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Bengkel Metadata, RDA & Hyperlink PUiTM 2010 ...

Bengkel Metadata, RDA & Hyperlink PUiTM 2010
Anjuran : BPBPT PTAR
Tarikh : 6 April 2010
Tempat : Bilik Seminar PTAR 1
Penceramah : En. Goh Keng Yew
Jawatan: Technical Director (Paradigm System Berhad) System Engineer

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  • Written in 7/6/2006 by Eric Lease Morgan in the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA) blog “A next generation library catalog” -Google Books -Google Scholar -Google Images -Amazon.com -CiteULike

Metadata Library-Catalog Metadata Library-Catalog Presentation Transcript

  • Metadata and Library Catalogs Presented by Paradigm Systems Berhad 6 April 2010
  • Agenda
    • Overview
    • Information Architecture
    • Setting the Context
    • Evolution of library catalog
    • Library catalog vs web
    • What the users want
    • A peek into the Future
    • Features for the “next” generation library catalog
    • Three questions regarding information architecture
    • Conclusion
  • 1.0 Overview
  • Exciting time in the Library Land
    • Never before has there been so much accessible content
    • Never before has there been such an overwhelming need from people for data and information
    • Never before has there been so much computing power available at such low costs
    LIBRARY LAND
  • Objectives
    • A discursive study based on a review of literature with the following objectives:
      • Analyse the current situation and development of library catalog
      • Discuss the online catalog features and limitations
      • Highlight issues on influence of internet
      • Understand the user search experience and expectations
      • Provide options for revitalising library catalogs
  • 2.0 Information architecture
  • Information architecture is about… The art and science of structuring, organizing and labeling information to help people find and manage information
  • 3.0 Evolution of library catalog
  • Evolution of library catalog Hildreth, C.R. (1995). Online Catalog Design Models: Are We Moving in the Right Direction? A Report Submitted to the Council on Library Resources. Retrieved from http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/childret/clr-opac.html . Maness, J. M. (2006). Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and Its Implications for Libraries. Webology, 3(2). Retrieved from http://www.webology.ir/2006/v3n2/a25.html?q=link:webology.ir. Card Catalog Alphabetical phrase search Information Retrieval System First Generation OPAC Exact left-to-right matching Second Generation OPAC Keyword, Boolean search Third Generation OPAC Partial-match techniques Fourth Generation OPAC Faceted search, browsing Graphic User Interface (GUI) Web-based browser Web 2.0 AJAX technology E 3 OPAC Enhanced, Expanded, Extend (Hildreth, 1995) Library 2.0 (Maness, 2006)
  • A book catalog
  • Handwritten card catalog
  • Card Catalog
  • Typewritten catalog card
  • Colour-coded card catalog
  • IBM PC Green Screen (1 st Generation)
  • GUI based OPAC (2 nd Generation)
  • Web-based (3 rd Generation)
  • Features of library catalog generations * Author’s opinion Card catalog First generation Second generation Third generation Fourth generation* Chronology Pre-1960s 1960s to 1970s 1980s 1990s Present Computing power Drawer and cabinet Vacuum tubes Transistor Integrated circuits Very large integrated circuits Computing cost Drawer and cabinet cost USD 10,000 / MB USD 700 – USD 12 / MB USD 9 – 1.5 cents / MB 8 - 0.958 cents / MB User interface Handwritten, then typewritten on card Text-terminal base, green or amber screen Graphical user interface (GUI), graphical icons and visual indicators Web-based technology, browser plugins and hypertext linking Web-based services with Web 2.0 AJAX technology Catalog display Cards with various sizes and colours Display was card-like, with labels and searches that mimicked the appearance and access points of a card catalog Display began to be used not just to identify what the library owned, but to track orders, check out material, give detailed location and holdings information Other databases integration tools that have always been acquired from a publisher are now part of menu display along with the library’s catalog Aspiration to be like an online bookstore Metadata Semi-standardisation with editing done to meet local practices such as call number and subject headings ISBD standards ISBD to linear display Metadata records enriched with book cover, abstract and contents page Embedded metadata citation with sharing of metadata enabled User search Sort through alphabetically arranged cards in a drawer Exact left-to-right matching of word or phrase Keyword searching and Boolean operations exact match Advanced search and partial-match techniques Browsing by faceted search
  • Features of library catalog generations * Author’s opinion Card catalog First generation Second generation Third generation Fourth generation* Issues
    • Physical space limitation
    • Labor intensive and time-consuming
