Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Research Methods: Idea Generation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Research Methods: Idea Generation

1,044

Published on

lecture 4 from a college level research methods in psychology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Linfield College,

lecture 4 from a college level research methods in psychology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Linfield College,

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,044
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Research Methodology (Developing Ideas) Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
  • 2. Goals• Types of Research• Idea Generation – Luck – Theory – Literature
  • 3. Basic (Preclinical) Research• Addresses fundamental questions• Laboratory based (Simple, Controlled)• Experimental Psychology Areas – Cognitive Psychology – Social Psychology – Biopsychology
  • 4. Applied (Clinical) Research• Addresses “real world” questions• Non-laboratory based (Complex, Non- controlled)• Example areas: – Educational psychology – Industrial-Organizational psychology – Neuropsychology
  • 5. Memory IslandPiper et al. (2010) Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 98, 432-439.
  • 6. Quantitative Research• Involves numbers & statistics• Majority of psychological research• “Top-down”• Example: polls
  • 7. Qualitative Research• Non-numerical, themes (but rigorous!)• Minority of psychological research• “bottom up”• Example focus group
  • 8. Operational Definitions• Concept is defined based on the operation used for measurement• Height, weight, humor• Intelligence exercise
  • 9. Developing Research Ideas: Serendipity• Monoamine-Oxidase Inhibitor (iproniazid) a treatment for tuberculosis and later depression• Dose response effects of prenatal nicotinePiper & Corbett (2011). Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
  • 10. Developing Ideas: Theory• Theory: a set of logically consistent statements about phenomenon• Micro-Theory: specific, e.g. monoamine & depression• Macro-Theory: Skinner, Piaget, Freud
  • 11. Evaluating Theories• Productive: does this generate research?• Falsifiable: can the theory be disproved• Parsimonious: contains minimum assumptions – Lloyd Morgan’s Canon: in no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of an exercise of a higher faculty if there is a lower one – Example: cat and faucet
  • 12. Evaluating Theories Evolution Psychoanaltysis Cognitive Behaviorism (Darwin) (Freud) Development (Skinner) (Piaget)Productive +++ + ++ +++Falsifiable +++ --- +++ +++Parsimonious +++ --- ++ +++
  • 13. Strong Inference • Programmatic Research: – Study 1 (Outcome A) -> Study 2 (Outcome B) – Used to exclude possibilitiesPlatt, J.R. (1964). Science, 146, 347-353.
  • 14. Ideas: Literature Search• Wikipedia (preliminary only, variable quality)• Google (heavy on $)• Pubmed (Backward Search)• Psych Info (Backward Search)• Specialized databases (Backward Search)• Google Scholar (Forward Search)• Direct contact
  • 15. Pubmed• Developed by National Library of Medicine (NIH)• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
  • 16. Pubmed
  • 17. Keywords are Important
  • 18. Free is For Me!
  • 19. Google Scholar
  • 20. Specialized Databases• Manage to bypass copyright law (how?)• Example: Psychedelic Bibliography• http://www.maps.org/sys/w3pb.pl?face=simple/
  • 21. All Journals Aren’t Created Equal Great! Not Great! Psychological Science (5.1) Psychological Reports (0.3) Science (30.1) Perceptual & Motor Skills (1.2 ) Nature (29.8) J of Applied Communication Res (0.7) Psychological Bulletin (12.9) Legal & Criminological Psych (0.4) J Personality Social Psych (5.2) Psychology & Psychotherapy (0.6) J of Abnormal Psychology (4.5) American J of Psychology (0.3) Annual Review of Psychology (22.8) Computers in Human Behavior (0.3) J Amer Med Association (30.0) Journal of Applied Social Psychology (0.7) Neuropsychopharmacology (6.7 ) International J of …. , SW Missouri NewsletterImpact Factor: # citations per manuscript per year
  • 22. Replication• Repeating a study and getting similar outcomes Study OR (95% CI) Bloss 4.65 (1.56, 13.87) Piper 0.70 (0.09, 5.72) Gaynor 1.13 (0.51, 2.48) Taylor 0.83 (0.62, 1.11) Deary 1.13 (0.52, 2.43) Kwon 0.95 (0.29, 3.12) Nilsson 0.94 (0.60, 1.46) UCDADC 0.37 (0.14, 1.03) NACC African Americans 0.95 (0.42, 2.14) NACC Caucasians 0.93 (0.72, 1.20) Overall (I-squared = 28.6%, p = 0.181) 0.92 (0.79, 1.08) .05 .1 1 10 20Piper et al. (2012). Laterality.
  • 23. Replication Example #2: Mozart Effect• College students (N=36) completed a spatial reasoning task after listening to Mozart, relaxation tape, or silence. Rauscher et al. (1993). Nature, 365, 611.
  • 24. Replication Example #2: Mozart Effect• College students (N=36) completed a spatial reasoning task after listening to Mozart, relaxation music, or silence.• Governor Zell Miller (GA) wanted to give all kids classic CDs.• Finding repeatedly not replicated. Rauscher et al. (1993). Nature, 365, 611.
  • 25. Summary• Types of Research – Preclinical & Clinical – Quantitative & Qualitative• Idea Generation (luck, literature, theory)• Replication

×