The new world of special Ed Inclusion and Standards Blake Plankers SPED 413
Critical Legislative and Federal initiatives The world of Special Education would not exist as it does today without various legislation and federal programs. These acts ultimately set the standard for how Special Ed. Programs operate.
No child left behind act Reinforced standards based movement that had been going on for years prior Held educators more accountable for performance and application of standards Provides funds for students to seek supplemental education (ie. Tutor) Emphasis on reading. Makes sure all teachers are fully qualified and competent Teacher’s work is evaluated through high stakes testing Conflict of compatibility between standards and individual needs of students
PL 94-142/ IDEA This law is meant to ensure that all students, with or without disability, receive a free, appropriate education based on their individual needs Schools must provide services necessary to students with disabilities through the use of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) Parents work in conjunction with an IEP team to decide the best approach to their child’s education Schools provide transitional services at age 16 to prepare students for the post-school life
Section 504 Expands supplemental services for student who may not qualify under IDEA but still experiences difficulty learning. Protects a greater array of students by providing accommodations to help them learn.
Americans with disabilities act Expands on IDEA and Section 504 by ensuring the rights of people with disabilities beyond the school system. Establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunications systems Protects from discrimination
Main components in special education of today Ingredients for success
Standards-based Education State-created goals and content that all children must learn in the core areas of Language Arts, Math, Social Studies, and Science Standards fall into 2 categories: Content (comprehended knowledge) and Performance (demonstration of knowledge) Standards are also dissected into three main components: Standard (what student must learn), Benchmark (specific statement of what student must do to show he/she learned), and Indicator (evidence that student has completed the standard)
Student accountability Ensures that students are learning the standards through high-stakes testing Annual testing in grades 3-8 in reading and math Students with disabilities are often given an alternative assessment as decided upon by their IEP team
Inclusion A philosophy designed to create a sense of belonging, solidarity, and understanding among students with or without disability Ensures that all students have access to general curriculum with consideration to their specific needs and goals This is accomplished through a multitiered system of addressing individual needs
Response to Intervention (RTI) Provides an appropriate level of intervention based upon the individual needs of students at-risk and/or with disability through a three tiered system Tier 1: All students receive differentiated instruction by a general ed teacher. Tier 2: Builds upon instruction in tier one to meet the needs of those who don’t respond to tier one. This supplemental instruction is delivered in small groups to few students. Tier 3: More intensive, evidence-based instruction is provided to individuals who require more accommodations to their learning process. Tiers 2 and 3 do not replace the core curriculum but rather supplement it.
Universal Design for learning Operates under the assumption that everyone has individual learning preferences and expresses said learning through multiple facets “as unique as one’s fingerprint” (UDL At a Glance) UDL is utilized to systematically design curriculum for a diverse student population through multi-modal activities, giving students a variety of options to show what they’ve learned, and engaging students in a way that makes them enthusiastic and interested in the curriculum.
Differentiated instruction An approach to education, most heavily advocated by Carol Ann Tomlinson, that calls for more individualized instruction It is a process that involves discovering and assessing individual student needs in order to more accurately determine an appropriate approach to standards/curriculum. For example, if a student responds more to visual stimuli, a teacher might show a video or demonstrate what he/she is teaching.
Evidence-Based Practice Seeks to align research data and practice Applies the scientific method to determine the effectiveness of pedagogy All instructional practices should have their basis in empirical research.
Diversity Considerations Closely tied with differentiation and UDL, diversity considerations expand upon factors that merit specialized instruction or RTI. Goes beyond the traditional factors such as behavioral, physical, and cognitive abilities and includes socio-economic status, sexual orientation, cultural, and racial factors It has been determined that these features within an individual have an effect on how he/she learns thus requiring differentiated instruction.
Different strokes for different folks This image is representative of the growing diversity in the classrooms of today. Students each have a unique background that educators must discover and understand. Through the use of concepts and methods mentioned in this presentation, each student will have an equal chance of learning and being successful. Picture Source: cerebrum.wikispaces.com
References Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Serna, L. (2008). Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. 3-21. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDvKnY0g6e4&feature=player_embedded http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nkK1bT8ls0M&feature=player_embedded