Neuropharmacology: Epidemiology

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Lecture 10 from a college level neuropharmacology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University. Focus is on the Monitoring the Future.

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Neuropharmacology: Epidemiology

  1. 1. Epidemiology of Drug Use Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Epidemiology • Study of diseases in population • Descriptive, not inferential (+ who, - why) – Nitrites “poppers” – LSDhttp://bmj.bmjjournals.com/epidem/epid.1.html
  3. 3. Goals • Monitoring the Future (MtF): self-report survey of 8th - 12th grades • National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health (NHSDUH): interviews of age 12+ • Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN): ER reports • United Nations World Drug Reporthttp://www.oas.samhsa.gov/public.cfmhttp://www.monitoringthefuture.org/
  4. 4. Monitoring the Future • National survey, conducted annually by NIDA of secondary school (8th, 10th, or 12th), college students, and adults (<45 yrs) • Missing data (drop-outs = 15%, not attending) = under-estimation • Concern about labels (inadvertent marketing) • Self-report – Knowledge (e.g. steroids, diet pills, club drugs) – Memory (e.g. How many drinks?) – Taboohttp://www.monitoringthefuture.org/
  5. 5. Demographics• Compares use by: – Year (1975 – present) – Sex – Ethnicity – Parental education ? – Region – College plans
  6. 6. Year & GradeIllicit = Scheduled drugs including marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, LSDNot Illicit: EtOH, cigarettes, inhalants, Ritalin for medical purposes
  7. 7. When does use start?
  8. 8. What about ethnicity?• Ranking: – African-American – Hispanic – White
  9. 9. Subjective EffectsAlcoholAmphetaminesCocaineHeroinLSDMarijuanaOther HallucinogensOther Narcotics
  10. 10. Subjective Effects
  11. 11. Young Adults: 19-30
  12. 12. How do college student differ from others in Alcohol and Nicotine Use?
  13. 13. How do college student differ from others in Alcohol and Nicotine Use?
  14. 14. D.A.R.E. • Founded in 1983 by Daryl Gates • Police officers give lectures to middle school • Found in 80% of U.S. school districts, 54 nations • Cohen’s d = (Mean – Mean )/ SD D.A.R.E. Control pop d = 0.30 small, 0.50 medium, 0.70 largehttp://www.dare.com/home/default.asp
  15. 15. Does D.A.R.E work?Ennett S.T. (1994). American Journal of Public Health, 84, 1394-1401.
  16. 16. National Household Survey on Drug Use & Health • Face to Face 4 hour Interview (N=4,500) • Nationally representative • Excludes prisoners, transients • Statistical Significance: *p < .05 • But clinical (real world) significance?https://nsduhweb.rti.org/
  17. 17. Treatment Options
  18. 18. Treatment Options
  19. 19. Drug Abuse Warning Network• Nationwide reports of ER/ED visits• 242 hospitals nationwide• Drug is “implicated” – Overdose – Suicide – Accident
  20. 20. 2009http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k11/DAWN/2k9DAWNED/HTML/DAWN2k9ED.htm
  21. 21. http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k11/DAWN/2k9DAWNED/HTML/DAWN2k9ED.htm
  22. 22. Ethnicity Alcohol Illicit White 59.6% 50.1% Black 19.2% 26.9% Hispanic 12.4% 13.1% Other/Unknown 8.8% 9.9%http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k11/DAWN/2k9DAWNED/HTML/DAWN2k9ED.htm
  23. 23. Ethnicity Alcohol Illicit National (2010 Census) White 59.6% 50.1% 63.7% Black 19.2% 26.9% 12.6% Hispanic 12.4% 13.1% 16.3% Other/Unknown 8.8% 9.9% 7.4%http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k11/DAWN/2k9DAWNED/HTML/DAWN2k9ED.htm
  24. 24. UNWDR• United Nations World Drug Report• Pooled data from various countries with various methods• Provides information about drug use, treatment, and drug seizures
  25. 25. Annual Use
  26. 26. Injection Drug Use
  27. 27. Summary• Data Sources: – Monitoring the Future (Survey) – National Household Survey on Drug Use & Health (Interview) – Drug Abuse Warning Network (ED) – Patterns: • Year • Age • Ethnicity • Other: College Plans
  28. 28. Thought question• Design an empirically based drug education program for high-school students. – What drugs would you target? – What ages? – Would ethnicity or other factors be involved in your design making process?http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html

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