Nutrition

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Nutrition

  1. 1. NUTRITION AND THE ATHLETE
  2. 2. Nutrition What is it?  Process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues  Field of science or study that deals with food and nourishment Proper nutrition can reduce likelihood of injury and increase performance
  3. 3. Energy Power used to do work or to produce heat or light Cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another  Solar energy  Photosynthesis  Protein  Carbohydrates  Fat
  4. 4. Energy Animals use energy indirectly  What they eat, we eat Needed:  To maintain body functions  For active movement  For growth and repair In nutrition, energy is measured as calories
  5. 5. CaloriesWhat is a calorie?  The energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5º to 15.5º C.  One kilocalorie (or kcal) = 1,000 calories  A 2,000 calorie diet is really 2,000,000 calories  Number of kcals in food is the energy value
  6. 6. Energy Values Carbohydrate = 4 calories/ gram Protein = 4 calories/ gram Fat = 9 calories/ gram Alcohol = 7 calories/ gram
  7. 7. INPUT = OUTPUTHow Food Affects Performance
  8. 8. Your Body =
  9. 9. Food =Food, i.e. calories, must be viewed as energy as opposed to the stuff that makes you gain weight.
  10. 10. The Basics of FoodThere are 7 basic components of food: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
  11. 11. Carbohydrates Primary source of fuel for energy Two types  Simple  Complex Should make up 60% of total daily caloric intake 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories
  12. 12. Proteins  Form the body’s main structural elements  Aid in the repair and rebuilding cells  Consists of chains of amino acids  Animal proteins are complete  Plant proteins are incomplete  15% of your daily calories  1 gram of protein = 4 calories
  13. 13. Fats Get a bad reputation  Transport vitamins  Essential in hormone production  Used in energy production  Insulates your body  Provides cushion to vital organs Types  Saturated- animal  Unsaturated- plant 30% of daily caloric intake  10% from saturated 1 gram of fat = 9 calories
  14. 14. Vitamins Small molecules that your body needs to keep itself running properly 13 different vitamins are needed Fat soluble and water soluble Can obtain though a well-balanced diet
  15. 15. Minerals Inorganic substances Elements that create specific molecules needed in the body Ex: Calcium, Iron, Potassium Obtain in well-balanced diet Do you need vitamin and mineral supplements?
  16. 16. Fiber Indigestible component of plant material Keeps the digestive tract running smoothly
  17. 17. Water Carries nutrients and energy to our cells Carries waste products away from cells Regulates our body temperature Must be replenished 2% loss can be harmful, 5% dangerous, 7-10% can be deadly
  18. 18. SO WHATDONutrition I EAT?Pre and Post Game
  19. 19. Pre-Game Meal What is the typical pre-game meal? FAST FOOD
  20. 20. What’s in It?BURGER MEAL: Cheeseburger, large fries, 16oz soda  How many Calories?  1,460 calories  How many grams of Fat?  75 grams
  21. 21. What about TACOS ? Taco salad, rice, 16 oz soda Total:  1,170 calories  49 grams of fat
  22. 22. Okay…Chicken?4 chicken tenders, french fries, roll, 32oz sweet tea Total:  1,320 calories  61 grams of fat
  23. 23. Sub Sandwich:foot long turkey on wheat, baked lays, 20 oz coke and a cookie
  24. 24. Saladcrispy chicken caeser salad, 20 oz coke Salad:  520 calories  33 grams of fat Coke:  210 calories  0 grams of fat Total: 730 calories 33 grams of fat
  25. 25. Whatdoes thismean for me?
  26. 26. Let’s Go Back: Your daily budget is 2,000 calories/ day  Breakfast- 542 calories (cereal and milk)  Lunch- 1,460 (McDonalds)  Dinner- 1,320 (Chicken E)  Total calories for the day- 3,322 (1,322 over daily allowance) It only takes 3,500 additional calories to gain 1 pound 3 days of this diet and you would gain 1 pound a week
  27. 27. Fast Food for Performance Slower digestion Fatigue Dehydration Empty calories = “sugar high” Gas What are better choices?
  28. 28. Suggestions Baked or broiled pork chop Baked sweet potatoes Macaroni and cheese Roast beef Whole wheat breads, rolls Cooked greens Salads Fresh fruit Fluids!!
  29. 29. Pre-game Guidelines At least 3 hours prior to competition High in complex-carbohydrates (Why?) Moderate protein Limit fats, oils, sugary foods, caffeine Watch out for foods that produce gas Drink plenty of fluids
  30. 30. Post-Game Nutrition After physical activity the glycogen in your muscle and liver tissue is used up Consume carb-rich foods to replenish your body as soon as you can tolerate eating Ideally within 2 hours Remember fluids!!
  31. 31. Remember It is a continuous process (before, during, post activity) A well-balanced diet will provide almost everything your body needs to perform well Fluid replacement is vital
  32. 32. Basal Metabolic Rate Your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) shows the number of calories your body needs to operate. This doesnt account for any activity, its simply the energy needed to sustain a heartbeat, breathing and normal body temperature. It measures the body at rest, not sleep, at room temperature.
  33. 33. Harris Benedict Equation A formula that uses your BMR and then applies an activity factor to determine your total daily energy expenditure (calories). Total is the number of calories you need to consume to maintain your current weight.
  34. 34. To Lose Weight Approximately 3500 calories in a pound of body weight To lose ONE pound of body weight per week:  create a 3500-calorie deficit through  Diet  Exercise  combination of both  If you create a 7000 calorie deficit you will lose two pounds per week and so on. A useful guideline for lowering your calorie intake is  reduce your daily calorie intake by 500  the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends that calorie levels never drop below:  1200 calories per day for women  1800 calories per day for men
  35. 35. To Gain Weight Consume more calories than you burn. One pound of body weight = 3500 calories, Adding an extra 500 calories per day will cause you to gain one pound a week. For optimum health  if you increase your calories to gain weight then (health permitting) gradually increase your level of physical exercise in order to maintain or increase your lean body mass

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