Nutrition What is it? Process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues Field of science or study that deals with food and nourishment Proper nutrition can reduce likelihood of injury and increase performance
Energy Power used to do work or to produce heat or light Cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another Solar energy Photosynthesis Protein Carbohydrates Fat
Energy Animals use energy indirectly What they eat, we eat Needed: To maintain body functions For active movement For growth and repair In nutrition, energy is measured as calories
CaloriesWhat is a calorie? The energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5º to 15.5º C. One kilocalorie (or kcal) = 1,000 calories A 2,000 calorie diet is really 2,000,000 calories Number of kcals in food is the energy value
Food =Food, i.e. calories, must be viewed as energy as opposed to the stuff that makes you gain weight.
The Basics of FoodThere are 7 basic components of food: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
Carbohydrates Primary source of fuel for energy Two types Simple Complex Should make up 60% of total daily caloric intake 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories
Proteins Form the body’s main structural elements Aid in the repair and rebuilding cells Consists of chains of amino acids Animal proteins are complete Plant proteins are incomplete 15% of your daily calories 1 gram of protein = 4 calories
Fats Get a bad reputation Transport vitamins Essential in hormone production Used in energy production Insulates your body Provides cushion to vital organs Types Saturated- animal Unsaturated- plant 30% of daily caloric intake 10% from saturated 1 gram of fat = 9 calories
Vitamins Small molecules that your body needs to keep itself running properly 13 different vitamins are needed Fat soluble and water soluble Can obtain though a well-balanced diet
Minerals Inorganic substances Elements that create specific molecules needed in the body Ex: Calcium, Iron, Potassium Obtain in well-balanced diet Do you need vitamin and mineral supplements?
Fiber Indigestible component of plant material Keeps the digestive tract running smoothly
Water Carries nutrients and energy to our cells Carries waste products away from cells Regulates our body temperature Must be replenished 2% loss can be harmful, 5% dangerous, 7-10% can be deadly
Let’s Go Back: Your daily budget is 2,000 calories/ day Breakfast- 542 calories (cereal and milk) Lunch- 1,460 (McDonalds) Dinner- 1,320 (Chicken E) Total calories for the day- 3,322 (1,322 over daily allowance) It only takes 3,500 additional calories to gain 1 pound 3 days of this diet and you would gain 1 pound a week
Fast Food for Performance Slower digestion Fatigue Dehydration Empty calories = “sugar high” Gas What are better choices?
Pre-game Guidelines At least 3 hours prior to competition High in complex-carbohydrates (Why?) Moderate protein Limit fats, oils, sugary foods, caffeine Watch out for foods that produce gas Drink plenty of fluids
Post-Game Nutrition After physical activity the glycogen in your muscle and liver tissue is used up Consume carb-rich foods to replenish your body as soon as you can tolerate eating Ideally within 2 hours Remember fluids!!
Remember It is a continuous process (before, during, post activity) A well-balanced diet will provide almost everything your body needs to perform well Fluid replacement is vital
Basal Metabolic Rate Your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) shows the number of calories your body needs to operate. This doesnt account for any activity, its simply the energy needed to sustain a heartbeat, breathing and normal body temperature. It measures the body at rest, not sleep, at room temperature.
Harris Benedict Equation A formula that uses your BMR and then applies an activity factor to determine your total daily energy expenditure (calories). Total is the number of calories you need to consume to maintain your current weight.
To Lose Weight Approximately 3500 calories in a pound of body weight To lose ONE pound of body weight per week: create a 3500-calorie deficit through Diet Exercise combination of both If you create a 7000 calorie deficit you will lose two pounds per week and so on. A useful guideline for lowering your calorie intake is reduce your daily calorie intake by 500 the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends that calorie levels never drop below: 1200 calories per day for women 1800 calories per day for men
To Gain Weight Consume more calories than you burn. One pound of body weight = 3500 calories, Adding an extra 500 calories per day will cause you to gain one pound a week. For optimum health if you increase your calories to gain weight then (health permitting) gradually increase your level of physical exercise in order to maintain or increase your lean body mass