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Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III
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Introductory Psychology: Neuropharmacology III

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lecture 9 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University, includes substituted amphetamines …

lecture 9 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University, includes substituted amphetamines (methamphetamine and MDMA), epidemiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

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  • Preview Question 4: What are hallucinogens, and what are their effects?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Drugs & Behavior III: Amphetamines Brian J. Piper, Ph.D.
    • 2. Amphetamines _ _Amphetamine Methamphetamine
    • 3. AmphetaminesAmphetamine Methamphetamine __ _ 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
    • 4. History of Methamphetamine• 1893: Synthesized by Nagai Nagayoshi in Japan• 1940s- : Popular with military• 1960s- : used for short-term treatment of obesity, narcolepsy, and, later, ADHD• 1983- : federal and states laws attempt to reduce use by decreasing availability of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine• 2000s- : several aggressive advertising campaigns are aimed at reducing demand
    • 5. Montana Meth Project • Businessman Thomas Siebel supported graphic advertising in 2005 • Goal was to reach each teenager 3+ times/week (TV, radio, print).To View Ads:http://www.montanameth.org/View_Ads/index.php
    • 6. True of False: “the MMP results inMontana have been more significant than any other drug prevention program in history”? Youth Risk Behavior Survey • High School students were asked about lifetime methamphetamine use before and after the Montana Methamphetamine Project. Anderson (2010) J Health Econ
    • 7. True or False: “the MMP results in Montanahave been more significant than any other drug prevention program in history”? Youth Risk Behavior Survey • High School students were asked about lifetime methamphetamine use before and after the Montana Methamphetamine Project. Anderson (2010) J Health Econ
    • 8. Other Faces ofMethamphetamine
    • 9. Other Faces of Methamphetamine Andre AgassiRobert Downey, Jr. Ted Arthur HaggardStacy Ann Ferguson “Fergie”
    • 10. History of EcstasyEcstasy is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)• 1912: Synthesized by German pharmaceutical company Merck by Anton Kollisch (1888-1916)• 1950’s: U.S. Army conducted animals studies to determine the lethal dose.• 1970’s: Mental health workers advocated using MDMA with psychotherapy. There are ongoing studies to use MDMA with talk therapy for anxiety related to post-traumatic stress disorder and among terminally ill cancer patients.• 1985: Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies MDMA as Schedule I• 1990’s- today: MDMA is popular recreational drug, especially among young- adults.
    • 11. Short-term effects of Ecstasy• Psychological • Physiological – Empathy – Increase in heart rate – Increased energy – Increase in blood pressure – Openness – Reduced appetite – Increased sensitivity to – Bruxism: grinding teeth sounds & touch – Trismus: jaw clenching
    • 12. Example of tolerance • Rats received ecstasy (MDMA) on 6 days. Arrows indicate times of administration. • Panel A shows that MDMA altered core temperature on the 1st day. • Panel B shows that the same dose had less effects on the 3th day. • Panel C shows almost no effects by the 6th day.Piper et al. (2005) Developmental Psychobiology, 47, 145-157.
    • 13. AmphetaminesAmphetamine Methamphetamine __ _ 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
    • 14. Chemistry • Entactogen: touching within (Nichols) MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine) Amphetamine
    • 15. Ecstasy = MDMA?
    • 16. Drug Levels in the Blood: Individual Differences Following Oral Administration of MDMA Plasma MDMA for each marmoset that received 1 mg/kg. 80 70 60 M D M A (n g /m l)Ng/ml 50 Lexi 40 Eric Zale 30 Autumn 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time
