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Christian Science Center Revitalization Plan

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Christian Science Center Revitalization Plan (July 2010)

Christian Science Center Revitalization Plan (July 2010)

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  • 1. THE FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTISTP R P Submitted to: Boston Redevelopment Authority One City Hall Square, 9th Floor Boston, Massachusetts 02201 Submitted by: e First Church of Christ, Scientist 210 Massachusetts Avenue, P01-20 Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Prepared together with: Epsilon Associates, Inc. 3 Clock Tower Place, Suite 250 Maynard, Massachusetts 01754 July 20, 2010 DRAFT
  • 2. . . e r I I F a inBoston Massachusettshe C ristian Science Board of Directors July 2010 Dear Friends and Neighbors, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, located at the center of the Christian Science Plaza, opened its doors in 1 894. At the dedication service, its Pastor, Mary Baker Eddy, declared, “I love Boston, and especially the laws of the State whereof this city is the capital. Today, as of yore, her laws have befriended progress.” Progressive vision as well as noble history have been good friends to many institutions in Boston. The Church is proud to be part of that history and to continue a tradition of contributing to this City’s beauty, inspiration, and progress. We feel the plan ouffined in these pages to revitalize the Plaza does just that. We wish to express our deep gratitude to the many citizens, public officials, and professionals who helped develop it. We look forward to working side by side with you to ensure that our Church home is a welcoming space for Boston residents and visitors alike for many years to come. Warmly, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mary Trammell Chair 210 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, 02115-3195, USA • (617) 450-2000
  • 3. DRAFTAcknowledgmentsCitizens Advisory Committee (CAC) Name Affiliation 1. Mr. Tom Aucella Belvedere Condo Association, former Board Member and President; Resident of the Back Bay 2. Ms. Kelly Brilliant Fenway Alliance, Executive Director 3. Ms. Vanessa Calderon-Rosado Inquilinos Boricuas en Accion (IBA), CEO and Director 4. Mr. Mark Cataudella Boston Symphony Orchestra, Director of Facilities 5. Mr. Christian Coffin Hilton Hotel Boston Back Bay, General Manager 6. Ms. Sybil CooperKing (Co-chair) Neighborhood Association of the Back Bay; Resident of the Back Bay 7. Mr. Eric Georgi (until 1/10) Resident of St. Germain Street 8. Mr. Ryan Higginson Resident of the South End 9. Ms. Meg Mainzer-Cohen Back Bay Association, President; Resident of West Roxbury 10. Mr. Donald Margotta Resident of Church Park Apartments 11. Ms. Joanne McKenna Fenway Community Development Corporation, Vice President; Resident of East Fenway 12. Mr. Craig Nicholson American Planning Association, Massachusetts Chapter; Resident of South End 13. Mr. Bill Richardson Fenway Civic Association, Chair; Resident of East (Replaced Ms. Marie Fukuda 11/09) Fenway 14. Mr. Lee Steele St. Botolph Neighborhood Association, Architectural Review Committee Chair; Resident of St. Botolph Area 15. Mr. George Thrush (Co-chair) Boston Society of Architects 16. Mr. Robert Wright Symphony United Neighbors; Resident of East FenwayEx-Officio Members 1. State Senator Sonia Chang-Diaz 2. State Representative Byron Rushing 3. City Councilor Chuck Turner The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 4. DRAFTaCknowledgmenTsCity of Boston Mayor Thomas M. MeninoBoston Redevelopment Authority John F. Palmieri, Director Kairos Shen, Chief Planner/Director of Planning Brenda McKenzie, Director of Economic Development Randi Lathrop, Deputy Director for Community Planning Prataap Patrose, Director of Urban Design Rick Shaklik, Deputy Director of Zoning Kevin Morrison, General Counsel David Carlson, Senior Architect Heather Campisano, Deputy Director for Development Review Inés Palmarin, Senior Planner II Lauren Shurtleff, Planner IIThe First Church of Christ, Scientist, Project Team Barbara Burley, Senior Manager, Real Estate Planning and Operations Harley Gates, Senior Manager, Capital and Business Operations Robert A. Herlinger, AIA, Chief Architect & Strategist Kayle Williams, Capital Projects Administrator Debbi Lawrence, Community Relations ManagerSpecial Advisor to the Church Araldo Cossutta, FAIA - Cossutta & Associates, Architects P.C.Project Management TeamProject Development/Community Affairs: ML Strategies Robert Ryan, Vice President, Project Development Nancy Sterling, Senior Vice President, Strategic Communications Paul Scapicchio, Senior Vice President, Government RelationsReal Estate Development: Leggat McCall Properties Mahmood Malihi, Executive Vice President Robert Palumbo, Vice President/Senior Project Manager Jennifer Bernell, Assistant Project ManagerThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisTPlaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 5. DRAFT aCknowledgmenTsCore Design TeamArchitect: Elkus Manfredi Architects Ltd. Howard Elkus, FAIA, RIBA, LEED AP/Principal James R. Van Sickle, AIA/Project Manager Ann Byer, Architectural DesignerLandscape Architect: Halvorson Design Partnership, Inc. Craig Halvorson, Design Principal Robert Uhlig, Principal in Charge Rob Adams, Senior AssociateUrban Design/Sustainability: Sasaki Associates, Inc. Steve Benz, Principal Peter Brigham, Senior Associate Ricardo Dumont, Principal Steve Engler, Senior Associate David Hirzel, Principal Fred Merrill, PrincipalPlanning Document ConsultantEpsilon Associates, Inc. Peggy Briggs, Managing Principal Geoff Starsiak, Project Planner Doug Kelleher, Senior ConsultantLegal CounselMintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. Frederick J. Pittaro, Esq.Technical Studies/Services TeamCivil Engineer/Infrastructure/Transportation: Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. Construction Estimating: Turner Construction CompanyGeotechnical Consultant: GEI Consultants, Inc.Structural Engineer: LeMessurier Consultants, Inc.Reflecting Pool: Waterarchitecture, Inc.Wind Consultant: Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 6. DRAFTPlaza Revitalization PRojecttable of contents PAGEEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ES-1CHAPTER 1 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS 1CHAPTER 2 CONTEXT 5 The First Church of Christ, Scientist 6 Role in Community 