Behavioral Consultation Kristen Bouwman, Sara Heimdahl, & Marissa Griffith SPED 664 7/19/09
Overview Scenario Behavioral Terms Entry Diagnosis Problem Solving Functional Behavioral Assessment Implementation Choosing, formulating, and implementing intervention Disengagement Evaluation and follow-up planning Resources
Scenario A general education teacher seeks consultation from a school psychologist on a 1st grade student (Billy) who is experiencing off-task behavior such as getting out of his seat often and talking to neighbors during classroom instructional times.
Behavioral Terms Behavioral Problem- needs to be described in concrete and specific terms ABC Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence A-what occurs immediately before target behavior B-target behavior C- what occurs immediately after target behavior (escape, attention, tangibles, etc)
Behavioral Terms Continued Target Behavior- behavior desiring change Replacement Behavior- behavior that takes place of target behavior and thus decreases it Positive Behavioral Supports- a broad range of systematic and individualized strategies for achieving social and learning outcomes
Entry Referral: form filled out by general education teacher specifying problem behavior and what interventions have been unsuccessful Initial Interview Rapport built if needed Boundaries set describing process Begin collecting info on behavior problem Goal set for consultation process Agreement on responsibilities Time commitment Coaching and fidelity checks
Entry for Scenario After the referral is made, the school psychologist sets up the initial meeting with Billy’s classroom teacher Communication is opened between the two and rapport is built School psychologist explores the needs of the teacher What is it that she would like help with?What are the goals of the consultation Goals for consultation process To find the function or the student’s behavior (ex. attention, escape) To successfully find a replacement behavior for the students problem behavior To decrease the occurrences of Billy’s out-of-seat behavior
Diagnosis Initial interview continued or follow-up interview Gather detailed info on when, where, how, with whom, etc. Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence Diagnose problem What is target behavior and desired replacement behavior Brainstorm interventions Classroom observation Formal observation by school psychologist Target behavior Record ABC’s
Diagnosis for Scenario The school psychologist could then: Conduct a functional behavior interview with the classroom teacher in order to learn more about the what the behavior looks like, antecedents and consequences of the behavior, when the behavior happens most often, when it happens the least, etc. FBA’s allow teachers and school psychologists to look more closely at targeted behaviors in order to address the behaviors appropriately FBA’s can be time consuming, but can yield important information
FBA Interview: Scenario What behaviors are of concern to you as Billy’s classroom teacher? A. He seems to be overactive and getting out of his seat more than he should. I am afraid that this is affecting his learning in the classroom Can you tell me more specifically what the behaviors look like? A. Yes. He gets up from his chair without asking and walks around the room. Most of the time he talks to his neighbors. When do these behaviors occur most frequently? A. They happen throughout the day, but I have noticed it more during math time What are the consequences of these behaviors? A. Well…he is usually just told to go back to his seat, but this doesn’t seem to be helping because he just gets back up in a few minutes. Have you tried anything in the past to target this behavior? A. No ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS ARE ASKED After interviewing the classroom teacher, it is concluded that Billy is getting out of his seat most frequently during math class which is towards the end of the day. The function of his behavior seems to be avoidance and also peer and adult attention.
Diagnosis for Scenario Classroom observations Billy was observed from 1:55-2:25 in his general education classroom. During this time, students (n=20) were working on math individually and also as a group. Billy was seated in the back of the classroom. The teacher gave the students time to do their math worksheet. She then went over problems on the overhead and allowed students to go up and write their answers. Billy appeared to be on-task while working on his homework; however, once the group work began, Billy was out of his seat talking to his neighbors. Billy got out of his seat 4 times within the half hour observation Billy was also observed from 10:20-10:50 during the class’s art time. During this time, the class was making gingerbread housed. Billy was out of his seat two times during this observation. Both times he was talking to the neighbor to his left. After observing Billy on two occasions, it has been determined that this is a definite problem for him.
Diagnosis for Scenario Baseline data is collected by the classroom teacher on the number of times Billy is out of his seat and off-task during instructional time throughout the day In order to collect data, the target behavior must be defined: Out of seat- Billy’s bottom is not touching the chair of his desk and he is out of his seat for more than 5 seconds. It is okay for Billy to be out of his seat for certain on-task behaviors such as borrowing a pencil, etc
Diagnosis for Scenario Possible interventions to accomplish the goal of reducing his off task (out-of-seat) behavior Encouraging Consequence: Reward system (Token Economy): reward Billy for keeping his out-of-seat behavior to a minimum (specifics would need to be set) Verbal Praise, Games Corrective Consequence: Loss of Privileges, Re-directions Consistent Consequence: Immediate, Consistent
Implementation Choose intervention Scientifically research-based interventions (SRIBs) Formulate plan & practice Who, when, where, how record Coaching by school psychologist including role play and fidelity checks Implement Evaluate intervention Survey for social validity Classroom observation Did target behavior decrease/increase?
As cited in the International Journal of Special Education:The Effects of a Token Economy System to Improve Social and Academic Behavior with a Rural Primary Aged Child with Disabilities by Klimas and McLaughlin; this article examined the relationship between a token economy and behavior disorders. It was found that a token economy can be utilized as an effective strategy to reduce problem behaviors both for teaching staff and for the participant.
Implementation for Scenario
It is agreed upon by the classroom teacher and the school psychologist that a reward system (token economy) will be used.
The classroom teacher will do a frequency count of the number of times Billy is out of his seat during each period and record it on a chart. The school psychologist will do a fidelity check by also collecting this data on Tuesdays and Thursdays during one period (selected randomly depending on schedule)
If Billy has 7 or less tallies at the end of the day, he gets to put a sticker on his chart. Once he has 4 stickers, he is allowed to choose a prize.
Implementation for Scenario General eacherand school psychologist will evaluate data to determine if Billy’s out of seat behavior has decreased Collecting reliable data is critical in this stage
Disengagement Evaluate process Plan for future Progress monitor and review data in 4-6 weeks? Terminate
Disengagement for Scenario The intervention was evaluated and it was determined that Billy’s out of seat behavior was not significantly improved with the use of the reward system. The teacher and school psychologist will go back to their options and decide which to attempt next. They can use observations from this intervention to make decisions on what to do next!
Resources http://www.behaviordoctor.org/ http://www.pbis.org/ Dougherty, A. M. (2008). Psychological consultation and collaboration in school and community settings (5th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson. Klimas, A., & McLaughlin, T.F. (2007). The Effects of a Token Economy System to Improve Social and Academic Behavior with a Rural Primary Aged with Disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 22, 72-77.