    • 17. Age Influences How YourBody Responds to Drugs Meyer, Piper,& Vancolli (2010) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.MDMA -----> MDA
    • 18. Brain Chemistry• MDMA increases neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) & hormones (cortisol, prolactin)
    • 19. Serotonin • Serotonin is 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) • The brain uses the amino acid tryptophan (found in bananas, milk, yogurt) to make 5-HT. • 5-HT has been implicated in mood (anxiety, depression & aggression), appetite, sexuality, and cognition.See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serotonin
    • 20. Raphe nuclei• 5-HT cell bodies (somas) are found in the brainstem in the raphe nuclei.• 5-HT axons descend into spinal cord and ascend to the hippocampus and cortex.
    • 21. Serotonin Transporter (SERT)• SERT is a protein found at the synapse and along the axon that removes 5-HT from the synaptic cleft.• SERT (shown in pink) brings 5-HT from the synaptic cleft back into the axon.• Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. Prozac or fluoxetine) prevent SERT from removing 5-HT.• The density of SERT is used as a index of the number of 5-HT axons and is altered by MDMA.
    • 22. Long-term effects of High Dose MDMA on 5-HT neurons (animal data)• Weeks after MDMA treatment to animals, there is a reduction in 5-HT, 5-HT metabolites, and SERT which suggests a 5- HT axotomy (axons are cut).• Months to years after MDMA in monkeys, some brain areas still show a reduction in SERT and 5-HT (hypoinnervation). However, other areas show an abnormal increase in SERT and 5-HT (hyperinnervation).
    • 23. Serotonin fibers in the caudate nucleus of a control squirrel monkey (A), a monkey that received 5 mg/kg MDMA 2 weeks (B), or 7 years (C) previously.Hatzidimitriou, G. et al. J. Neurosci. 1999;19:5096-5107
    • 24. What about brain function?• Complex behaviors can be measured in non- human animals like: – Attention – Learning – Memory – “Emotion”
    • 25. Object-Recognition Memory Task Rats were exposed to two identical objects in a 3-min sample phase. There was a retention delay (15 min), during which both objects were replaced: one replacement object was identical to the previous two, while the other was a novel object. Memory of the familiar object is indicated by the animal spending more time exploring the novel object during a 3-min choice phase.Figure from A. Ennaceur.
    • 26. Adolescent MDMA decreases memory. Saline MDMA Sample (A) 25.6 (3.1) 23.5 (1.4) Test (A) 11.8 (2.0) 14.9 (1.4) Test (B) 24.7 (3.5) 20.0 (3.1) B/(A+B) 0.68 (0.03) 0.56 (0.04)*Piper & Meyer (2004) Pharm Biochem & Behav 79: 723-731
    • 27. Adolescent MDMA reduces anxiety-like behavior. SALINE- MDMA- P VALUE BEHAVIOR TREATED TREATEDTotal arm entries 19.1 ± 3.0 27.4 ± 3.0 .074Open-arm entries 3.1 ± 1.4 7.9 ± 1.8 .058Open/Total (%) 12.8 ± 5.2 27.3 ± 5.3 .071Open-arm duration 41.4 ± 18.7 108.9 ± 20.3 <.05(sec)Closed-arm 507.4 ± 30.5 400.5 ± 30.3 <.05duration (sec)Piper & Meyer (2004) Pharm Biochem & Behav 79: 723-731.
    • 28. Piper & Meyer (2004) Pharm Biochem & Behav 79: 723-731.
    • 29. Spatial Memory In Rodents• Rodent research has found that early developmental Methamphetamine treatments cause persistent impairments in spatial memory.Acevedo SF, de Esch IJ, Raber J (2007) Neuropsychopharmacology 32:665-672
    • 30. MDMA Summary• Short-Term Effects: – Empathy – hyperthermia, – ↑5-HT & Dopamine• Long-Term Effects: ↓5-HT
    • 31. Amphetamine Comparison MDMA MethamphetamineHistory One-century One-centuryAcute Subjective Effects Empathy EuphoriaNeurotoxicity Serotonin DopamineSchedule I IIIAddiction No Yes
    • 32. Hallucinogens Hallucinogens are psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions andevoke sensory images in the absence of sensory Ronald K. Siegel input.
    • 33. Hallucinogens LSD: (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful hallucinogenic drug that is also known as acid. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol): is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations. http://static.howstuffworks.com Hemp Plant
    • 34. DrugsSummary

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