7 The Christian Science Plaza Today 9 Evolution of the Christian Science Plaza 11 Surrounding Area 11 Looking to the Future 11 Historical Site Development 13CHAPTER 3 PURPOSE, OBJECTIVES, AND DESIGN CRITERIA 15 Purpose 16 Objectives 16 Design Criteria 16 I. Open Space 16 II. Land Use 17 III. Historic Resources 17 IV. Transportation 18 V. Environmental Sustainability 19 VI. Economic Sustainability 20CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVE 1: ENHANCE OPEN SPACE 21 Open Space Plan 22 Reflecting Pool 22 Pedestrian Experience 23 Landscaping 24 Children’s Fountain 24 Huntington Avenue Bus Area 25 Public Benefits 26 i The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 7. DRAFTTable oF ConTenTs PAGECHAPTER 5 OBJECTIVE 2: IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL 27 SUSTAINABILITY Introduction 28 Existing Efforts 28 LEED Certification 28 Water Management and Recycling 28 Energy Conservation 28 Future Actions 30 Water Conservation 30 Rainwater Management 30 Urban Heat Island Effect 31 Repurposing Buildings 32 Public Benefits 32CHAPTER 6 OBJECTIVE 3: PLAN FOR UNDERUTILIZED REAL 33 ESTATE Rationale for Development 34 Site Analysis 36 Development Potential 36 Development Analysis 39 Belvidere/Dalton Site (Site 8/9) 42 Huntington Site (Site 5) 46 Proposed Development Sites 49 Article 80 Large Project Review 50 Public Benefits 50CHAPTER 7 HISTORIC RESOURCES 51 The Original Mother Church 52 The Mother Church Extension 53 Christian Science Publishing House 54 Christian Science Plaza and Buildings 55 Horticultural Hall 57 Potential Impacts to Historic Resources 58The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT iiPlaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 8. DRAFT Table oF ConTenTs PAGECHAPTER 8 ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 61 Introduction 62 Transportation 62 Wind 73 Shadow 83 Geotechnical Conditions/Groundwater 97 Water and Sewer Infrastructure 101CHAPTER 9 IMPLEMENTATION 103 City Implementation and Approval Process 104 Article 80 Large Project Review Process 104 Continuing Community Review 104 Boston Landmarks Commission Landmark Study Report 104INDEX OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS iii The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 9. DRAFTExEcutivE SummaryThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT ES-1Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 10. DRAFT exeCuTive summaryPublic Participation Process are addressed at all stages of project plan- ning. The BRA’s role involved staffing theAs a member of the community, the Church CAC, creating a project website, advertisingis working with its neighbors, public officials, meetings, and providing notes and presenta-and other interested parties to determine tion materials to the CAC and community.how to achieve its goals while also respond-ing to potential community impacts. The CAC has met approximately once a month since February 2009—seventeenAs part of the planning process, Mayor times in total through July 2010. All meet-Thomas M. Menino appointed a Citizens ings have been open to the public. At theseAdvisory Committee (CAC) in January 2009. meetings, the Church outlined its objectives,The CAC is responsible for assisting the ideas, and plans. The CAC reviewed poten-City, through the Boston Redevelopment tial sites for development, considered variousAuthority (BRA), for the duration of the massing concepts and open space issues, andproject, ensuring that community priorities reviewed wind, shadow, and traffic impacts. Prudential Back Bay South End/ St. Botolph Fenway1. Location of the Christian Science Plaza. ES-2 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 11. DRAFTexeCuTive summaryContext The Church of Christ, Scientist – which has branch churches all over the world – has hadThe Christian Science Plaza (the “Plaza”) is a presence in the local Boston communityhome to the world headquarters of The First for over 130 years. The public is welcomeChurch of Christ, Scientist. to attend weekly church services, free organ recitals, chiming concerts, and activities onThe Plaza is a favorite Boston destination the Plaza hosted by the Church.for thousands of visitors, neighbors, tourists,and church members – attending worship The 14.5-acre Plaza has seven buildings (allservices, visiting the exhibits and the world- of which will remain) and about ten acresfamous Mapparium® in The Mary Baker of open space—one of the largest privately-Eddy Library, splashing in the much-loved owned urban open spaces in Boston that isChildren’s Fountain, resting by the Reflecting accessible to the public.Pool, or playing on the lawn. Purpose, Objectives, and DesignThe Plaza is located at the intersection Criteriaof several dynamic and diverse neighbor-hoods—Back Bay, Prudential, South End/ Nearly 40 years have passed since the devel-St. Botolph, and Fenway. At the core of the opment of the Christian Science Plaza. APlaza are two architecturally distinct build- review of the Plaza’s conditions concludedings, the smaller Church edifice, the “Original that improvements to the Plaza would be inMother Church,” completed in 1894, and the keeping with the growth and vibrancy of thelarger domed Church, the “Extension,” com- nearby neighborhoods and today’s emphasispleted in 1906. on greater environmental sensitivity. 3 4 5 2 1 6 7 1 The Original Mother Church 4 101 Belvidere 6 Sunday School 2 The Mother Church Extension 5 177 Huntington 7 Horticultural Hall 3 Christian Science Publishing House 2. Sketch of the Christian Science Plaza.