Genetics 2

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Genetics 2

  1. 1. Genetics<br />By Catherine Bouts<br />
  2. 2. Genes<br />Gene – a segment of DNA molecules<br />Carry vital hereditary information in organisms<br />Determine traits of individuals<br />Hair color, height, blood type etc. <br />
  3. 3. Double Helix Model<br />‘Spiral Staircase’ appearance<br />Found in DNA and some RNA<br />Nucleic Acids connected by nucleotides<br />Phosphate bonds between nucleotides<br />
  4. 4. Rosalind Franklin<br />July 25, 1920 – April 16, 1958<br />British scientist who observed DNA<br />First to examine Double Helix <br /> model<br />Used X-Ray diffraction <br /> method<br />
  5. 5. James Watson & Francis Crick<br />Scientists who ‘borrowed’ Rosalind Franklin’s research<br />Credited for the discovery of <br /> Double Helix<br />1953 - Proposed the Double Helix Model<br />
  6. 6. Three Structure Types<br />A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA<br />
  7. 7. DNA<br />Deoxyribonucleic Acid<br />Contains the genetic material<br />Inherited by younger generations<br />Composed of nucleic acids<br />
  8. 8. DNA Nucleotides<br />Molecules that compose structural units of DNA<br />Purines & Pyrimidines cannot bond with eachother<br />Purines<br />Guanine and Adenine<br />Pyrimidines<br />Cytosine and Thymine<br />
  9. 9. RNA<br />Ribonucleic Acid<br />Different types with different functions<br />Composed of different substances<br />Phosphate<br />Ribose sugar<br />Nitrogenous base<br />
  10. 10. RNA Nucleotides<br />Molecules that compose structural units of RNA<br />Pyridimines<br />Cytosine and Uracil<br />Purines<br />Guanine and Adenine<br />
  11. 11. Nucleotide Functions<br />Building blocks of DNA and RNA <br />Assist in cell metabolism <br />Chemical energy sources (ATP)<br />Cellular signaling<br />Participate in enzyme reactions<br />
  12. 12. Types of RNA<br />mRNA (Messenger RNA)<br />Carries coding data to protein synthesis <br />tRNA (Transfer RNA)<br />Transfers amino acids to polypeptide chains<br />rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)<br />Decodes mRNA and interacts with tRNA<br />
  13. 13. Genetic Mutations<br />Changes in the genomic sequence<br />Causes: radiation, viruses, DNA replication mistakes<br />Detrimental Mutations<br />CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis)<br />Beneficial Mutations<br />CCR5 (AIDS)<br />
  14. 14. DNA vs RNA<br />DNA<br />Always double stranded<br />Thymine<br />Longer Helices <br />RNA<br />Different types<br />Additional Oxygen<br />Uracil<br />Less stable<br />
  15. 15. Summary<br />DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids<br />DNA carries hereditary information<br />RNA has different types and functions<br />Double Helix Structure<br />Franklin, Watson and Crick<br />
  16. 16. Citations<br />Center for Image in Science and Art, “Picture n 52 – DNA at X-Ray” January 12, 2010, via Flickr , Creative Commons Attribution <br />Erlon BR, “Watson Crick” May 30, 2008, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Richard Wheeler, “File:A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA.png” May 16, 2007, via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution<br />John Haver, “Four Nucleotides” April 28, 2009, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />Winton Snyman, “Nucleotides” December 19, 2006, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution<br />

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