Branches of PhilosophyReality, Knowledge and Value
THREE BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHYMETAPHYSICS-What is the nature of REALITY?EPISTEMOLOGY-What is the nature of KNOWLEDGE?AXIOLOGY- What is the nature of VALUES?
METAPHYSICSONE OF THE KEY CONCEPTS OF UNDERSTANDING PHILOSOPHIESCONCERNED WITH REALITY AND EXISTENCEASKS: WHAT IS THE NATURE OF REALITY?SUBDIVIDE INTO TWO CATEGORIES1.ONTOLOGY: What is the nature of existence2.COSMOLOGY: Origin and organization of the universe
EPISTEMOLOGYRAISES QUESTIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGELOGIC IS A KEY DIMENSION TO EPISTEMOLOGYTWO KINDS OF LOGIC:1.Deductive logic: from general to specific2.Inductive logic: from specific facts to generalization
AXIOLOGYEXPLORES THE NATURE OF VALUES ETHICS: study of human conduct and examines moral values AESTHETICS: values beauty, nature, and aesthetic experience (oftenassociated with music, art, literature, dance, theater, and other finearts)
MAJOR TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY:IDEALISMCONSIDERED OLDEST PHILOSOPHY OF WESTERN CULTURETHE WORLD OF MIND, IDEAS AND REASON IS PRIMARY METAPHYSICS: stresses mind over matter (nothing is real except for anidea in the mind) EPISTEMOLOGY: all knowledge includes a mental grasp of ideas andconcepts AXIOLOGY: values are rooted in realityIDEALISTS BELIEVE THAT VALUES CAN BE CLASSIFIED AND ORDERED INTOA HIERARCHY
LEADING PROPONENTS OFIDEALISM• PLATO- Greek Philosopher- considered father of idealism- ”Allegory of the Cave” from The Republic• AUGUSTINE- Theologian of 4th & 5th centuries- Applied Plato’s assumptions to Christian thought• DESCARTES, KANT & HEGEL- Descarte: “I think, therefore I am”- Kant: certain universal moral laws- categorical imperatives- Hegel: approached reality as “contest of opposites”
MAJOR TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY:REALISMThe antithesis of IdealismUniverse exists whether mind perceives it or not METAPHYSICS- reality composed of matter (body) and form (mind) EPISTEMOLOGY- sense realism (knowledge comes through senses) AXIOLOGY- values derived from nature
LEADING PROPONENTS OF REALISM• ARISTOTLE- father of realism-student of Plato-argued that knowledge can be acquired through senses• FRANCIS BACON-advanced a rigorous form of inductive reason• JOHN LOCKE-theory of tabula rasa (no such thing as innate ideas)• COMENIUS, ROUSSEAU, and PESTALOZZI
MAJOR TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY:NEO-THOMISM• Dates to the time of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)• Also known as theistic realism“God exists and can be known through faith and reason” Metaphysics- God gives meaning to universe Epistemology- hierarchy of knowing God Axiology- unchanging moral laws
CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHIES:PRAGMATISMAlso known as experimentalism- experience or things that workPhilosophy of 20th century developed by John Dewey Metaphysics- regard reality as an event or process. Meaning isderived from experience in environment. Epistemology- truth is not absolute but determined by consequences.Arrived at by inquiry, testing, questioning, retesting, ect. Axiology- primarily focused on values. Determined by ownexperiences
LEADING PROPONENTS OFPRAGMATISM• AUGUSTE COMTE-suggested science could solve social problems-problem solving was keyCHARLES DARWIN-theory of natural selection implied reality was open ended, not fixedAMERICANS: Charles Pierce, William James and John Dewey
CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHIES:EXISTENTIALISMAppeared as a revolt against the mathematical, scientificphilosophies that preceded it.Focus on personal and subjective existence Metaphysics- no purpose or meaning to universe. No world order ornatural scheme of things Epistemology- we come to know truth by choice. The authority isfound in self. Axiology- choice to determine value.
LEADING PROPONENTS OFEXISTENTIALISM• SOREN KIERKEGAARD-Danish philosopher/theologian-Father of Existentialism-Rejected scientific objectivity for subjectivity and choice• MARTIN BUBER-Jewish philosopher/theologian-”I/Thou” relationship- divine and human are related• HUSSERL and HEIDEGGER• JEAN-PAUL SARTRE-We construct our own existence
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHYSought out to clarify, and define philosophiesBegan in post WWI era- Vienna Circle Studied the alienation between philosophy and science Established the concept of logical positivism: there are logical andempirical types of scientific expression Shifted to Analytic philosophy in 1950’s Analytic philosophy has recently focused on political philosophy,ethics and philosophy of human sciences
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