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT ES-3Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 12. DRAFT exeCuTive summaryIn addition, the Church is seeking to have that would benefit more from improvementsreal estate expenses covered by real estate than a redesign.revenues, rather than by donations, which theChurch would like to devote more directly to The major improvements include:its mission activities. ♦ Reducing water use.The Plaza Revitalization Project is in ♦ Making the Plaza, including the Reflectingresponse to the Church’s review of the Plaza Pool, more attractive year-round.conditions, and has three objectives: ♦ Eliminating leakage from the Reflecting Pool to the garage below.1. Enhance the open space on the Christian Science Plaza to make it a ♦ Improving the pedestrian experience. more usable and attractive year-round ♦ Softening the landscape. destination. ♦ Working with the City of Boston to relocate the idle bus area on Huntington2. Improve the environmental sustain- Avenue. ability of the Plaza with emphasis on better water and groundwater To enhance the open space and address the management. above issues, the Church has created an open space plan. This plan includes:3. Identify opportunities for underuti- lized real estate, including reuse of ♦ Rebuilding the Reflecting Pool, which some existing buildings and the addition can no longer be repaired, with one of new buildings, which would gener- of similar size that retains its reflective ate a revenue stream to help ensure that nature, is shallower to reduce water the Plaza remains a valuable asset to the usage, and has elements to enhance its Boston community. winter-time beauty. ♦ Adding a welcoming pedestrian crossingThese objectives, combined with design cri- through the Reflecting Pool between theteria related to open space, land use, historic Original Mother Church and Huntingtonresources, transportation, environmental Avenue, reestablishing an historicsustainability and economic sustainability, connection.provide a framework for the proposed PlazaRevitalization Project. ♦ Shortening the Pool slightly to allow a wider pedestrian passage near the Sunday School Building.Objective 1: Enhance Open Space ♦ Preserving the Children’s Fountain andThe Church and its consultants studied a possibly adding winter activities such asnumber of alternatives that included various ice skating.changes and upgrades to the Plaza, including ♦ Creating new pathways across landscapedchanging the size and shape of the Reflecting areas, such as along MassachusettsPool and creating new landscaped areas. The Avenue.main conclusion from these studies is that the ♦ Expanding lawn areas and adding moreexisting open space is a high-quality design shade trees, benches, and tables. ES-4 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 13. DRAFTexeCuTive summaryObjective 2: Improve Objective 3: Plan for UnderutilizedEnvironmental Sustainability Real EstateThe Church has taken significant steps to Rationale for Developmentbecome more environmentally respon-sible in its current operations. In 2009, the The Church has limited the amount of pro-renovation of floors 5-9 in the Publishing posed new development to 950,000 squareHouse achieved a Leadership in Energy feet since any more density would impact theand Environmental Design for Commercial Plaza and its surrounding areas in undesir-Interiors (LEED-CI) Gold rating from the able ways, including reducing the amount ofU.S. Green Building Council. To improve open space. The amount of new develop-environmental sustainability within its opera- ment was determined by analyzing the sur-tions, the Church has taken a number of rounding neighborhoods, the existing zoningsteps, including: as-of-right development potential on the Plaza, and five additional factors:♦ Recycling paper and non-food cardboard.♦ Taking steps to reduce energy use, 1. The Plaza’s existing density, or floor area including installing more energy-efficient ratio (FAR), is below its zoned FAR and lighting and lighting fixtures and using an is also very low when compared to the automated temperature control system. FAR of surrounding areas.♦ Providing employees incentives to use 2. The Plaza’s open space in proportion to public transportation and providing its built space is high—nearly two-thirds bicycle racks, lockers, and showers. of the total acreage of the Plaza—and it is perhaps the largest privately owned,The Plaza Revitalization Project builds upon publicly accessible urban open space inthese efforts by: the City of Boston.♦ Reducing water use through changes to 3. The total cost of operating and main- the Reflecting Pool. taining the open space is very high.♦ Improving groundwater management for the approximately 4,800 wood piles 4. The cost of the open space as a percent- under the Original Mother Church and age of building square footage is also The Mother Church Extension. large, and far exceeds the norm for pri-♦ Reducing the urban heat island effect by vately owned spaces in Boston. planting trees and more grass areas.♦ Repurposing buildings, which limits the 5. The Church’s real estate costs represent need for new construction in the city. a disproportionate amount of its total spending, limiting the amount of dona- tions that can be directed to mission activities.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT ES-5Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 14. DRAFT exeCuTive summaryDevelopment Analysis will provide approximately 150,000 square feet of space.The Church, its consultants, and the CACstudied nine Sites for possible development Potential Impactspotential on the Plaza. Five of the Sites wereeliminated from consideration because of The proposed developments are anticipatedtheir urban design implications, their size, to have minimal impact on the surroundinglocation, or existing features, such as the environment. Preliminary analyses have beenReflecting Pool. Three Sites (two of which undertaken on the proposed development,will be combined into one Site) were deter- including historic resources, transportation,mined to be the best locations for develop- wind, shadow, geotechnical conditions/ment: Belvidere/Dalton Site and Huntington groundwater, and water and sewer infrastruc-Site. ture. These analyses were shared with the CAC and updated over time to reflect CACThe Belvidere/Dalton Site consists of two input to the proposals.parcels of land that can be connected throughappropriate easements and/or arrangements Historic Resourceswith the City, creating one complete site and anew Belvidere Street/Dalton Street intersec- Over the years, the Church has diligentlytion. The preferred building configuration maintained, protected, and preserved theon the Belvidere/Dalton Site includes two seven buildings located on the Christianbuildings—a high-rise of approximately 512 Science Plaza. Each of the buildings con-feet and a mid-rise of approximately 251 feet tributes in its own way to the historic and(heights measured according to the Boston architectural significance of the site. GoingZoning Code). In addition, a new open forward, there are no plans to demolish anyspace will be created on the Site. Parking of the existing buildings. Proposed new con-will be provided in an underground garage struction would be executed in a manner thatbeneath the Site. The development of the would be respectful of the existing buildingsSite also includes improvements to the adja- while reflecting