    • Tiresome for patrons to search through tightly-packed drawers of filing cards
    • Expensive and hard to maintain
    • Only short bibliographic records were displayed in a format that resembled the catalog card
    • Users seemed more inclined to conduct subject (in contrast to known-item) search
    • Inferior search capabilities due to exact word or phrase-matching
    • Difficult to browse through records
    • Too many searches suffer from false drops and/or too many hits
    • Boolean is still a retrieval technique designed for trained and experienced searchers
    • Catalog remained primarily an inventory of library holdings with passive exchange of information
    • Little change to the underlying search and retrieval functionality
    • Newer and more appealing products (like Google or Amazon) have entered the information market
    • Social and participative rich system may not be for everyone
    Why it was important then
    • Information resources were relatively scarce
    • A systematic system to allow patrons quickly identify books they wanted and find them on the shelves
    • Bring a generation of library users into the online world
    • Eliminate users tiresome need to search through drawers of cards
    • Cost-saving in physical floor space for cabinets and drawers
    • Reduce labor and time intensive task of maintaining card catalog
    • More usable for untrained user through GUI
    • Search process both more intuitive and direct
    • More access points as any field or word in the bibliographic record can become an entry point
    • Vast numbers of remote users through network technologies
    • Do not need to be physically at the library as it is accessible via the web
    • Book covers and other features aimed at improving the interface
    • Access to resources of other libraries expanded users’ information scope
    To be determined.
  • 4.0 Library catalog vs web
  • Is internet replacing library?
    • In History, we had to do this project on Tokoh [prominent personality]. When I went to the Internet – and it had more things, like biography, like more picture, certificates and awards – that kind of stuff. So it made it like easier to write and I got good grade on my assignment.
    • Everything is there – you just need to make a good search. It’s a shortcut if teachers allow you to type out your homework, because you can copy and paste.
    • Internet provides the majority of information, if I want to find from other sources, it would take a longer time.
    • Although the book was available on the OPAC, I could not locate them on the shelves.
    • Honestly, during these 3 years in campus, I always go to the library, but seldom use the facilities. I just go inside and read my own book. There is not enough reference materials for me as an IT student.
    What the Malaysian students have to say… Source: Abdullah, A., & Zainab, A.N. (2007). Are Malaysian students ready to be authors of digital contents? A case study of digital library stakeholders' readiness. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 45(1), 55-73. Mohd Saad, M.S., & Zainab A.N. (2007). Information Search and Use of Computer Science and Information Technology Undergraduates. International Conference of Libraries, Information and Society (ICOLIS), 291-304.
  • Influence of the web
    • OCLC survey - 84% respondents begin their search for information via internet vs 1% on library web site
    • Popularity of the web have influenced users' mental models
    • Online providers such as Amazon and Google have raised the bar for the delivery of information and expectations for library services
    • Users expect library catalogs to work as well as Amazon’s web site
    • Users expect to find as much relevant material through the library’s web page as they seem to find through Google
  • Challenges to libraries
    • User less willing to work hard (unlike the older days) to make links/connections between resources since they have had the web
    • Library catalog has become a call-number lookup system, with resource discovery happening elsewhere
    • Does not mean that they are not interested in library services, but they may not discover those services if the library does not find a way to go to the user
    • If libraries are not able to follow the technological innovations and the trends on the web, libraries will not be able to compete and may lose their position as primary information providers
  • 5.0 What the users want
  • Information architecture is about… The art and science of structuring, organizing and labeling information to help people find and manage information
  • Understanding user needs and expectations
    • Being able to reserve books online is the greatest!!
    • Make access to the online search engines much easier.
    • Much of the information I look for does not have enough of a description to really decide whether it is good information, especially if I have to do an interlibrary loan.
    • Advertise? I have forgotten about libraries since I left school.
