Teaching/Learning Theory
Project
David Bouquin
EDUC 202
November 22, 2013


Students learn how to think and
understand by actively constructing their
knowledge through participating in
experience...




Meta-concept: multiple schools of thought of
Constructivism Learning Theory
Common to all Constructivism perspective...
Learner uses sensory input to construct meaning
 Construction of meaning is multi-layered – constructing
meaning and syst...






Social constructivism focuses on the learning through
social interaction not by individual inquiry
Social Constru...


Social Constructivism Theoretical Contributor Concepts:
education is active and interactive, child centered, learning i...






Modeling – step-by-step demonstration of how to perform skill,
procedure, analysis while explaining details and t...







Social interaction is the primary mechanism of cognitive reasoning
and language development
Speech and language...





Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is where most
instruction should occur. The students has a limit to the
level o...
Gear teaching activities to ZPD of students






Pose problems that are relevant to students. Example: in
government/history class set up email discussions, guide...
Discussions: Reader and Writer workshops,
Controversial/Topical issues, What if scenarios, shared film
experiences

Proje...
Cooperative Learning Groups are structured social learning groups
Example:

Specify instructional objectives

Keep group...
Advantages:

Encourages higher level thinking

Student centered

Actively engaged learners

Offers differentiated inst...






Visual Learners: Social constructivism lessons should include a
variety of visual instructional methods for teach...






Social constructivism teaching is applicable for
elementary, middle school and secondary school
Most important is...






Ask a student or group to solve a problem and explain and give
evidence for their answer Example: after studying ...
www.ndt-ed.org/TeachingR.htmesources/ClassroomTips/
Constructivist%20_Learning











www.thirteen.org/edonline/...
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Theory project david bouquin (1)