contemporary designs tocent Belvidere Street/Dalton Street intersec- illustrate the continual architectural evolutiontion. Planned uses for the two buildings on of the site.the Belvidere/Dalton Site are residential andhotel, with ground-floor retail. Some limited The siting of the proposed new developmentoffice use is possible, depending on market has been carefully selected in order to mini-demands. mize impacts to the historic resources on the site and in the area, including the adjacentThe Huntington Site is adjacent to the Sunday residential buildings on St. Germain Street.School Building on Huntington Avenue.The Huntington Site was chosen because of Transportationits size and location, suitable for residentialuses that would activate the “pedestrian- The proposed development plan is antici-dormant” corner of the Plaza with new life pated to have minimal transportationand activity. The proposed building will be a impacts on nearby intersections because ofslender structure, approximately 291 feet tall the proposed predominance of residential(shorter than 177 Huntington Avenue) and and hotel land uses (as opposed to more ES-6 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 15. DRAFTexeCuTive summaryvehicular-intense office and commercial Massachusetts Avenue and Huntingtonuses). With the inclusion of the Symphony Avenue, including at times on portions ofStreetscape Project transportation improve- the Plaza open space, the Original Motherments and the improvements to the Church and The Mother Church Extension,Belvidere/Dalton Street intersection as part and the Reflecting Pool. New shadowof the Revitalization Project, all signalized from the proposed Belvidere/Dalton build-and unsignalized study area intersections ings will generally be in the zone north ofare expected to operate at an acceptable Belvidere Street and east of Huntingtonlevel of service (LOS) under the 2019 Build Avenue, including the pedestrian areas at theConditions. These improvements will ben- intersection of Dalton and Belvidere Streetsefit both existing and new users of the site. and along Belvidere Street. Most of the new shadow from the Belvidere/Dalton buildingsThe proposed development is also anticipated will be cast on rooftops. No new shadow isto have minimal impact on parking. Because cast on the open space at the intersection ofof the existing on-site parking supply and Clearway Street and Dalton Street. No newresidential and hotel land-use development shadow is created on parks or open spaces inprogram, a minimal net increase in parking the vicinity of the Plaza, except for a smallneeds is anticipated. In addition, the area portion of Southwest Corridor Park in thecurrently has a high use of transit, bicycling, evening during the summer.and walking versus drive-alone commuting.This high use will continue to be encouraged Geotechnical Conditions/Groundwateras part of the development program. The planned redevelopment of the PlazaWind will involve construction of new buildings extending below the groundwater table onIt is projected that pedestrian-level wind the Belvidere/Dalton site. Constructionconditions will generally remain similar to below the groundwater table will includethe existing conditions after the addition of installation of groundwater cutoffs extendingthe proposed buildings. Annual wind condi- into the marine clay layer and waterproofedtions will remain suitable for walking across below-grade structures. In addition, mea-the majority of the Plaza, similar to the exist- sures will be taken to minimize connectionsing conditions. Pedestrian-level wind condi- between the Upper and Lower Aquifers.tions will be addressed during final design Furthermore, the stormwater from theof the new buildings. Uncomfortable wind developed areas of the site will be recharged.conditions can be mitigated by implement- These issues will be addressed during theing design features such as trellises, canopies, Article 80 review process.wind screens, and landscape solutions. Water and Sewer InfrastructureShadow It is anticipated that the location and capac-It is anticipated that the proposed ity of existing water and sewer infrastructuredevelopment will have minimal net new in the vicinity of the Plaza will be able toshadow impacts on the surrounding area. accommodate the proposed development.The new shadow created by the Huntingtonbuilding will be cast in the area betweenThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT ES-7Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 16. DRAFT exeCuTive summaryThe infrastructure systems serving the Plaza with public hearings and the opportunity forwill be designed to meet or exceed applicable additional community input.guidelines and regulations. At this earlystage of the Revitalization Project, no sig- In addition, regardless of the form of zoningnificant infrastructure mitigation measures relief, Article 80 Large Project Review will beare anticipated, but the Church will under- required for each building that is developedtake appropriate steps to ensure compliance as a part of the Project, which will requirewith all regulations. For each development a formal submission to the BRA, a publicproject, a Site Plan and a General Service hearing, and the opportunity for communityApplication will be prepared and submitted input concerning the specific building.to the Boston Water and Sewer Commission(BWSC) for all new water, sewer, and storm Boston Landmarks Commissiondrain connections to the new buildings. As Petitionrequired by BWSC, all new connections tothe BWSC’s systems will be constructed at In January 2007, a petition was submit-the Church and/or future development part- ted by 15 Boston residents to the Bostonner’s expense and are subject to approval by Landmarks Commission (BLC) to designatethe Commission. the Christian Science Plaza as a Boston Landmark.Many of the existing infrastructure systemsthat serve the Plaza are privately owned and At its January 23, 2007, public hearing, themaintained by the Church. At this time, it Boston Landmarks Commission voted tois anticipated that this arrangement will be accept this petition for further study. Thecontinued. Church has been cooperating with the BLC and provided research material to them.Implementation The BLC Study Report was made availableThe implementation of the Project will for review on June 22, 2010, and a publicrequire certain zoning relief. There has been hearing was held on July 13, 2010. The BLCno final determination as to the exact form will consider public comments and requestedthis will take, but it will include one or more amendments before a vote is taken at a sub-of the following alternatives: sequent public hearing.