Individual Differences in Connected Viewing: The Role of Emotional Contagion,                      Need for Belonging, and...
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Individual Differences in Connected Viewing: The Role of Emotional Contagion, Need for Belonging, and Co-viewing Orientation in Mediated and Non-Mediated Television Co-viewing

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This study investigated how the frequency that people engaged in face-to-face (FtF) and mediated co-viewing situations varied by individual differences: emotional contagion, need to belong, and co-viewing orientation. Emotional contagion predicted FtF co-viewing, but not mediated co-viewing. Need to belong and need for solitude predicted some mediated co-viewing activities. Need for solitude negatively predicted FtF co-viewing, but need for company positively predicted FtF co-viewing. The results suggest that mediated co-viewing situations may provide desired company during viewing for those who tend to watch TV without others being physically present.

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Individual Differences in Connected Viewing: The Role of Emotional Contagion, Need for Belonging, and Co-viewing Orientation in Mediated and Non-Mediated Television Co-viewing

  1. 1. Individual Differences in Connected Viewing: The Role of Emotional Contagion, Need for Belonging, and Co-viewing Orientation in Mediated and Non-Mediated Television Co-viewing Abstract Results This study investigated how the frequency that people engaged in face-to-face (FtF) and mediated co-viewing situations varied by individual differences: Method Regressions Predicting Connected Viewing Non-Mediated Text Instant Message Social Network Site Socialemotional contagion, need to belong, and co-viewing orientation. Emotional Coviewing Co-viewing Co-viewing Co-viewing Network Sitecontagion predicted FtF co-viewing, but not mediated co-viewing. Need to belong b β ΔR 2 b β ΔR 2 b β ΔR 2 b β ΔR 2 b Monitoring β ΔR 2and need for solitude predicted some mediated co-viewing activities. Need for Demographics .02* .11*** .07*** .12*** .11***solitude negatively predicted FtF co-viewing, but need for company positively Age -.01+ -.09 -.03*** -.31 -.02*** -.26 -.03*** -.35 -.03*** -.33 Insert your text here. You can change thepredicted FtF co-viewing. The results suggest that mediated co-viewing situations Gender (0 = female) .23* .11 .19* .10 -.02 -.01 .20* .09 .20* .09may provideto fit your text. during viewing for those who tend to watch TV font size desired company Need for Belonging .01 .01 .00 .10* .10 .01* .07 .08 .01 .12* .12 .01* .16*** .15 .02***withoutcan also make this box shrink or grow •You others being physically present. Emotional Contagion .17* .17 .02** .07 .06 .01 .04 .04 .00 .07 .07 .01 .07 .07 .01 with the amount of text. Simply double click Co-viewing Orientation .21*** .02* .02* .02* .03** Predictions & Rationale this text box, go to the “Text Box” tab, and Need for Solitude Audience Monitoring -.18*** .06 -.23 .08 .06 .13** .08 .17 .08* .03 .11 .05 .08* .10* .09 .13 .12** .12* .15 .14 check the option “Resize AutoShape to fit Need for Company .29*** .33 .02 .02 .08+ .09 .06 .07 .01 .01 text”. vast majority of television consumption may occur when people are Thewith other people (Lee & Lee, 1995). The increasing popularity of Social TV Adjusted R2 .23*** .13*** .08*** .14*** .15*** •Insert your text2013), suggests that even if people are physically alone, they(Nielsen/SocialGuide, here. Remember, you cancan still be connected toto fit your text.technologies such as social network sites adjust the font size others through * p < .05 ** p < .01 *** p < .001 (two-tailed tests) •Insert your text viewing. There are many personal and relational benefits of(SNS) while they are here. You can place your Key Findings:watching television with other people (Finucane &title organizations logos on either side of the Horvath, 2000), but little isunderstood about the factors that draw people to connected viewing • Emotional contagion predicted FtF co-viewing, but not mediated co-viewing of the poster. Insert your text here.experiences in FtF or mediated contexts. • Need to belong predicted most types of mediated co-viewing • You can change the font size to fit your text. Co-viewing Orientation Exploratory Factor Structure E H H • Need for solitude negatively predicted FtF co-viewing but positively predicted You can also make this box shrink or growEmotional contagion, or people’s susceptibility to “catching” others’ emotions is Audience Monitoring (M = 3.35, SD = 1.35) SNS monitoringthought to amount of text. with the contribute to people’s enjoyment during co-viewing experiences, and I enjoy watching other people’s reactions when we watch television .76 .03 .19 • Audience monitoring predicted most types of mediated co-viewing, but did notthus should predict the frequency that people watch TV with others. However, shows together. predict FtF co-viewingreduced non-verbal emotional cues in computer-mediated communication I like watching television with people who express their emotions in response to the shows. .76 .06 .24 • Need for company predicted FtF but not any mediated co-viewing activities(Walther, 1996) could inhibit emotional contagion processes, so trait emotional When I watch television shows, I appreciate the opportunity to talk to .56 .16 .27contagion was not expected to predict mediated co-viewing. other people about what’s going on. I feel frustrated when people I am watching television with don’t seem to .55 -.38 .23 Discussion enjoy shows as much as I do.Need to belong refers to the extent that people feel the need to have many social Need for Solitude (M = 3.63, SD = 1.31)connections and feel socially included. People with a higher need to belong tendto monitor their social environments more carefully for cues about how others Having people around ruins the television viewing experience. .05 .78 -.07 • Different dispositions predict different types of co-viewing (FtF or mediated, SNS vs.are responding so that they can better fit in (Pickett, Gardner, & Knowles, 2004). As It is better to watch television shows alone. .09 .69 .19 non-SNS), suggesting that these modes of co-viewing provide different gratificationssuch, people with a greater need to belong were expected to appreciate It’s hard for me to focus on television shows when other people are around. -.01 .66 .05 • FtF co-viewing may intensify emotional experiencesmediated co-viewing activities where they can have access to more people during • Mediated co-viewing—perhaps SNS viewing activities in particular, may be Need for Company (M = 2.68, SD = 1.18)viewing, and perhaps solicit more information about viewers’ reactions. Television is better as a social event. .26 .12 .75 desirable because they let people monitor and connect to a wider network I feel that I get more out of television shows when I watch them with .34 .17 .66Co-viewing orientation, newly conceptualized for this study, refers to people’s other people. • Dimensions of co-viewing orientation differentially predicted FtF and mediated co-preference for viewing television with others versus viewing television alone. I like to share my television time with other people .36 .32 .54 viewing, suggesting that social media may open doors to connected viewing for thoseBecause people with stronger co-viewing orientations should appreciate feeling I often feel lonely when I watch television shows by myself. .12 -.19 .54 who typically prefer to watch in solitude. Though it may not provide the samelike they are with others during viewing, this dispositional variable was expected Cronbach’s Alpha .79 .76 .77 emotional gratifications as FtF co-viewing, co-viewing via social media gives audiencesto predict both FtF and mediated co-viewing. more control over when, what, and with whom they watch
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