Genetics By Catherine Bouts
Genes <ul><li>Gene – a segment of DNA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Carry vital hereditary information in organisms </li></u...
Double Helix Model <ul><li>‘ Spiral Staircase’ appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Found in DNA and some RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Nu...
Rosalind Franklin <ul><li>July 25, 1920 – April 16, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>British scientist who observed DNA </li></ul><u...
James Watson & Francis Crick <ul><li>Scientists who ‘borrowed’ Rosalind Franklin’s research </li></ul><ul><li>Credited for...
Three Structure Types A-DNA   B-DNA Z-DNA
DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited by younger g...
DNA Nucleotides <ul><li>Molecules that compose structural units of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Purines & Pyrimidines cannot bond...
RNA <ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Different types with different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of diff...
RNA Nucleotides <ul><li>Molecules that compose structural units of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Pyridimines </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Nucleotide Functions <ul><li>Building blocks of DNA and RNA  </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in cell metabolism  </li></ul><ul><l...
Types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA (Messenger RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries coding data to protein synthesis  </li></ul></ul><...
Genetic Mutations <ul><li>Changes in the genomic sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: radiation, viruses, DNA replication mi...
DNA vs RNA <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Always double stranded </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Helices...
Summary <ul><li>DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><li>DNA carries hereditary information </li></ul><...
Citations <ul><li>Center for Image in Science and Art, “Picture n 52 – DNA at X-Ray” January 12,  2010, via Flickr , Creat...
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Genetics 2 2

  1. 1. Genetics By Catherine Bouts
  2. 2. Genes <ul><li>Gene – a segment of DNA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Carry vital hereditary information in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Determine traits of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Hair color, height, blood type etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Double Helix Model <ul><li>‘ Spiral Staircase’ appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Found in DNA and some RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids connected by nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate bonds between nucleotides </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rosalind Franklin <ul><li>July 25, 1920 – April 16, 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>British scientist who observed DNA </li></ul><ul><li>First to examine Double Helix </li></ul><ul><li>model </li></ul><ul><li>Used X-Ray diffraction </li></ul><ul><li>method </li></ul>
  5. 5. James Watson & Francis Crick <ul><li>Scientists who ‘borrowed’ Rosalind Franklin’s research </li></ul><ul><li>Credited for the discovery of </li></ul><ul><li>Double Helix </li></ul><ul><li>1953 - Proposed the Double Helix Model </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three Structure Types A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA
  7. 7. DNA <ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited by younger generations </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of nucleic acids </li></ul>
  8. 8. DNA Nucleotides <ul><li>Molecules that compose structural units of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Purines & Pyrimidines cannot bond with eachother </li></ul><ul><li>Purines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine and Adenine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine and Thymine </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RNA <ul><li>Ribonucleic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Different types with different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of different substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RNA Nucleotides <ul><li>Molecules that compose structural units of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Pyridimines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine and Uracil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine and Adenine </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Nucleotide Functions <ul><li>Building blocks of DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical energy sources (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular signaling </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in enzyme reactions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of RNA <ul><li>mRNA (Messenger RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries coding data to protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tRNA (Transfer RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers amino acids to polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decodes mRNA and interacts with tRNA </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Genetic Mutations <ul><li>Changes in the genomic sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: radiation, viruses, DNA replication mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Detrimental Mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beneficial Mutations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCR5 (AIDS) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DNA vs RNA <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Always double stranded </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Longer Helices </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Different types </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Uracil </li></ul><ul><li>Less stable </li></ul>
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><li>DNA carries hereditary information </li></ul><ul><li>RNA has different types and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Double Helix Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin, Watson and Crick </li></ul>
  16. 16. Citations <ul><li>Center for Image in Science and Art, “Picture n 52 – DNA at X-Ray” January 12, 2010, via Flickr , Creative Commons Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Erlon BR, “Watson Crick” May 30, 2008, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Wheeler, “File:A-DNA, B-DNA and Z-DNA.png” May 16, 2007, via Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>John Haver, “Four Nucleotides” April 28, 2009, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Winton Snyman, “Nucleotides” December 19, 2006, via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution </li></ul>
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