♦ Establishment of a Planned The Church is looking forward to working Development Area. with the BLC to develop appropriate stan-♦ Establishment of an Urban Renewal dards and criteria for the revitalization and Area District. redevelopment of the Plaza so improve-♦ Zoning map changes. ments are integrated sensitively within the historic context.♦ Zoning variances.All of these alternatives will require further Public Benefitspublic process in the form of formal sub- The Plaza Revitalization Project will havemissions to the BRA and other City agencies, significant public benefits related to the ES-8 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 17. DRAFTexeCuTive summaryphysical space of the Plaza, sustainabilityefforts, and the new development. Thesebenefits include:♦ Improved open space for the public’s use year-round.♦ Additional green space.♦ Improved aesthetics year-round.♦ Improved site circulation.♦ Decreased water use.♦ Less water from the Reflecting Pool and rainstorms discharged to the combined sewer system.♦ Decreased urban heat island effect.♦ Increased groundwater infiltration to support adequate groundwater levels.♦ New vitality to the area.♦ New retail spaces and increased street- level activity.♦ New construction and permanent jobs.♦ New affordable housing units that comply with Mayor Menino’s Executive Order.♦ Integrated improvements with the Symphony Streetscape upgrades.♦ Increased tax revenues for the City.♦ Statutory linkage from possible office or hotel use.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT ES-9Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 18. DRAFTExEcutivE Summary3. Aerial view of Christian Science Plaza and surrounding areas.EXISTING: Aerial & Plan 4. Existing Site PlanthE FirSt church oF chriSt, SciEntiSt ES-10Plaza rEvitalization ProjEct
  • 19. DRAFT ExEcutivE Summary 6. Model showing proposed new buildings. PROPOSED: Plan & Model5. Plan showing proposed open space improvements and footprints of new buildings. ES-11 thE FirSt church oF chriSt, SciEntiSt Plaza rEvitalization ProjEct
  • 20. DRAFTChaPTer 1Public ParticiPation ProcessThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 1Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 21. DRAFT ChaPTer 1 PubliC ParTiCiPaTion ProCessAs a member of the community, the Churchis working with its neighbors, public officials,and other interested parties to determinehow to achieve its goals while also respond-ing to potential community impacts.As part of the planning process, MayorThomas M. Menino appointed a CitizensAdvisory Committee (CAC) in January 2009.The CAC is responsible for assisting theCity, through the Boston RedevelopmentAuthority (BRA), for the duration of theproject, ensuring that community prioritiesare addressed at all stages of project planning.The Christian Science Plaza RevitalizationProject CAC is made up of residents andrepresentatives of neighborhood associa-tions, business owners, community organiza-tions, professionals, and elected governmentofficials.The CAC has met approximately once amonth since February 2009—seventeentimes in total through July 2010. All meet-ings have been open to the public. At thesemeetings, the Church outlined its objectives,ideas, and plans. The CAC reviewed poten-tial sites for development, considered variousmassing concepts and open space issues, andreviewed wind, shadow, and traffic impacts.They provided valuable input along the way.The Church and City were able to use thisinput to study additional alternatives andideas for the Plaza Redevelopment Project.The proposals presented in this documentincorporate input from the CAC meetings.The BRA has been integral throughout theprocess by advertising the CAC meetings ontheir website, writing and providing copiesof the meeting notes and PowerPoint pre-sentations to the CAC members after eachmeeting, and keeping an email list to keepthe CAC members and wider community 2 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 22. DRAFTChaPTer 1PubliC ParTiCiPaTion ProCessup-to-date on project activities. The BRAalso created a project website (http://www.tinyurl.com/ChristianScienceCAC) thatmakes the notes and PowerPoint presenta-tions from each meeting available. The fol-lowing page presents a list of CAC meetingdates and topics.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 3Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 23. DRAFT ChaPTer 1 PubliC ParTiCiPaTion ProCessChristian Science Plaza Revitalization ProjectSchedule of Citizens Advisory Committee (CAC) Working Sessions 2/10/09 #1 – BRA & Church Introductions; Project Objectives 3/4/09 & #2 – Site Tours of Christian Science Plaza 3/11/09 4/2/09 #3 – Historical Plaza Development; Existing Conditions; Open Space/Sustainability Objectives 4/27/09 #4 – Opportunities for Underutilized Real Estate #5 – Area Development Projects by BRA Staff; Potential Development Locations & 5/18/09 Interactive Model Discussion 6/10/09 #6 –Potential Development Locations & Interactive Model Discussion (continued) #7 – Site History by Kevin Morrison, BRA General Counsel; Ground Plane Alternative2009 8/4/09 Concepts; Huntington Avenue Alternative Concepts 9/17/09 #8 – BRA Review of Process; Zoning Review by Rick Shaklik, BRA Deputy Director of Zoning; Massing Discussion for Belvidere/Dalton and Huntington Sites 10/14/09 #9 – Urban Design; Huntington Site Design Criteria and Massing; Shadow Studies 10/28/09 #10 – CAC Members Open Discussion 11/12/09 #11 – Process Review by Kairos Shen; BRA Director of Planning; Alternative Massing for Belvidere/Dalton Site 12/9/09 #12 – Berklee Task Force Overview; Traffic, Transportation & Symphony Streetscape Project #13 – BLC Process by Ellen Lipsey, Executive Director, BLC; Belvidere/Dalton Street 2/25/10 Discussion & Pedestrian Experience #14 – Huntington Site Building and Ground Plane; Reflecting Pool Crossing; 4/1/10 Belvidere/Dalton Site Updated Ground Plane2010 #15 – Project Economic Rationale; Sustainability Review; Wind Study; Plan Document 5/10/10 Table of Contents 6/15/10 #16 – CAC Members Open Discussion 7/6/10 #17 – Boston Landmarks Commission Study Report 4 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 24. DRAFTChaPTer 2context Hancock Place Prudential Sheraton Hotel 111 Huntington Hilton Hotel Christian Science Publishing House The Mother Church 