Projct 2


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carving and casting

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Projct 2

  1. 1. The History of Casting<br />
  2. 2. The earliest casting that have been found ,were weapons and cult (a system of religious beliefs) was generally made of copper. it originated from the middle east and India dating back to around is possible that metal casting using moulds originated in the middle east ,but some say that it might have developed in china and the early iron age the melting ovens can be traced back to ceramic burning ovens. lost moulds which were made of loam and clay, wax models and permanent moulds made of stone and metal for the production of casting parts were already used.<br />In world war 2 ,with urgent military demands overtaxing the machine tool industry, investment casting gave artisans a shortcut for producing precision parts and allowed the use of specialized alloys which could not be readily shaped by other methods. This method was very practical for many wartime needs, thus expanded into many commercial and industrial applications where complex metal parts were needed.<br />History of metal casting<br />
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  4. 4. Shortly after the dark ages in Europe, the industrious sculptor and goldsmith, Benvenuto Cellini began to make use of the lost wax method of casting. He learned this process from the writings of the monk Theophilus Presbyter (circa 1100) This three and a half ton statue was completed in 1554 and was unveiled at the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, Italy, where it stands to this day. <br />
  5. 5. The solid mould technique was first utilized because a technology to successfully remove the wax patterns from a shell without causing it to collapse, crack or burst had not yet been devised. In the solid mould technique, a wax sprue was placed in a steel casing and surrounded by a setting slurry. The drawbacks of the solid mould technique were extremely long pre-heat, size limitations and poor dimensional tolerances. The first successful shell technology was the Mercast Process, which used solidified mercury as a pattern material. Mercury patterns were very heavy but extremely accurate. This was a very difficult process as all pattern production and shell building had to be done at temperatures below minus 39 degrees Celsius--the melting temperature of mercury! This process is no longer used due to high costs and the health hazards involved in handling this toxic element.<br />
  6. 6. Over 4,000 years ago, between the Tigrus and Euphrates Rivers situated in Mesopotamia, ancient artisans produced idols and ornaments using natural beeswax for patterns, clay for moulds and manually operated bellows for stoking furnaces. Today, precision components for spacecraft and jet engines are investment cast using the latest advances in computer technology.<br />
  7. 7. Casting step visuals<br />
  8. 8. metal casting during antiquity, took a long time to match the previous level in the occidental Middle Ages. But there is hardly any documentation on casting technology during the antiquity, the German monk Thophilus already examined the forming and casting around 1140. The "fireworks books" - especially the book by Italian Biringuccio - written after 1500 AD should also be mentioned in this context. Loam, plaster and wax were the most important working materials. Crucible and later flame ovens were available for the melting of copper, tin and lead alloys. Casting by means of forming sand was common for small parts; permanent moulds were of great importance for the serial casting of lead and tin materials. Relief casting matched the artistic quality of the antique metal casting at the beginning of modern times.<br />Middle Ages to Industrialization<br />
  9. 9. The first crucible invented<br />
  10. 10. 1455 Dillenburg Castle in Germany is the first to use cast iron pipe to transport water.1480 Birth of Vannoccio Biringuccio (1480-1539), the "father of the foundry industry," in Italy. He is the first man to document the foundry process in writing.<br /> 1642 Saugus Iron Works, America's first iron foundry (and second industrial plant), is established near Lynn, Massachusetts. The first American iron casting, the Saugus pot, is poured there.1709 Englishman Abraham Darby creates the first true foundry flask for sand and loam molding.<br />Did you know?<br />
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  12. 12. 1720 Rene Antoine de Reaumur develops the first malleable iron, known today as "European Whiteheart.1730 Abraham Darby is the first to use coke as fuel in his melting furnace in Coalbrookdale, England.1750 Benjamin Huntsman reinvents the process of cast crucible steel in England. This process is the first in which the steel is completely melted, producing a uniform composition within the melt. Since the metal is completely molten, it also allows for alloy steel production, as the additional elements in the alloy can be added to the crucible during melting. Prior steel production was accomplished by a combination of forging and tempering, and the metal never reached a molten state.<br />
