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  • Photo: Dancing during a festa de Candombl é at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Lula de Oiy á opens a festa at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Four Ogans performa at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • Photo: Spirit possession by Xang ô at the Abassa Igibale Candomblé terreiro (house) in Recife, 2000. Photo by Sylvia Crook
  • YouTube Rum de Ogum This YouTube example shows a Candombl é festa featuring the dance, drumming, and singing characteristic of Candomblé participatory aesthetics. Oxossi no Rum This one has dancing and possession. Another good YouTube showing Candomblé
  • A field recording made by Gerard B éhague of this piece can be found on Side 2/Band 1 of Afro-Brazilian Religious Songs: Cantigas de Candomblé/Candomblé Songs from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (Lyrichord Stereo LLST 7315). The recording is available for download (track 7) at .
  • Website: for information on Filhos de Gandhi (also commonly spelled Gandhy): This website dedicated to Filhos de Gandhi is in English and has a short video clip of the group. Website2: Photo of the group’s “Gandhi”figure. <>
  • YouTube: This is a p review for a documentary titled Filhos de Gandhy Documentary - Sounds of Wisdom Amidst the Cacophony of Carnaval. The sound track begins with the Ijex á rhythm notated in the slide with trumpets layered on top. At approximately 1:13 drummers of the Filho de Gandhi areseen followed by beaded gourds. At about 1:38 the images and sound track switch to an unidentified Bloco Afro group followed by several scenes of Carnival in Bahia. At 2:45 the sound track and images are of the Filhos de Gandhi group. The final scenes show the group in the streets of Salvador.
  • Photo: King and Queen of the maracatu Naç ão Porto Rico do Oriente during Carnival in Recife, 2001. Photo by Larry Crook
  • These are some of the main characters that make up the royal entourage of a Maracatu
  • Photo: King and Queen of the Naç ã o Porto Rico do Oriente during Carnival in Recife, 2001. Photo by Larry Crook. This is Dona Elder, Queen of Porto Rico.
  • Photo: A Dama do Paço (Palace Lady) of the maracatu Naç ã o Sol Nascente carrying a calunga (wooden doll) representing an ancestor of the group. Recife Carnival. Photo by Larry Crook.
  • Photo: Batuqueiros from the Naç ão Elefante performing in Recife, 1987. Photo by Sylvia Crook.
  • YouTube: Naç ão Porto Rico performing for Carnival in Recife, 2002. <> While the video and audio quality are not the best, this is a good example of the the maracatu de baque virado. WebPage: Page dedicated Naç ã o Porto Rico is at It contains several videos and information about the group.

Ch3 Ch3 Presentation Transcript

  • Afro-Brazilian Musical Traditions
  • Conceptualizing Afro-Brazilian Musical Culture
    • Contested Terrain
    • Sites of Resistance
    • Appropriation and Nationalization
  • Defining African Heritage in Afro-Brazilian Traditions
    • Common Model
      • Transplanted African traditions (without modification)
      • Development of Neo-African Brazilian traditions
      • Mixture of African and European elements create new hybrid Brazilian forms
  • African Identity and Afro-Brazilian Religion
    • Candomblé as Matrix of Africanness
    • Universal African Identity
    • Cultural Competency
      • Singing
      • Dancing
      • Drumming
  • Candombl é
    • Orix ás and Voduns
    • African Nations
      • Ketu (Yoruba)
      • Ijex á (Yoruba)
      • Nagô (Yoruba)
      • Gêge (Ewe-Fon)
      • Congo-Angola (Bantu)
  • Candomblé Aesthetics of Participation
    • Participatory religious experience
      • Singing, Dancing, Drumming
      • Spirit possession
    • Universalist African identity
  • Abassa Igibale Candomblé House in Recife
    • Festa/Toque (public celebration)
    • Lula de Oiy á (Babalorixá)
    • Ogans (Drummers)
    • Spirit Possession
  • Festa/Toque de Candomblé
  • Lula de Oiy á Babalorixá
  • Ogan Drummers Agbe Atabaque
  • Spirit Possession
  • Music of Candomblé Canon of Africanness
    • Acoustic Texture
      • Drums and percussion
      • Solo and responsorial chorus singing
    • Dancing
  • Candomblé Song
  • Afox é and Maracatu
    • Two Afro-Brazilian Carnival Traditions
      • Afox é (Salvador da Bahia)
      • Maracatu (Recife, Pernambuco)
    • African Consciousness
    • State Intervention and Repression
  • Afox és in Bahia
    • 1890s--Small and Large Parading Groups
    • 1900s--Prohibition
    • 1930s--Resurgence
    • 1949--Filhos de Gandhi
    • 1970s--Revitalization
  • Filhos de Gandhi
    • Founded 1949
    • From bloco to afox é
    • Ijexá rhythm
    WebSite WebSite2
  • Ijex á Rhythm YouTube
  • Maracatus in Recife Our queen has been crowned Our king came from Mina
  • Maracatu’s Historical Outline
    • Crowning Black Kings Rei de Congo/Angola (colonial)
      • Black Catholic Brotherhoods
      • Processions and Festivities
      • African and European cultural mixing
      • Afro-Brazilian Religious Houses and Naç ões (Nations)
    • Maracatu (19th century)
      • Unlawful gathering of blacks
      • Disorderly conduct
      • Loud “African” drumming and singing
    • Maracatu in Carnival (1890s-)
      • Codified as African Carnival Practice
      • Instrumentation, musical style, structure set
  • Maracatu and Carnival
    • Linked to Candomblé houses
    • Conceptualized as African Nations
    • Codified in structure and musical style by about 1900
  • Maracatu’s Royal Entourage
    • King/Queen
    • Prince/Princess
    • Duke/Dutchess
    • Damas do Paço (Palace Ladies)
    • Slaves
    • Caboclos (Indians)
    • Baianas (Female initiates of Candomblé)
    • Batuqueiros (Percussionists)
  • King and Queen
  • Dama do Paço Calunga
  • Batuqueiros Alfaia Gongu ê
  • Naç ão Porto Rico Carnival 2001 YouTube WebPage