus, cervix, ovaries,
and uterine tubes. This term is total
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy-bilateral
● Used to treat cancer and other gynecological diseases
once other treatments have failed
● Women who have not begun menopause will after the
● The space where the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries
and cervix once were will be filled by the intestines
Incisions for the procedure can either be low across the
abdomen or vertical
● Blood clots
● Early onset of menopause
● Damage to other organs in close proximity
"Hysterectomy Surgery, Procedure, and Complications - MedicineNet."
MedicineNet. 30 Oct. 2013 <http://www.medicinenet.
"The Ovum." The Ovum-Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body. 30 Oct. 2013
"Stages of Childbirth." American Pregnancy Association. 30 Oct. 2013
"Total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy."
Juravinski Cancer Center. May 2010. Hamilton Health Sciences. 30 Oct.
2013 <total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy>.
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