Feeding habits of the Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, Linnaeus,
1758) living in Putna Vrancea Natural Park
PhD Student: Geor...
Introduction

© Nicole Duplaix

Fig. 11Euroasian Otter (Lutra lutra)
Fig. Euroasian Otter (Lutra lutra)

Eurasian otter is...
Materials & Methods
Study was conducted on the rivers
and streams belonging to 8 basins
from Putna Vrancea Natural Park;
T...
Materials & Methods
56 otter spraints were collected from December
2012 to September 2013 from 36 different sites;
For any...
Materials & Methods

Fig. 55Spraints prepared for the analyse
Fig. Spraints prepared for the analyse

Fig. 66Spraints part...
Results & Discussion

Relative frequency of occurrence in spraints of various classes of prey species (RFO
%)

From a tota...
Results & Discussion
Percentage (%) of classes of prey species in total spraint analysis
57% fish, amphibians 22%, mammals...
Results & Discussion
The percentage (%) of occurrence of prey species classes in each of analyzed spraints

% of prey spec...
Results & Discussion
The analysis of otter feeding habits from Natural Park’s river basins
High altitude river basin sampl...
Results & Discussion
Low altitude river basin samples
Results & Discussion

Fig. 77Reptiles remains
Fig. Reptiles remains

Fig. 99Amphibians remains
Fig. Amphibians remains

Fi...
Conclusions
Most of studies describe otter as
piscivorous, but recent studies suggested that
the otter may be better defin...
Acknowledgements
For Support:

For advices:
Prof. PhD. Dumitru Murariu
PhD. Silviu Chiriac

For training:

For help during...
Thank you for your kindly attention!

Questions and Answers!

RomaniaLutra
http://romanialutra.wordpress.com/
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Prezentare CZGA 2013

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Prezentare la THE FIFTH ANNUAL ZOOLOGICAL CONGRESS OF "GRIGORE ANTIPA" MUSEUM 20-23 November 2013 "Ion Heliade Rădulescu" Amphitheatre of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania

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Prezentare CZGA 2013

  1. 1. Feeding habits of the Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, Linnaeus, 1758) living in Putna Vrancea Natural Park PhD Student: George BOUROȘ Biologist: Rocío HERMOSILLA GARZÓN Biologist: Jesús Alberto SÁNCHEZ PARDO
  2. 2. Introduction © Nicole Duplaix Fig. 11Euroasian Otter (Lutra lutra) Fig. Euroasian Otter (Lutra lutra) Eurasian otter is a semi-aquatic carnivore belonging to the Mustelidae family. Otter is classified as Near Threatened by the IUCN and considered Vulnerable by the Romanian Vertebrate Red Book; Otter is one of only a few European carnivores that has developed the ability to actively forage both in water and on land; Having knowledge of what individuals eat is one of the most important aspects of otter ecology, it is a strong relationship between the availability of food resources, the distribution and survival of the species. Aim of this study is to determine the feeding habits and the trophic resources, on which depends the survival of the otter species from Putna Vrancea Natural Park and Carpathian Mountains.
  3. 3. Materials & Methods Study was conducted on the rivers and streams belonging to 8 basins from Putna Vrancea Natural Park; The park is located in SE Romania, NE of Vrancea County and covers an area of 382.13 km², with altitude ranging from 435 m in the valley of the Putna River to over 1785 m in Goru Peak. Putna River collects all the streams in the park and forms a narrow west - east oriented valley. Most of the flow takes place at the end of the spring (44%) and early Fig. 22Study area: Putna Vrancea Natural Park in Romania Fig. Study area: Putna Vrancea Natural Park in Romania summer (30%) The annual average flow of the river Putna at hydrometric station Lepșa, is 1,83 m3/s and in Tulnici is 4,58 m3 /s; Riparian woods consist mainly of alder (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana) and willow (Salix spp.).
  4. 4. Materials & Methods 56 otter spraints were collected from December 2012 to September 2013 from 36 different sites; For any spraint were noted following information: date, time, observer, geographic coordinates, river or stream name, site code and estimated spraint age; Spraints were collected in two different periods of the year, in order to notice variations in the trophic resource utilization by season; Fig. 33 Fig. Sampling Sampling sites (left) sites (left) Fig. 44 Fig. Collecting Collecting otter otter spraints spraints (right) (right)
  5. 5. Materials & Methods Fig. 55Spraints prepared for the analyse Fig. Spraints prepared for the analyse Fig. 66Spraints particles identifying Fig. Spraints particles identifying Spraints were individually soaked in a metal container with 1/3 of water and 2/3 of detergent for 1-3 days to a week; Samples were washed by tipping the contents of the cup into a 0.5 mm fine mesh sieve; The spraint particles were then carefully removed from the sieve and placed in a white plastic tray; Using different size forceps and needles, any bone fragments were identified, picked out and sorted into groups. The largest vertebra and exoskeletons could be identified with the naked eye, but for the smallest was used a magnifier and a microscope (10 X). The percentage of occurrence of each species was plotted per spraint and secondly the frequency of occurrence per prey item was also calculated as: RFO % = Number of occurrences of a prey group x100/Sum of occurrences of all prey groups After being analysed, spraints were dried and stored in a collection, in plastic tubes which has been assigned a code and date;
  6. 6. Results & Discussion Relative frequency of occurrence in spraints of various classes of prey species (RFO %) From a total of 56 spraints, 53 of them contained the remains of fish; RFO% results: 31% fish, 24% amphibians, 21% insects 16% mammals, 3% snails , 3% plants and 2% reptiles. 31 % of all appearances was the fish; Plundering of amphibian breeding sites during oviposition in spring; Reptiles and gastropods low occurrence frequency in the analysed spraints;
  7. 7. Results & Discussion Percentage (%) of classes of prey species in total spraint analysis 57% fish, amphibians 22%, mammals 15%, insects and reptiles 3% each, gastropods 0.1% and plants 0.2%. during winter-spring, fish consumption was reduced by 8%, as compared to the second period when it was 60%; Amphibians 30% in winter-spring, while during summer only 16%; Mammals 12% in winter-spring and 17% summer; Plants 0% in winter-spring, 0.4% in summer;
  8. 8. Results & Discussion The percentage (%) of occurrence of prey species classes in each of analyzed spraints % of prey species groups was calculated for each spraint, for both study periods; some spraints were composed 100% just from a ​ prey class, most of the time: Pisces, followed by Amphibia, Reptilia and Mamalia; For first study period, in a single spraint could be identified a consumption of of varied prey species, unlike the second study period;
  9. 9. Results & Discussion The analysis of otter feeding habits from Natural Park’s river basins High altitude river basin samples Correlation between the altitude, river type and content of the spraint; Amphibians :40 % in Strâmba RB and mammals in 30%, while in Ostog RB amphibians were 45 % and mammals 26 %. Fish remains were present in a low density, 25 % in Strâmba RB and 27 % in Ostog RB;
  10. 10. Results & Discussion Low altitude river basin samples
  11. 11. Results & Discussion Fig. 77Reptiles remains Fig. Reptiles remains Fig. 99Amphibians remains Fig. Amphibians remains Fig. 11 Sorex spp. Fig. 11 Sorex spp. Fig. 88Sorex spp. & fish jaws Fig. Sorex spp. & fish jaws Fig. 10 Fish remains & jaws Fig. 10 Fish remains & jaws Fig. 12 Mammal Fig. 12 Mammal
  12. 12. Conclusions Most of studies describe otter as piscivorous, but recent studies suggested that the otter may be better defined as an opportunistic predator; Having knowledge of what individuals eat is one of the most important aspects of animal ecology. The information about the otter diet is clearly important for otter conservation. Fishes were prefered by the otters but in the lack of them, they are able to adapt to other trophic resources: amphibian, mammal, reptile, insect etc. A difference of otter feeding habits was observed between particular habitats. Fig. 13 Spraint on aastone in Lepșa Fig. 13 Spraint on stone in Lepșa
  13. 13. Acknowledgements For Support: For advices: Prof. PhD. Dumitru Murariu PhD. Silviu Chiriac For training: For help during field work: Virginia García López Francisco Parra Rodriguez Manuel Menéndez Puertas Rocío Hermosilla Garzón Jesús Alberto Sánchez Pardo For publicity : ...and many more
  14. 14. Thank you for your kindly attention! Questions and Answers! RomaniaLutra http://romanialutra.wordpress.com/

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