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Genetics 2

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Transcript

  • 1. Genetics
    By Catherine Bouts
  • 2. Genes
    Gene – a segment of DNA molecules
    Carry vital hereditary information in organisms
    Determine traits of individuals
    Hair color, height, blood type etc.
  • 3. Double Helix Model
    ‘Spiral Staircase’ appearance
    Found in DNA and some RNA
    Nucleic Acids connected by nucleotides
    Phosphate bonds between nucleotides
  • 4. Rosalind Franklin
    July 25, 1920 – April 16, 1958
    British scientist who observed DNA
    First to examine Double Helix
    model
    Used X-Ray diffraction
    method
  • 5. James Watson & Francis Crick
    Scientists who ‘borrowed’ Rosalind Franklin’s research
    Credited for the discovery of
    Double Helix
    1953 - Proposed the Double Helix Model
  • 6. Three Structure Types
    A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA
  • 7. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    Contains the genetic material
    Inherited by younger generations
    Composed of nucleic acids
  • 8. DNA Nucleotides
    Molecules that compose structural units of DNA
    Purines & Pyrimidines cannot bond with eachother
    Purines
    Guanine and Adenine
    Pyrimidines
    Cytosine and Thymine
  • 9. RNA
    Ribonucleic Acid
    Different types with different functions
    Composed of different substances
    Phosphate
    Ribose sugar
    Nitrogenous base
  • 10. RNA Nucleotides
    Molecules that compose structural units of RNA
    Pyridimines
    Cytosine and Uracil
    Purines
    Guanine and Adenine
  • 11. Nucleotide Functions
    Building blocks of DNA and RNA
    Assist in cell metabolism
    Chemical energy sources (ATP)
    Cellular signaling
    Participate in enzyme reactions
  • 12. Types of RNA
    mRNA (Messenger RNA)
    Carries coding data to protein synthesis
    tRNA (Transfer RNA)
    Transfers amino acids to polypeptide chains
    rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
    Decodes mRNA and interacts with tRNA
  • 13. Genetic Mutations
    Changes in the genomic sequence
    Causes: radiation, viruses, DNA replication mistakes
    Detrimental Mutations
    CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis)
    Beneficial Mutations
    CCR5 (AIDS)
  • 14. DNA vs RNA
    DNA
    Always double stranded
    Thymine
    Longer Helices
    RNA
    Different types
    Additional Oxygen
    Uracil
    Less stable
  • 15. Summary
    DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids
    DNA carries hereditary information
    RNA has different types and functions
    Double Helix Structure
    Franklin, Watson and Crick
  • 16. Citations
    Center for Image in Science and Art, “Picture n 52 – DNA at X-Ray” January 12, 2010, via Flickr , Creative Commons Attribution
    Erlon BR, “Watson Crick” May 30, 2008, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Richard Wheeler, “File:A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA.png” May 16, 2007, via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution
    John Haver, “Four Nucleotides” April 28, 2009, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Winton Snyman, “Nucleotides” December 19, 2006, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution

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