177 Huntington Elevation of the Plaza from Massachusetts Avenue Sheraton Hotel Christian Science Publishing House Symphony Hall Horticultural Hall 101 Belvidere Sunday School Building The Mother Church 177 Huntington Christian Science Plaza Buildings Elevation of the Plaza from Huntington AvenueThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 5Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 25. DRAFT ChaPTer 2 ConTexTThe First Church of Christ, ScientistFor over 130 years, The First Church ofChrist, Scientist (also known as the ChristianScience Church), has been a part of theBoston community. Although it has branchesworldwide, the Church has its roots in NewEngland, and its world headquarters are onthe Christian Science Plaza.Mary Baker Eddy (see Figure 1) establishedthe Church four years after her primary work,Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, waspublished in 1875. Eddy was born and raisedin Bow, New Hampshire, and was a memberof the Congregational Church. She grewup with a deep reverence for the Bible andthe teachings of Jesus. Through a growingunderstanding of the power and everpres- 1. Mary Baker Eddy, founder of The First Church ofence of God, she overcame poor health, Christ, Scientist, and The Christian Science Monitor.personal hardships, and financial setbacks inher early years to live a healthy and produc-tive life into her 90th year. Early Christian Science lectures and meet- ings in Boston were held at Chickering Hall,Spiritual healing for humanity is at the heart Copley Hall, and other venues around theof the Church’s mission. Founded in 1879, Back Bay. It was in 1894 when church mem-the Church was designed to commemorate bers built the “Original” Mother Churchthe word and works of Jesus and restore the (see Figure 2). This first structure and thespiritual method of healing he practiced. “Extension,” completed in 1906, wouldChristian Scientists are free to choose the define the permanent home of the Churchform of health care that best meets their and are at the center of the Christian Scienceneeds, but many have found that Christian Plaza.Science healing has provided excellent healthcare for generations of family members. The public is always welcome at the Sunday(Note: While there is a similarity in the name, services and the Wednesday testimony meet-Christian Science and Scientology are not ings. Services include hymns, the Lord’srelated.) Prayer, readings from the Bible and Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, and a warmIn her lifetime, Eddy broke societal and cul- sense of fellowship. At these services, thetural barriers to become an author, lecturer, congregation can find spiritual ideas that healfounder of a worldwide religion, president and transform their lives.and founder of a teaching college, and bookpublisher. At age 87, she founded a Pulitzer The Church does not have priests or minis-Prize-winning newspaper, The Christian Science ters; instead two lay readers conduct servicesMonitor, which is still published today. based on weekly Bible Lessons published in 6 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 26. DRAFTChaPTer 2ConTexTThe Christian Science Quarterly. These lessonsconsist of passages from the Bible and Scienceand Health with Key to the Scriptures and addresssubjects such as the nature of God, the lifeof Jesus, and the spiritual sense of reality.Sunday School classes welcome all childrenand teens up to the age of twenty. Classesfocus on life-lessons drawn from the Bible,including the Ten Commandments, theBeatitudes, and the Golden Rule. Studentslearn how these teachings can heal situationsin their own lives and be of service to others.Testimony meetings are held every Wednes-day for the congregation to listen to readingsbased on the Bible, and give thanks for theblessings and healings they have receivedthrough their prayers and study of ChristianScience.The Mother Church operates a ChristianScience Reading Room at 194 MassachusettsAvenue. The Reading Room is a bookstorewhere the public can read, listen to, or pur-chase a wide variety of publications, CD’s, 2. Special meeting being held in the Original MotherBibles and related resource materials, and all Church.of Mary Baker Eddy’s writings. The ReadingRoom also hosts special events and talks forthe community.Role in CommunityChurch members in Boston pray for heal-ing in the community—for greater peacein their neighborhoods and in the world.Individual members volunteer throughoutthe city, helping with after-school and sum-mer programs, volunteering as chaplains atcorrectional facilities, and serving in foodkitchens. They also participate in numerouscharitable events. Many members contribute 3. The Christian Science Reading Room at 194to a variety of local causes as well as to civic Massachusetts Avenue.and cultural organizations.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 7Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 27. DRAFT ChaPTer 2 ConTexT In addition to the weekly church services, the Sunday School, and the Reading Room, the Church hosts public talks that address per- sonal, community, and global topics from a spiritual perspective. Special events, such as First Night or a gath- ering of the American Guild of Organists, are occasions for free community organ recitals on the 13,265-pipe Aeolian-Skinner organ in The Mother Church Extension.4. Church members helping during the Christmas toydrive. The Plaza is also host to special events for the community, such as the Fenway Alliance’s Opening Our Doors kick-off event in the fall. Opening Our Doors is the largest free arts and music festival in the City of Boston. In 2009 thousands gathered on the lawn to watch performances by the Boston Children’s Chorus and Zili Misik, as well as paint murals on the Plaza and join in chalk art with Sidewalk Sam. “One World,” a free summer arts program for children, and special school vacation ses- sions, are hosted by The Mary Baker Eddy Library, also located on the Plaza. These5. Opening Our Doors kick-off event taking place events offer opportunities for students fromon the Massachusetts Avenue Lawn. nearby Berklee College of Music, the New England Conservatory, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra’s Project Step program to showcase their talents in front of enthusi- astic young audiences. The Church has donated furniture, books, office equipment, school and art supplies in recent years to after-school and summer programs, the YMCA of Greater Boston, United South End Settlements, Operation PEACE, Youth Workers Alliance, St. Stephens Church, Greenwood Memorial Church, The Home for Little Wanderers, and Peterborough Senior Center.6. Children painting murals during a summer com-munity program hosted by TMC Youth. 