    • Advertise a bit more; until this survey I didn’t really realize that a library might have music, movies and audio books to borrow.
    • Make a way to search through all of the databases with one search engine, instead of having to search each database individually. I despise searching the library for books and other sources.
    Source: De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Cellentani, D., Hawk, J., Henkins, L. & Wilson, A. (2005) Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/2005perceptions.htm. What users have to say…
  • Understanding user needs and expectations
    • I like the catalog, but if it could reference some sort of rating system it would be even better—I was looking at a new author today who has many books, and I had to go to an internet computer, check on Amazon and see which books were most highly recommended and go back to the catalog to see if they were available.
    • Please let us study there longer!!!
    • There is no toilet in my library so getting information must be quick.
    • E-mail reminders warning when books are due.
    • Run the library like a bookstore.
    Source: De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Cellentani, D., Hawk, J., Henkins, L. & Wilson, A. (2005) Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/2005perceptions.htm. What users have to say…
  • What we learned from the users
    • Quality and quantity of information are top determinants of a satisfactory information search. Search engines are rated higher than librarians.
    • The criterion selected by most information consumers to evaluate electronic resources is that the information is worthwhile . Free is a close second. Speed has less impact. Respondents do not trust purchased information more than free information. There is high expectation of free information .
    • Library users like to self-serve. Most respondents do not seek assistance when using library resources.
    • Information consumers use the library less and read less since they began using the internet. The majority of respondents anticipate their usage of libraries will be flat in the future .
    Source: De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Cellentani, D., Hawk, J., Henkins, L. & Wilson, A. (2005) Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/2005perceptions.htm.
  • What we learned from the users
    • Borrowing print books is the library service used most.
    • “ Books” is the library brand . There is no runner-up.
    • Most information consumers are not aware of , nor do they use, most libraries’ electronic information resources .
    • Be clean, bright, comfortable, warm and well-lit ; be staffed by friendly people ; have hours that fit their lifestyles; and advertise services .
    • Find ways to get material to people , rather than making them come to the library.
    Source: De Rosa, C., Cantrell, J., Cellentani, D., Hawk, J., Henkins, L. & Wilson, A. (2005) Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources: A Report to the OCLC Membership. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/reports/2005perceptions.htm.
  • 6.0 Features for the “next” generation library catalog
  • Features of the “next” generation
    • Sort flexibility
    • Enrich content
    • Browsing by shelf
    • Browsing by faceted search
    • Embedded citation metadata
    • Federated search/consolidated search
    • Linking and support through document delivery
    • Relevance ranking of results
    • Stemming
    • Spell-checking
    • Spelling correction
    • Advanced Search
    • Simple Search
    • Live chat with a librarian
    • Allowing user to enrich the catalog
    • User personalisation
  • Sort flexibility
  • Enrich content – book cover
  • Enrich content – summary, TOC, abstracts, editors review
  • Browsing by shelf
  • Browsing by faceted search
  • Embedded citation metadata
  • Federated search / Consolidated search
    • One portal for all library content
      • Library and non-library catalog
    • One-stop “shopping” centre for users
    • Less user training required
    • Enhance user information discovery
    Benefits of federated search
  • Linking and support through to document delivery
  • Relevance ranking of results
  • Stemming Entering "swim" might also find "swims" and "swimming"
  • Spell-checking Not because people do not know how to spell, but because people make mistakes
  • Spell correction, “Did you mean . . .”
  • Advanced search
  • Simple search Quick, Easy, Immediate Enter one or two words (or maybe a phrase) into a search box, click a button, get a list of relevancy ranks results returned, select an item from the results and view/download the information.
  • Live chat with a librarian Library of Congress answers questions and assists patrons with their research through online dialogue with patrons between 2 and 3 p.m., Monday through Friday
  • Allowing user to enrich the catalog
    • Users add a comment to the record of a book they have borrowed. All this information may help another reader to know if the book they just identified will satisfy them.
    • Users add a rating usually represented by a maximum of 5 stars to the record of a book.
    • Users add a tag, a free keyword, to the record of a book. All these free tags constitute a folksonomy, a taxonomy built by non-professionals and that is not controlled. Those tags ameliorate the search function and help users to identify books of interest. This is also another feature for metadata enrichment.
