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Booy Up Booy Up Presentation Transcript

  • Managing Your Hard Disk and Operating System 23,26 March 2004 2:30pm - 4:00pm
  • Knowing your Hard Disk and Partition Management
  • Multiple Operating System
  • Physical Geometry About Your Disk
    • Side(Head)
    • Cylinder (Tracks per Side)
    • Track
    • Sectors/Track
    • Cluster
    • 1 Sector = 512 Bytes
    • Capacity = Cylinder x Head x Sector x 512 Bytes
    • e.g. A hard disk with 1023 Cylinders, 6 Heads and 63 Sectors/Track (CHS=1023/6/63)
      • Capacity = 1023 x 6 x 63 x 512 Bytes = 386694 sectors = 197987328 B = 188.8 MB
    Side/Head Track Sector
  • Limitations of Your System * The disk capacity limited by the min. values.
  • To Overcome the Limitations
    • Address Translation
      • Controller board on hard disk translates the the CHS values such that the no. will not exceed the max. no. allowed in BIOS and partition table.
      • Convert the physical values to logical values, e.g. 2000/16/63  1000/32/63
    • Modify BIOS’s design
      • For addressing still using traditional CHS values
    • Logical Block Addressing (LBA)
      • LINEAR addressing instead of using CHS values
    • Newer OS/file system e.g. FAT32, NTFS
  • Logical Block Addressing (LBA)
    • Suppose a Hard disk with CHS= 2040 / 16 / 63
    • To access a sector on Cyl: 2000 , Head: 10 , Sect: 60 (CHS= 2000 / 10 / 60 )
    • LBA value = 2000 x 16 x 63 + 10 x 63 + 60 = 2016690
    Sect 1 Sect 63 Head 0 Head 1 Sect 126 Head 15 Sect 1008 Cyl. 0 Sect 2016690 C=2000 H=10 S=60
  • Limitation of Logical Block Addressing (LBA)
    • * Most hard disk use 28-bit LBA addressing.
      • Max. Capacity of 28-bit LBA = 2 28 Sectors = 128GB
    • * Newest hard disk use 48-bit
      • ~ 1 Million times bigger!
  • File Systems
  • Popular file systems for PCs
    • File Allocation Table (FAT)
      • FAT12, FAT16, FAT32
      • DOS, Win9x/Me/NT/2000/XP
    • High Performance File Sys.(HPFS)
      • IBM’s OS/2
    • New Technology File Sys.(NTFS)
      • Win NT/2000/XP
    • EXT 2,3
      • Linux
  • Type of FAT system
    • FAT12
      • 12bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 12 = 4K
      • 1 cluster = 1 sector = 512 Bytes
      • Max. capacity = 2 MB
      • Mainly for floppy disk
    • FAT16
      • 16bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 16 = 64K
      • 1 cluster = 4~64 sectors = 2KB~32KB
      • capacity = 128 MB ~ 2 GB
      • Mainly for DOS
    • FAT32
      • 32bits cluster addressing  # of cluster = 2 32 = 4G
      • 1 cluster = 8~64 sectors = 4KB~32KB
      • capacity = 512 MB ~ 2 TB
      • Mainly for Win 9X
  • File Allocation Table (FAT) file system Boot Sector FAT (store usage of clusters) Root Directory User data area (addressable by cluster #) Disk Space Clusters #
  • Partitions
  • Why Partition?
    • Organize and protect important data
      • e.g. OS in C:, Data in D:
    • Run several operating system with one HD
    • Gain access to large disk (for FAT16 or older file systems)
    • Minimize wasted disk space
      • Larger disk  Larger Cluster size
      •  more wastage of space
      • smaller partition  smaller Cluster size  less wastage
  • Partition Table
    • located in Master Boot Record (MBR)
    • Storing information of partitions
    • Max. 4 partitions in a table
    • Can be Extended
    Disk Space addressable by Sector# MBR/ Partition Table Partitions Win Xp Win 98 Data
  • Primary and Extended partitions MBR Extended Win XP Win 98 MSDOS Partition Table F: Extended E: D: Extended Partition Table Primary Partitions Extended Partitions Logical drives Linux swap Linux Extended Partition Table Boot Code
  • A Typical Partition Table Some Typical System Type: 5 Extended Partition 6 DOS FAT-16 7 HPFS/NTFS b FAT-32 c FAT-32X(Cyl > 1024) Sect. Cyl. Side Sect. Cyl. Side Boot System Type No. of Sect. Relative Sect. End Start 4192965 15599115 63 1023 254 1 971 0 00 b 10377990 5221125 63 970 254 1 325 0 00 5 4192965 1028160 63 324 254 1 64 0 00 7 1028097 63 63 63 254 1 0 1 80 6
  • Screenshot of DISKEDIT
  • Screenshot of SPFDISK
  • Partition Management
    • Create
    • Delete
    • Re-size
    • Move
    • File system conversion
    • Hide/Unhide
  • Tools for partition management
    • FDISK (MSDOS, Win 9X, Linux)
    • Partition Magic
    • System Commander
    • Norton GHOST
    • Many of freeware/shareware from Internet e.g. SPFDISK, EFDISK
  • Why not just use FDISK?
    • Can create only one primary partition
      • multiple primary partition needed for multiple OS
    • Destroy data in partition after creation or deletion
    • Cannot change system ID (type) which is helpful in preparing multiple boot system
    • Cannot hide partition
  • Comparison among Some Tools
  • Installing Multiple Operating System
  • Why use multiple OS?
    • Better utilization of large hard disk
    • Allows OS with
      • different capability
        • e.g. WinXP for working, Linux for testing …
      • different user
        • e.g. One for me, one for brother,…
      • different purpose
        • e.g. One for software download, one for internet-banking
    * Be sure you are properly LICENSED!
  • Ways to run Multiple OS
    • Hard Disk Partitioning
    • Running Virtual Machine in Host OS
      • VMware (for Win NT/2000/XP)
      • Virtual PC (for MAC)
  • Create Multi-boot System by Partitioning
    • Perform system check to make sure no disk error
    • Re-size your current partition to free up space for other OS
    • Create and format another primary partition
    • Install a Boot Manager
    • Install another Operating System
    • Be careful if the OS will destroy the MBR
  • How Is Your Computer Boot Up Single OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD 1 st Pri. Partition
  • How Boot Manager Works Multiple OS System Power on Boot sequence BIOSPOST Floppy CD-ROM HD 0 HD 1 Load MBR On HD Boot Manager Win XP Win 98 Linux
  • Some Boot Managers
    • System Commander
    • Reborn Card
    • Boot Manager Plus (BMP)
    • Smart Boot Manager (SMB)
    • SPFDISK
    • Build in OS
      • e.g. Win NT/2000/XP, Linux, OS/2
    • Many many from Internet
  • Something to Consider
    • File system type ?
      • FAT16, FAT32 or NTFS ?
    • Partition location
      • Some OS cannot boot beyond 2GB boundary(Cyl.>1023)
      • e.g. Win NT/2000, Linux (older ver.)
  • Try it yourself!
  • Try the following steps:
    • Delete partition using FDISK
    • Use SPFDISK to create partitions
    • Use GHOST to restore partitions
    • Install a Boot-manager
    • Configure the Boot Manager
    • Done!
  • The End Thank You!