lecture 30 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (firstname.lastname@example.org) at Willamette University, includes Stanley Milgram, Zimbardo's prison studies
Social Psychology Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.Stanley Milgram Phillip Zimbardo 1933- 1933-1984
Goals• Social influence – Conformity – Obedience• Social thinking
Definitions• Social Psychology: the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others• Conformity: adjusting our behavior (or thoughts) toward a group standard
Conformity & Obedience Behavior is contagious, modeled by onefollowed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform (e.g. laugh track).Other behaviors may be an expression ofcompliance (obedience) toward authority. Conformity Obedience
Studying Conformity • 75% of participants will conform with the group at least once • Recent Findings – Effect still large (Males d = 0.85, Females d = 1.04) – One dissenter, less conformitySolomon Asch (1907-1996) Bond & Smith (1996) Psychological Bulletin, 119, 11-137. 0:55 – 2:00 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onE_TRT8B7M
Absence of Sex Differences Modern Replication: 0 to 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcvSNg0HZwk 0 to 5: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3cNyRYF-vFcBlass et al. (1999). J Appl Soc Psychol, 29, 955-978.
Social Facilitation Sport (College & Pro) # Games Home Team Wins (%) Soccer 40,380 67.4% Basketball 30,174 62.9% Ice Hockey 50,739 59.5% Football (American) 11,708 57.3% Baseball 120,576 55.6% 1) College versus Professional? 2) Time Effect? 3) Regular versus Championship?Jamieson (2010). J Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1819-1848.
Social Facilitation Sport (College & Pro) # Games Home Team Wins (%) Soccer 40,380 67.4% Basketball 30,174 62.9% Ice Hockey 50,739 59.5% Football (American) 11,708 57.3% Baseball 120,576 55.6% 1) College (60.8%) = Professional (60.4%) 2) Time Effect: Pre-1950 (65.0%), 1991-2007 (59.2%) 3) Regular (59.0%) versus Championship (63.0%)Jamieson (2010). J Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1819-1848.
Social Loafing• Individual exerts less effort when part of a group then when by themselves
De-Individualization• Being anonymous can modify behavior – Peer review – Internet chat
Stanford Prison Experiment • Psychologically healthy students assigned to role of prison guard or inmate (#) • Striking changes in behavior consistent with rolePhillip Zimbardo0 to 6 min: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAjJoorEaicLong Version: : 0 to 2:39, 4:55 -29:00, main message at 22:30:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkmQZjZSjk4
Social thinking• The relationship between thoughts & behaviors may be complex Thought -> Behavior Behavior -> Thought
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon • If you get people to agree to a small request, they are more likely to agree to a larger one (and cognitions will follow behavior) Original Cognition: Deplore idea of not giving antibiotic for syphilis Behavior: Wait 6 months ….. 1 year …… 15 ….30 years New Cognition: Support non-treatment for syphilis
Fundamental Attribution Error• We overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations
Cognitive Dissonance Theory• Inconsistency between cognitions & behavior are uncomfortable• Induce behavior and cognition will follow• Example 1: write hateful essay (for $), think hateful thoughts• Example 2: fail to reach grapes, grapes are sour Leon Festinger• Example 3: world does not end, we saved the world 1919-1989
Self-Test 01• Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes in humans. – True – False
Self-Test 02• Who founded the first laboratory of psychology in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany? – A) William James – B) William Wundt – C) John Watson – D) Hermann Ebbinghaus
Self-Test 03• Who is the most “eminent” psychologist of the 20th century? – A) Ivan Pavlov – B) B. F. Skinner – C) Sigmund Freud – D) Jean Piaget – E) Michael Gazzaniga
Self-Test 04• According to Sigmund Freud, the _____ is responsible for providing a balance between the desires of the id and the moral compass of the super-ego.
Self-Test 05• Draw the forgetting curve (x-axis: time; y-axis: amount remembered) identified by Hermann Ebbinghaus.
Self-Test 06• A lack of interest in previously pleasurable activities is the definition of: A) agoraphobia B) catatonic schizophrenia C) anhedonia D) Generalized Anxiety Disorder E) bipolar disorder
Self-Test 07• A) The ______ _______ ________ cortex is a brain area important for attention and OCD.• B) Lesions to the _________ have been shown to reduce smoking.
Self-Test 08• According to George Miller, the number of items of information that can be held in working (aka short-term) memory is:______
Self-Test 09• Brittany believes she can move objects with her mind, also known as: – A) Oedipus complex – B) operant conditioning – C) telekinesis – D) clairvoyance – E) precognition
Self-Test 10• Prenatal exposure to the teratogen and depressant _______ results in:• Fetal exposure to the stimulant _______ increases the risk of SIDS and ADHD.
Self-Test 11• Estimate the correlations from the each scatterplot below:• Left:_______ Center:________ Right:______
Self-Test 12• What Sleep stage is dreaming most likely to occur? – A) Stage I – B) Stage II – C) Stage III – D) REM – E) Dement Stage
Self-Test 13• Which of the following has (have) a genetic contribution? – A) schizophrenia – B) bipolar disorder – C) intelligence – D) homosexuality – E) depression – F) all of the above – G) none of the above
Self-Test 14• Which of the following are treatments for depression: – A) Cognitive Behavior Therapy – B) Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors – C) Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – D) Anti-anxiety drugs – E) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) – F) MDMA (“ecstasy”) – G) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Self-Test 15• What’s the most unethical study in the history of psychology (and why)? – A) Watson & Rayner’s “Little Albert” – B) Stanley Milgram’s obedience study – C) Harry Harlow’s monkey love – D) Phillip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison study – E) Other:_________________
Concluding ThoughtsBiopsychosocialInterdisciplinary (Economics-Chemistry, etc.)Faliability (Eugenics, Lobotomies)Questions > Answers iTunesU: Anna Kring; David Presti