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Genetics 2 2

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Transcript

  • 1. Genetics By Catherine Bouts
  • 2. Genes
    • Gene – a segment of DNA molecules
    • Carry vital hereditary information in organisms
    • Determine traits of individuals
    • Hair color, height, blood type etc.
  • 3. Double Helix Model
    • ‘ Spiral Staircase’ appearance
    • Found in DNA and some RNA
    • Nucleic Acids connected by nucleotides
    • Phosphate bonds between nucleotides
  • 4. Rosalind Franklin
    • July 25, 1920 – April 16, 1958
    • British scientist who observed DNA
    • First to examine Double Helix
    • model
    • Used X-Ray diffraction
    • method
  • 5. James Watson & Francis Crick
    • Scientists who ‘borrowed’ Rosalind Franklin’s research
    • Credited for the discovery of
    • Double Helix
    • 1953 - Proposed the Double Helix Model
  • 6. Three Structure Types A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA
  • 7. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • Contains the genetic material
    • Inherited by younger generations
    • Composed of nucleic acids
  • 8. DNA Nucleotides
    • Molecules that compose structural units of DNA
    • Purines & Pyrimidines cannot bond with eachother
    • Purines
      • Guanine and Adenine
    • Pyrimidines
      • Cytosine and Thymine
  • 9. RNA
    • Ribonucleic Acid
    • Different types with different functions
    • Composed of different substances
      • Phosphate
      • Ribose sugar
      • Nitrogenous base
  • 10. RNA Nucleotides
    • Molecules that compose structural units of RNA
    • Pyridimines
      • Cytosine and Uracil
    • Purines
      • Guanine and Adenine
  • 11. Nucleotide Functions
    • Building blocks of DNA and RNA
    • Assist in cell metabolism
    • Chemical energy sources (ATP)
    • Cellular signaling
    • Participate in enzyme reactions
  • 12. Types of RNA
    • mRNA (Messenger RNA)
      • Carries coding data to protein synthesis
    • tRNA (Transfer RNA)
      • Transfers amino acids to polypeptide chains
    • rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
      • Decodes mRNA and interacts with tRNA
  • 13. Genetic Mutations
    • Changes in the genomic sequence
    • Causes: radiation, viruses, DNA replication mistakes
    • Detrimental Mutations
      • CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis)
    • Beneficial Mutations
      • CCR5 (AIDS)
  • 14. DNA vs RNA
    • DNA
    • Always double stranded
    • Thymine
    • Longer Helices
    • RNA
    • Different types
    • Additional Oxygen
    • Uracil
    • Less stable
  • 15. Summary
    • DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids
    • DNA carries hereditary information
    • RNA has different types and functions
    • Double Helix Structure
    • Franklin, Watson and Crick
  • 16. Citations
    • Center for Image in Science and Art, “Picture n 52 – DNA at X-Ray” January 12, 2010, via Flickr , Creative Commons Attribution
    • Erlon BR, “Watson Crick” May 30, 2008, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    • Richard Wheeler, “File:A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA.png” May 16, 2007, via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution
    • John Haver, “Four Nucleotides” April 28, 2009, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    • Winton Snyman, “Nucleotides” December 19, 2006, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution