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Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
Introductory Psychology: Anxiety
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Introductory Psychology: Anxiety

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lecture 12 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University, includes DSM-IV TR psychiatric disorders …

lecture 12 from a college level introduction to psychology course taught Fall 2011 by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Willamette University, includes DSM-IV TR psychiatric disorders including Post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias, Generalized Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, anterior cingulate

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  • Preview Question 2: What produces the thoughts and feelings that mark anxiety disorders?
  • Preview Question 2: What produces the thoughts and feelings that mark anxiety disorders?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Psychological Disorders I: Anxiety Brian J. Piper, Ph.D., M.S. 1
    • 2. Goals• History of Psychological Disorders• Anxiety Disorders 2
    • 3. Evil Spirits• Release the demons! 3
    • 4. The Moral ModelPhilippe Pinel from France insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession but an ailment of the mind.Philosophy:•Treat each patient as an individual•Employ former patients•Use psychological interventions before biological ones. 1745-1826 “the treatment of insanity (l’aliénation mentale) without considering the differentiating characteristics of the patients [la distinction des espèces] has been at times superfluous, rarely useful, and often harmful”
    • 5. Medical Model When physicians discovered that syphilis led tomental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. • Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder. • Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another. • Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. • Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder. 5
    • 6. The Biopsychosocial Approach Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, andpsychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
    • 7. International Classification of Diseases-10• Published by the World Health Organization to provide uniformity.• International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Problems uses 6 digit codes.• Started in 1900, included mental disorders in 1949
    • 8. Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM)• Published by American Psychiatric Association• DSM-I: 1952: consists of 106 mental disorders• DSM-II: 1968: psychodynamic• DSM-III: 1980: responds to Rosenhan criticisms 8
    • 9. Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)• Published by American Psychiatric Association• DSM-I: 1952: consists of 106 mental disorders• DSM-II: 1968: psychodynamic• DSM-III: 1980: responds to Rosenhan criticisms• DSM-IV: 1994: 297 disorders• DSM-V: in planning for 2013
    • 10. Example: ADHD: Inattentive• Symptoms present at school/work and home• 6+ symptoms that have persisted 6+ months and are inconsistent with developmental level – Often fails to give close attention or makes careless mistakes at school or at work. – Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play. – Does not listen when spoken to directly. – Often does not follow through on instructions. – Has difficulty organizing activities. – Is easily distracted. – Is often forgetful in daily activities. 10
    • 11. ADHD: Hyperactive-Impulsive• Symptoms present at school/work and home• 6+ symptoms that have persisted 6+ months and are inconsistent with developmental level – Often fidgets with hands or feet, leaves seat when staying seated is expected, runs or climbs excessively – Often acts as “driven by a motor” – Often blurts answer before ? Completed – Has difficulty waiting turn – Often interrupts others 11
    • 12. Joel T. Nigg, Ph.D.
    • 13. Labels
    • 14. Anxiety• Anxiety (future) versus Fear (current)• Timing <- 14
    • 15. Measuring Anxiety I: Open-field
    • 16. Measuring Anxiety II: Elevated Plus Maze• Developed by Sandra File, Ph.D.• Valium Type Drugs: decrease anxiety• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLcX2MbpmdY ---------------------- Chlordiazepoxide Pellow et al. (1985). J Neurosci Methods 14, 149-167.
    • 17. Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Phobias Generalized Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • 18. Panic DisorderPanic Attack: discrete period of intense fear, 4+symptoms develop abruptly and peak within 10minutes: 1) palpitations 2) sweating 3) trembling 4) shortness of breath 5) choking feeling 6) chest pain 7) dizziness 8) nausea 9) losing control 10) fear of dying
    • 19. Panic Disorder Panic Attack: discrete period of intense fear, 4+ symptoms develop abruptly and peak within 10 minutes Individual Differences: multi/day versus 1/week Agoraphobia: fear of open-spaces Treatment: anti-anxiety & anti-depressant drugs1st 2:30http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gNGUartUEI
    • 20. Phobia• Marked & persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by presence or anticipation of object/situation• The avoidance interferes significantly with normal routine, occupational or social activities. 20
    • 21. Kinds of PhobiasArachonophobia Phobia of spiders. Acrophobia Phobia of heights.Claustrophobia Phobia of closed spaces. Hemophobia Phobia of blood.
    • 22. Systematic Desensitization Spider• 1) Create hierarchy of fears ↓• 2) Relaxation techniques• 3) Combine Joseph Wolpe, M.D. 1915-1997
    • 23. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Obsessions: recurrent thoughts, images, or feelingsCompulsions: ritualistic behaviors, performed to stopobsession and associated anxietyCommon Obsessions:6)Dirty 2) Aggression 3) Religion 4) SexDifferentiationQuantitative: High intensity, frequency,duration ( > 1 hour/day)
    • 24. Quantification 24To take test: http://www.psymed.info/psymed/default.aspx?m=Test&id=52&l=3
    • 25. OCD• 1st Two Minutes:• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44DCWslbsN 25
    • 26. Cingulate Cortex 26
    • 27. Anterior Cingulate & OCD• OCD and controls completed a difficult continuous performance test during fMRI.• OCD > controls in Anterior Cingulate Cortex 27 Ursu et al. (2003). Psychological Science, 14, 347-353.
    • 28. Generalized Anxiety Disorder DSM-IV-TR CriteriaA. Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensiveexpectation), occurring more-days-than-not for at least6 months.B. The person finds it difficult to control the worry.C. three (or more) of the following six symptoms:2. Restlessness3. Being easily fatigued4. Difficulty concentrating5. Irritability6. Muscle tension7. Sleep disturbance
    • 29. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):Re-experiencing: nightmares, flashbacks, intrusivethoughtsAvoidance: situation & associatedPhysical Arousal: sleep, concentration, irritability Significant social or occupational impairment :3 min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aFs6695VyQ
    • 30. PTSD• Lifetime Prevalence: 5% men, 10% women 30
    • 31. Resilience to PTSD Only about 10% of women and 20% of menreact to traumatic situations and develop PTSD.Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience against traumatic situations.
    • 32. Origins of Anxiety• Learn: videotapes of fear response to fake snake or plastic flower• Test: show a stimuli Mineka, S. (1985). J Abnormal Psychol
    • 33. Origins of Anxiety• Learn: videotapes of fear response to fake snake or plastic flower• Test: show a stimuli• Response: Snake-Fear; Flower- No Fear• Supports Social-Learning & Evolutionary Psychology
    • 34. Summary• Psychological Disorders & ICD/DSM• Anxiety Disorders – Panic Disorder – Phobias – GAD – OCD – PTSD 34

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