8 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 28. DRAFTChaPTer 2ConTexT The Christian Science Plaza Today The Plaza Revitalization Project focuses on the Christian Science Plaza, which includes the approximately 14.5-acre area gener- ally bounded by Huntington Avenue to the east, Massachusetts Avenue to the west, and Clearway and Belvidere Streets to the north. The Plaza includes seven buildings (see Figures 10 and 11):7. The world-renowned Mapparium®. 1. The Original Mother Church 2. The Mother Church Extension 3. Christian Science Publishing House—with administrative and publishing offices at 210 Mas- sachusetts Avenue and The Mary Baker Eddy Library and Mappa- rium at 200 Massachusetts Avenue 4. 101 Belvidere Street (former Church Colonnade Building) 5. 177 Huntington Avenue (former Administration Building) 6. Sunday School Building 7. Horticultural Hall at 300 Massa-8. Children’s Fountain on the Plaza. chusetts Avenue The Plaza has approximately ten acres of open space—equivalent in size to approxi- mately three Fenway Park playing fields, or four-and-a-half Post Office Square Parks— available for the community’s enjoyment, reflection, and recreation. Thousands of children cool off every summer in the Children’s Fountain. Students from nearby colleges and neighbors use the lawn in front of the Church for relaxation and other activi- ties. Strollers and joggers take laps around the Reflecting Pool, while others sit and enjoy the expanse of water as a place for quiet contemplation.9. Visitors on the Plaza.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 9Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 29. DRAFT ChaPTer 2 ConTexT CHILDREN’S10. Christian Science Plaza Site Plan.11. Christian Science Plaza Site Sketch. 10 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 30. DRAFTChaPTer 2ConTexTBeneath the Reflecting Pool and Children’s nonprofit, and cultural uses. ImmediatelyFountain is an underground parking garage. adjacent to the Plaza are the St. Botolph andIn addition, two surface parking lots are St. Germain residential areas, and Symphonylocated across the street from the triangular- Hall. Within some of these neighborhoods,shaped lot on Dalton Street. the Church owns land and buildings. The Midtown Hotel and Symphony Tower resi-Evolution of the Christian Science dences are both built on land owned by thePlaza Church and leased to others. The Church also owns and leases properties alongThe timeline on pages 13 and 14 depicts the Massachusetts Avenue, Clearway Street, andevolution of the Plaza’s development over Cumberland Street. These properties arethe last 116 years since the Original Mother not part of the Plaza Revitalization Project.Church, located at the heart of the Plaza, wasconstructed in 1894. The last major devel- Looking to the Futureopment was the creation of the ChristianScience Plaza in the 1970s with a design by The Christian Science Plaza is the Church’sI.M. Pei & Partners and Araldo A. Cossutta, permanent home, with the Original MotherAssociated Architects. Please see Chapter 7 Church and its Extension at the core.for details of the Plaza’s historic buildingsand open space. In addition, the Church’s worldwide admin- istrative offices, the Christian PublishingSurrounding Area Society, and The Mary Baker Eddy Library will continue to be housed on the Plaza, inThe Plaza is located at the nexus of several the Christian Science Publishing House.neighborhoods (see Figure 12): The Fenway,Back Bay, the South End/St. Botolph, and the Other parts of the Plaza will transition to aPrudential. These neighborhoods include a mix of third-party office, residential, retail,mix of residential, retail, office, institutional, and possible hotel use bringing new vibrancy SURROUNDING PROPERTIES Christian Science Plaza Church-owned Land – Long-term Lease to Others Church-owned Land/Building – Leased to Others12. Aerial view of the Plaza and the surrounding Church properties.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 11Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 31. DRAFT ChaPTer 2 ConTexTand activity to the Plaza and its neighbor-hoods, more jobs, and an increased tax basefor the City.The open space enhancements and newdevelopment addressed in this PlazaRevitalization Project are designed to blendwell with the existing ensemble of buildingsand open space, work harmoniously with thesurrounding areas, and support the Churchin reaching the goal of its real estate beingself-supporting. The next chapter providesan explanation of the Church’s objectives. 12 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 32. DRAFTChaPTer 2 1ConTexT HISTORICAL SITE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST BOSTON, MA 1894 - 2008 LEGEND: New Construction/Acquisition Existing From Previous Changes Open Space/Ground Plane The Mother Church Original The Mother Church Extension First Christian Science Expanded Open Space New Christian Science Publishing House Publishing House (First Publishing House converted to Church Administration Building)The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 12 13Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 33. DRAFT 2 ChaPTer 1 ConTexTHISTORICAL SITE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTISTBOSTON, MA 1894 - 2008 LEGEND: New Construction/Acquisition Existing From Previous Changes Open Space/Ground Plane Administration Building Colonnade Building Horticultural Hall Purchased Children’s Fountain Renovations to Publishing House Completion of renovations Sunday School Building Redesigned/Rebuilt for the opening of to Publishing House andChurch Extension Portico The Mary Baker Eddy Library consolidation of Church Plaza & Garage workspace into this building 14 13 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 34. DRAFTChapter 3PurPose, objectives, and design criteriaThe “direct” pathway to the Original Mother Church, as seen in the 1950s.the First ChurCh oF Christ, sCientist 15plaza revitalization projeCt