  1. 1. Teaching/Learning Theory Project David Bouquin EDUC 202 November 22, 2013
  2. 2.  Students learn how to think and understand by actively constructing their knowledge through participating in experiences, and interacting collaboratively with others.
  3. 3.   Meta-concept: multiple schools of thought of Constructivism Learning Theory Common to all Constructivism perspectives is meaning and understanding of new concepts and skills is…    Uniquely and actively constructed by each student Based on student’s existing knowledge and experiences Affected by the cultural context of which the knowledge was created Knowledge is an interpretation of reality and not a “true” representation. 
  4. 4. Learner uses sensory input to construct meaning  Construction of meaning is multi-layered – constructing meaning and systems of meaning  Learning is constructed by the mind  Learning is constructed by using language  Learning is constructed socially  Learning of facts is based on their relevant context and environment, not in isolation  Knowledge is the necessary structure for learning meaning a  Learning takes time – ponder, practice, and experiment  Motivation (in many forms) is necessary for learning and activates the senses 
  5. 5.    Social constructivism focuses on the learning through social interaction not by individual inquiry Social Constructivism emphasizes larger role for the teacher and peers in guiding the learning and less on learning by individual discovery. Culture passed on by adults provides the context for student learning.
  6. 6.  Social Constructivism Theoretical Contributor Concepts: education is active and interactive, child centered, learning is influenced and influences society (context), teacher important in guiding children’s experimental learning, build on students’ prior knowledge and interests to learn new knowledge  John Dewey - My Pedagogic Creed, 1987; Experience and Education 1938  Maria Montessori - Education for a New World, 1946  Jean Piaget - The Child and the Reality, 1976  Jerome Bruner – The Process of Education, 1960; Actual Minds Possible Worlds, 1980  Social Constructivism Founder:  Lev Vygotsky, Mind and Society, 1978
  7. 7.    Modeling – step-by-step demonstration of how to perform skill, procedure, analysis while explaining details and thought process of actions Scaffolding – teacher or peer provides learning assistance to a student by building on the student’s existing knowledge and helping them learn something they could not do on their own Coaching - The teacher encourages, advises, provides feedback, clarifies, helps articulate the students’ performance, and communication. Encourages students to be autonomous learners.
  8. 8.     Social interaction is the primary mechanism of cognitive reasoning and language development Speech and language development central role in learning Speech and language development leads to more advanced complex cognitive skills and abilities such as more abstract, and flexible thinking. Students develop higher cognitive abilities by engaging socially in challenging and meaningful practical activities.
  9. 9.    Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is where most instruction should occur. The students has a limit to the level of knowledge he or she can learn on his or her own. When the teacher helps students learn beyond their individual capacity they are in the - Zone of Proximal – the range of tasks the student can perform with the help of the teacher. This instructional support provided by the teacher is called scaffolding. It is recommended to assess students’ ZPD before teaching the lesson in order to gear lessons to ZPD. One scaffolding technique is demonstrate a skill or task and then see if student can repeat it. Or start it again and see if the student can complete it. Other students can also take on a peer/teacher role and the advanced student can guide another student to learn the skill or concept .
  10. 10. Gear teaching activities to ZPD of students
  11. 11.    Pose problems that are relevant to students. Example: in government/history class set up email discussions, guided questions, with a school in another state or country. Essential concept learning – start with the “whole” and break into parts. Example: Big idea of diversity and variation – research and discuss historical immigration in the U.S. Assign immigrant actor roles to students and have them prepare perspective and act out. Pay attention to student point of view reflects how they reason. Example – Discuss government funding priorities and stress evidence for viewpoint is the most important, not what they belief.
  12. 12. Discussions: Reader and Writer workshops, Controversial/Topical issues, What if scenarios, shared film experiences  Projects – collaborative group or individual  Presentations in different formats: art, video, PowerPoint, interactive  Simulations  Games  Debates  Materials: raw data, primary sources, interactive, speakers 
  13. 13. Cooperative Learning Groups are structured social learning groups Example:  Specify instructional objectives  Keep group sizes small 2 to 5  Assign students to groups or let students choose group members  Assign group roles i.e. facilitator, recorder, summarizer, elaborator, time keeper, etc.  Assign tasks – for example researching and presenting information about a topic  Explain rubric expectations  Group members expected to explain their results with evidence  Practice team work behaviors before starting  Monitor group behavior, intervene and assist as necessary to keep on task and help groups  Provide closure to groups through summarization  Teacher reflects on effectiveness
  14. 14. Advantages:  Encourages higher level thinking  Student centered  Actively engaged learners  Offers differentiated instruction to all learners  Higher retention of learned material  Gain in confidence of learner  Development of problem solving skills  Self-management skills  Teamwork skills  Encourages diversity of thought Disadvantages:  time consuming  expensive  inefficient  mix of other theories, no one clear theory  too subjective  learner must have a higher level of self-management/ maturity for success  unpredictable outcomes  encourages diversity of thought where conformity is required
  15. 15.    Visual Learners: Social constructivism lessons should include a variety of visual instructional methods for teacher and students to learn and present new knowledge. Visual activities include interpreting videos, art photographs, 3-D models, diagrams, graphs, graphic organizers, tables etc. Auditory Learners: fundamentally social constructivism strives to effectively use oral language to articulate and clarify the complexity and specific nature of knowledge and ideas through discussions, presentations, debate, play acting, etc. Kinesthetic Learners: social constructivism ideally employs kinesthetic activities to solidify learning by having student learn by doing and demonstrate knowledge learned through a variety of activities such as creating models, art, videos, music, demonstrations, play acting, simulations, games, etc.
  16. 16.    Social constructivism teaching is applicable for elementary, middle school and secondary school Most important is that students are mature enough to work collaboratively with peers on common goals. The teacher can guide students to practice teamwork explaining the importance of listening to everyone in the group, defining responsibilities, valuing each person's gifts, modeling excellence, and promoting humor.
  17. 17.    Ask a student or group to solve a problem and explain and give evidence for their answer Example: after studying animals and their habitats students could be presented with a few new animals and the students would describe what these animals would need to survive in their habitats – i.e. protection from predators, food sources, protection from weather, etc. Document learning through diaries, journals or a graphic organizers. Use a graphic organizer to classify cause and effects. Example: students discuss their research on causes and effects of the U.S. Civil War. Assign students to create problem-solving scenarios: Example: After studying characteristics of cities, students could create their own city and describe how they would provide food, housing, transportation, schools, healthcare etc. for a given population demographics. Students could be given a budget, and costs of community features.
  18. 18. www.ndt-ed.org/TeachingR.htmesources/ClassroomTips/ Constructivist%20_Learning       www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivisim www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories /constructivism/bruner.html Mooney, Carol G. 2000. Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erickson, Piaget & Vygotsky, Upper Saddle River, Redleaf Press. www.sites.google.com/site/constructivism512/Home/benefitsand-criticisms www.epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Cooperative_Learning
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