  13. 13. 1776 Foundry men Charles Carroll, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross, Philip Livingston and Stephen Hopkins sign the American Declaration of Independence.1794 First use of the cupola in iron founding. Invented by John Wilkinson of England, the original had metal-cladding and utilized a steam engine to provide the air blast.<br />Casting is a 6000 year old process. The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC.<br />Metal casting is one of the most common casting process.<br />
  14. 14. A investment casted Medusa Head<br />
  15. 15. Sculpture from the Ife State using lost-wax casting technique, Nigeria, late 11th4th century.<br />Late Cycladic (17th cent. BCE) gold ibex sculpture from an excavation on Santorini<br />
  16. 16. South Asia<br />Metal casting began in India around 3500 BC in the Mohenjodara area, which produced earliest known lost-wax casting, the Indian bronze figurine named the “dancing girl” that dates back nearly 5,000 years to the Harapan period<br />Producing images by the lost-wax process reached its peak during from 750ADto 1100AD and still remained prevalent in south India between 1500AD and1850. The technique still remains well practiced throughout India, as well as neighbouring countries Nepal ,Tibet, Ceylon, Burma and Siam.<br />
  17. 17. East Asia<br />There is great variability in the use of the lost-wax method in South East Asia. The casting method of bronze during the Shang and Chou dynasties (approximately 1500 BC to 500 BC) has commonly been assumed to be by the lost-mould method..Further investigations have revealed this not to be the case as it is clear that the piece-mould casting method was the principal technique used to manufacture bronze vessels in China. The lost-wax technique did not appear in northern China until the 6th century BC. Lost-wax casting is known as ro-gata in Japanese, and dates back to the Yayoi period of circa 200 BC .The most famous piece made by cire perdue is the bronze image of Buddha in the temple of the Todaiji monastery at Nara. It was made in sections between 743 AD and749 AD, allegedly using seven tons of wax.<br />
  18. 18. Southeast Asia<br />Bangles (virtually non-existent in second millennium China) made by the lost-wax process are characteristic of northeast Thailand. The inhabitants of Ban Na Di were casting bronze between 1200BC and 200 AD using the lost-wax technique to manufacture their bangles. Some of the bangles from Ban Na Di revealed a dark grey substance between the central clay core and the metal, which on analysis was identified as an unrefined form of insect wax. It is likely that decorative items, like bracelets and rings , were made by cire perdue at Non Nok Tha.<br />
  19. 19. The Near East<br />The lost-wax technique was used and developed for small-scale, and then large-scale, statues from circa 3500 BC to 2750 BC in Mesopotamia, made of copper and bronze. A small lion Pendant from Uruk was cast by cire Perdue, one of the earliest surviving lost-wax castings,. made circa 3700BC. The Sumerian metalworkers were practicing lost-wax casting from approximately 3500 BC to 3200 BC<br />Ancient Egypt<br />The Egyptianswere practicing cire perdue from the mid 3rd millennium BC shown by Early dynastic bracelets and gold jewellery. <br />
  20. 20. The History of Carving<br />
  21. 21. The history of stone carving dates to periods of time that go back before recorded history.  These civilizations are believed to have been  very fascinating groups of people.  They built huge cities, majestic temples and palaces and filled them with their history and beliefs carved in stone.  <br />The Incas were one such group.  They were known for their ceremonial centres and fortresses built of stone.  The hugely shaped stones, weighing many tons, were cut with such high precision that a razor blade can not be inserted between them.  <br />   The Aztecs ( mexican tribe at the time of the Spanish invasion) are another such civilization.  In 1790, in Mexico City, a twenty-four ton "disk" known as the calendar stone was found and gained recognition as the outstanding artefacts of the Aztec civilization.<br />History of carving<br />
  22. 22.    The Mayans also used stone to express culture and beliefs.  They were especially known for their pyramids.  These can be found in such places as Edzna, Plaenque, and Cholula which boasts as one of the largest structures in pre-Columbian America.<br />    The Egyptians are possibly the best known stone carvers.  They built huge pyramids and used stone carving to express themselves in many ways.  Art to the people of Egypt was not an abstract concept.  The works of Egyptian artists and sculptors served  practical purposes.  Every aspect of public and private life was involved with the pattern of religious belief.  The statues and beliefs that decorate the temples, all carved in stone, represented this and linked the people with their gods. <br />We hope this brief history of stone carving helps you appreciate this little practiced art and will permit you to enjoy these creations we offer.  The smallest examples of stone can accent your home or garden and provide that touch of history and a very unique piece of art that can be passed along as an heirloom to be enjoyed for generations to come.<br />
  23. 23. Wax carving<br />root carving<br />wax carving<br />
  24. 24. Armchair in carved oak is probably Scottish, circa 1540 with 19th-century additions<br />
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  26. 26. Bamboo carving<br />microscopic carving<br />