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Mendel + Inheritance of Simple Traits_Ottolini_Biology
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Mendel + Inheritance of Simple Traits_Ottolini_Biology

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  • Male and female reproductive parts are enclosed in the same flower
  • Mendel’
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 8-1 The Origins of Genetics
    • 2. Human Traits • Your physical traits resemble those of your parents. • Heredity = the passing of traits from parents to offspring
    • 3. Gregor Johann Mendel • Mendel was an Austrian monk who conducted breeding experiments with garden peas. • Developed rules which accurately predict patterns of heredity • Genetics = the branch of biology that focuses on heredity
    • 4. T.A. Knight • Also studied heredity in pea plants • Cross= mate or breed two individuals • Crossed purple-flowered garden peas with whiteflowered garden peas
    • 5. Knight vs. Mendel Qualitative vs. Quantitative • Mendel counted the number and kind of offspring from each pea cross
    • 6. Useful Features in Peas 1. Many traits that have two clearly different forms (no intermediate forms) Mating can be easily controlled 2. – – 1. Self-fertilization Cross-fertilization Small, grows easily, matures quickly & produces many offspring
    • 7. Self-Pollination
    • 8. Cross-Pollination
    • 9. Nature’s Pollinators • Insects (bees) • Vertebrates (birds & bats) • Wind • Water
    • 10. Mendel’s Observations: Traits are Expressed as Simple Ratios • First experiments involved monohybrid crosses • Monohybrid cross = a cross that involves one pair of contrasting traits
    • 11. Mendel’s Experiments: Step #1 • Self-pollinate each pea plant for several generations • True-breeding= all offspring display only one form of a particular trait • P generation = parental generation, the first two individuals crossed in a breeding experiment
    • 12. Mendel’s Experiment: Step #2 • Cross-pollinate the P generation plants with contrasting forms of a trait • F1 generation = the first filial generation, the offspring of the P generation • Characterize and count plants
    • 13. Mendel’s Experiment: Step #3 • Allow the F1 generation to self-pollinate • F2 generation = the second filial generation, the offspring of the F1 generation plants • Characterize and count plants
    • 14. Mendel’s Results • F1 generation showed only one form of the trait (e.g. purple flowers) – The other form of the trait disappeared (e.g. white flowers) – Reappeared in the F2 generation • 3:1 ratio of the plants in the F2 generation
    • 15. Expressing Ratios: Mendel’s F2 Generation 705 purple-flowered plants; 224 white-flowered plants • Reduce the ratio to its simplest form: 705/224 = 3.15 Purple 224/224= 1 White – Ratio can be written in a few different ways: • 3:1 • 3 to 1 • 3/1