    • When looking at a book's record, a user may get suggestions based on loans of users that have also borrowed the book. Library users may also discover books of interest thanks to the functions “suggested reading” or “people who borrowed this book also borrowed…”.
    Commenting Rating Tagging Book suggestion
  • Allowing user to enrich the catalog Book suggestion
  • User personalisation
    • Other forms of personalisation include:
      • register to be alerted of new table of contents
      • maintain a list of items checked-out
      • maintain a list of items ever borrowed
      • choose interface design and needed tools
  • 7.0 Three questions regarding information architecture
  • Information architecture is about… The art and science of structuring, organizing and labeling information to help people find and manage information
  • Understand your users
    • Define the primary audience of your information system - university's students, faculty and staff
      • needs of these people take precedence over the needs of the general public, alumni or scholars from other institutions
      • limited resources and it is not possible to be all things to all people at all times
    • Learn what they need and desire - build relationships with them
      • surveys, information interviews, focus group interviews, usability studies and transactions log analysis
      • understand the challenges and difficulties they are having when it comes to doing their work
      • learn their priorities
  • Understand your users
    • Why it is important to understand your users?
      • A survey found that while users showed interest in OPAC Web 2.0 functionalities, they are still “Users 1.0”
      • They surf regularly and use information from the web
      • Best known are comments and suggestions. Tagging and rating are less known
      • But even if the functionality is known, it is rarely used
    Source: Chalon, P., Di Pretoro, E., & Kohn, L. (2008). OPAC 2.0: Opportunities, development and analysis. European Association for Health Information and Libraries (EAHIL) 11th Conference.
  • Know your business context
    • Understanding your organisation’s objectives, politics, culture, technology, resources and constraints
    • Know the purpose, goals and priorities of your institution
    • Look to your institution's vision and mission statement for answers
    • What problems is it trying to solve?
    • How can your information system be expected to contribute to the solutions?
  • Know your business context
    • Why it is important to know your business context?
      • There is no such thing as unlimited amount of resources
      • These resources can take the form of time, money, hardware, software, people and expertise
      • Implementation and ongoing maintenance of your information system will require a diverse set of skills
      • The people with the necessary skills include subject experts, leaders of people, graphic designers, people who can mark up texts, knowledge workers who can organise content, usability experts, marketers, programmers and systems administrators
      • None of which are necessarily more important than the other
  • Create relevant content
    • Define your library’s collection development policy
    • Focus on the answers regarding users and context to define the scope of your content
    • What are the strengths of my institution?
    • To what degree does my collection need to be comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, written in a particular language, presented in an aesthetically pleasing manner, etc?
  • Create relevant content
    • Why is defining your library’s collection development policy important?
      • Again, it falls back to the answer that resources are limited
      • Not even Google provides access to the totality of the world's content, and there is no reason to expect you to fill this role
    • Create a list of guidelines that your information resources need to embody in order to be a part of your collection
    • Just because a particular information resource is about a particular subject does not necessarily mean it is a good candidate
  • 8.0 Conclusion
  • The long and arduous journey…
    • Some changes will improve a library’s standing in the community
    • Some may bring in new audiences
    • Some will go unused and if tracked properly may be abandoned
    • Some of those changes may be viewed as disruptive
    • Some just will not be feasible for some libraries
    • Some of those patrons will love some of the new services that come under the Library 2.0 rubric, as long as they do not detract from the successful old services and collections
    • Some simply will no use them; that is all right, as long as the new services do not displace or weaken successful existing services
    • Some of the tools and concepts can be used with little or no monetary investment and expertise
    • Some of them will not work out for you; some will
  • Do not try to do it all
    • Do not worry about doing it all—you cannot.
    • Consider the benefits of each change, but do not assume that all change is inherently good
    • This way, you will probably build a better library and enjoy your work more in the process
    •   Finally, do not worry too much about “Library 2.0” or “OPAC 2.0” or “Web 2.0” - they are just names
    • Deep in our hearts, we know that Metadata and Library Catalog will never ever be a finished, perfected product!
  • Thank You (A full-text of this study has been provided to the event organiser)