ADVANCED EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY EDP 6203 LEARNING STYLESPREPARED BY : NIK ZURAWATI BT ZAKARIAMATRIC NO : G1012718LECTURER : DR.NOOR AZIAN BT MOHD NOOR
TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS• Definition of learning styles• VAK Learning style• DUNN & DUNN Learning style• Kolb’s Learning style• Noel Entwistle Learning style• Conclusion• References
LEARNING STYLE???? HOW STUDENTS LEARN ?? NOT WHAT STUDENTS LEARN
WHAT ARE LEARNINGWhat are learning styles? STYLES?• Learning style is the way in which each individual learner begins to concentrate on, process, absorb and retain new and difficult material.’ – Dr. Rita Dunn
CONT• characteristic, cognitive, affecti ve, and psychological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. (Keefe & Monk, 1986
TYPES OF LEARNING STYLES VISUAL AUDITORY KINESTHETIC
VISUAL LEARNERS • learn through seeing • need to see the teachers body language and facial expression to understand. • prefer sitting at the front• Prefer to see information such as pictures, diagrams, cartoons & demonstrations.• Learn through seeing and reading • often take detailed notes.
Techniques for VisualLearners• Graphic organizers• Charts• Graphs• Illustrations• Maps• Draw a picture of the learning• Video
AUDITORY LEARNERS• learn through listening...• Enjoys oral discussion• Has trouble with written direction / requires oral explanations• Remember what they hear better than what they see• Often like to talk on the phone or listen to music• Learn best if they can hear and see the assignment
Techniques for AuditoryLearners• Tape record important information• Songs• Read aloud• Retell• Listening centers
TACTILE / KINESTHETICLEARNERS• learn through , moving, doing and touching• learn best through a hands-on activities and exploring the physical world around them.• They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
Techniques forTactile/Kinesthetic Learners• Move during the lesson• Act it out with body• Touch it• Feel it• Recite while moving – jump rope, bounce ball
DUNN &DUNN MODEL Professor Rita Dunn - 1929-2009Dr. Kenneth Dunn
Environmental Stimulus silence, or background noise or music? soft, dim, or bright light while studying? from a cool room to a warm room?CLASS DESIGN at a traditional setting? Or a more informal arrangement?
Emotional Stimulus MOTIVATION: self-motivated? contact with peers? PERSISTENCE: one task at a time? multitasking? RESPONSIBILITY: independently? frequent feedback/guidance? STRUCTURE: being told what to do? working on your own?
Sociological stimulus SELF: work alone? : working with one other person? working as a team member? ADULT: with an adult and/or teacher? VARIETY Versus Concentrating in ROUTINES or Patterns?
Physiological stimulusPERCEPTUAL: visual, auditory, kinesthetic? INTAKE: drink? Chew gums? munching on snacks? TIME: early morning, late morning, early/late afternoon, or evening? MOBILITY: for a long period of time or move constantly?
Psychological stimulusGlobal-analytic: Holistic learning? Analytic style of learning?Hemisphericity: Left-brain individuals? Right-brain dominance ? Impulsive-Reflective: Quick thinker? Various alternatives?
KOLB LEARNING STYLE• David Kolb published his learning styles model in 1984 from which he developed his learning style inventory• Kolbs experiential learning theory works on two levels: a four stage cycle of learning and four separate learning styles.
KOLB LEARNING STYLES (David A. Kolb1984)ACCOMMODATOR DIVERGER CONVERGER ASSIMILATOR
• Convergers are characterized by abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. They are good at making practical applications of ideas and using deductive reasoning to solve problems.• Divergers tend toward concrete experience and reflective observation. They are imaginative and are good at coming up with ideas and seeing things from different perspectives.
• Assimilators are characterized by abstract conceptualization and reflective observation. They are capable of creating theoretical models by means of inductive reasoning.• Accommodators use concrete experience and active experimentation. They are good at actively engaging with the world and actually doing things instead of merely reading about and studying them.
NOEL ENTWISTLE• Noel Entwistle is a UK educational psychologist .• He is particularly known for identifying the characteristics associated with deep and surface approaches to learning.• Entwistle was formerly editor of the British Journal of Education Psychology.• He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society.• He has published several books including Styles of Learning and Teaching (1981), Understanding Student Learning (1983), Understanding Classroom Learning (1987), and The Experience of Learning (1989).
Entwistle (2001) has defined the distinction between deep learning and surface learning:deep learning: surface Learning:Learners relate ideas to previous Learners treat the course as unrelated bitsknowledge and experience. of knowledge.Learners look for patterns and underlying Learners memorize facts and carry outprinciples. procedures routinely.Learners check evidence and relate it to Learners find difficulty in making sense ofconclusions. new ideas presented.Learners examine logic and argument Learners see little value or meaning incautiously and critically. either courses or tasks.Learners are aware of the understanding Learners study without reflecting on eitherthat develops while learning. purpose or strategy.Learners become actively interested in Learners feel under pressure and worrythe course content. about work.
VIDEO OF LEARNING STYLES• ..Find Out Your Learning Style - YouTube.FLV
CONCLUSIONS Remember! No matter what your Learning Style is. It’s very important to:-
REFERENCES• Dunn and Dunn Model Of Learning-Style Preference: Critique Of Lovelace Meta- Analysis By: Kavale, Kenneth A.:LeFever,Gretchen B. Journal of Education Research.Nov/Dec2007,Vol.101 Issue 2, p94-97. 4p 1 chart.• Dunn, R. Dunn K,&Price,G.E(1985)Learning styles Inventory:An Inventory For The Identification Of How Individuals in Grades 3 through 12 prefer to learn• Educational Psychology ,A Developmental Approach fourth Edition, Norman A Sprinthall (North Carolina State University• Educational Psychology 1st edition, John W Santrock,University Of Texas ,Dallas• Psychology For Teaching , Guy R.Lefrancois Wadsworel Publishing Company Belmount, California.• Testing Dunn and Dunn and Honey Mumfords Learning Style Theories: The Case Of The Slovenian Higher Education System.Journal Of Contemporary Management Issues.Dec2009,Vol.14 Issue 2,p1-20.20p.8 Charts,1 Graph• www.ablongman.com• www.learningstyles.net• www.iles-educator-forlearning.com•