  • 35. DRAFT ChaPTer 3 PurPose, objeCTives, and design CriTeriaPurpose 3. Identify opportunities for underuti- lized real estate, including reuse ofNearly 40 years have passed since the devel- some existing buildings and the additionopment of the Christian Science Plaza. A of new buildings, which would gener-review of the Plaza’s conditions concluded ate a revenue stream to help ensure thatthat improvements to the Plaza would be in the Plaza remains a valuable asset to thekeeping with the growth and vibrancy of the Boston community for decades to come.nearby neighborhoods and today’s emphasison greater environmental sensitivity. Design CriteraThe Plaza Revitalization Project is in Fifteen design criteria are outlined belowresponse to the Church’s review of the that will help meet the project’s objectives.Plaza conditions, and has three objectives: These criteria are grouped into six(1) Enhance the Open Space; (2) Improve categories: Open Space, Land Use, Historicthe Environmental Sustainability of the Resources, Transportation, EnvironmentalPlaza; and (3) Identify Opportunities for Sustainability, and Economic Sustainability.Underutilized Real Estate. These objectivesand the design criteria to meet them are I. Open Spacedescribed in this chapter. 1. Open Space: Revitalize the open space toIn addition, the Church is seeking to have make it more welcoming, softer, and areal estate expenses covered by real estate year-round amenity for the communityrevenues, rather than by donations, which the and City.Church would like to devote more directly to Part of the welcoming spirit can comeits mission activities. New development on from making the open space appropriatethe Plaza will play a significant role in meet- for year-round use by individuals for activeing this goal. and passive recreation, rather than the cur- rent emphasis on the summer months whenObjectives the Reflecting Pool is full and the Children’s Fountain is running. In addition, the spaceThree distinct objectives are leading the Plaza needs more places to stop and sit, such asRevitalization effort: benches and tables.1. Enhance the open space on the 2. Reflecting Pool and Children’s Fountain: Christian Science Plaza to make it a more Maintain the benefits of the Reflecting usable and attractive year-round destina- Pool while making it more welcoming tion for the community with places for and more environmentally sustainable. both quiet contemplation and active Retain the Children’s Fountain. enjoyment, as well as to improve pedes- trian circulation through the site and to A pedestrian pathway across the Pool will the adjacent neighborhoods. improve Plaza circulation, and a redesigned floor surface of the Pool will add beauty2. Improve the environmental sustain- when it is empty five to six months of the ability of the Plaza with emphasis on year. better water and groundwater manage- ment. 16 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 36. DRAFTChaPTer 3PurPose, objeCTives, and design CriTeriaII. Land Use inviting to the community and passersby. New vegetation can highlight the ecological3. Mix of Uses: Create a mixed-use site that role played by trees and plants within the provides year-round vitality, is compat- city for their ability to create shade, decrease ible with the ongoing Church-related stormwater runoff, reduce the urban heat functions, and is designed in concert island effect, and improve the aesthetics of with the existing ensemble of buildings. an area.A mix of uses is consistent with the sur- 5. Density: Create new density on the siterounding neighborhood’s varied office, resi- without impacting the sense of place ordential, institutional, retail, and cultural uses. diluting the benefits of the open space.The mix would also provide a stimulus forindividuals to use the Plaza area as they tend The creation of density on the site wouldto their various activities throughout the day allow for an increased mix of uses, expandedand year. activation of the Plaza, greater tax benefits for the City, and private revenues for the4. Landscaping: Incorporate new and rein- Church. vigorated landscape design that is more inviting and ecologically sensitive. III. Historic ResourcesNew landscape design can maintain the 6. The Original Mother Church: Reestablishreflective nature and historic essence of the the importance, visibility, and access toPlaza, while also making the Plaza more the Original Mother Church. 3. Example of well-used open space (Post Office Square, Boston).1. The Reflecting Pool.2. Example of well-used open space (Jardin des Tuile- 4. The “direct” pathway to the Original Motherries, Paris). Church, as seen in the 1950s.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 17Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 37. DRAFT ChaPTer 3 PurPose, objeCTives, and design CriTeriaChanges should reestablish convenient IV. Transportationpedestrian access between the OriginalMother Church and Huntington Avenue, 9. Dalton Street/Belvidere Street Intersection:which existed prior to the creation of the Reconfigure the Dalton Street/BelviderePlaza. Street intersection (see Figure 7).7. Architectural History: Respect the site’s The narrowing of the streets and awk- architectural history and significance. ward alignment of intersections, as well as the minimal signage, create a confusingNew development at the site must respect zone for pedestrians and vehicular traffic.the site’s architectural history, including the Realignment of the existing public roadwayplan developed by I.M. Pei & Partners and and added signage will clarify street patternsAraldo A. Cossutta, Associated Architects, in and traffic controls. It is also important tothe 1970s. design a recognizable entrance to the St. Germain neighborhood without increasing8. Publishing House Entrance: Make the vehicular circulation. entrance to the Christian Science Publishing House more visible now 10. Circulation: Improve circulation through that the Church uses this building as its the Plaza, as well as improve connections worldwide administrative headquarters. to the surrounding neighborhood.5. The Christian Science Plaza in the early 1970s. 6. Main entrance for the worldwide administrative offices of the Church and the offices of the Christian Science Publishing Society. 18 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 38. DRAFTChaPTer 3PurPose, objeCTives, and design CriTeria Eliminating the tour bus parking zone along Huntington Avenue would also improve the pedestrian experience along that edge of the Plaza (Figure 9). 11. Parking: Meet new parking needs, includ- ing access and egress to the site. Parking, as well as access and egress from the parking for the new development, must be included on the site, and should work in concert with the Church’s existing parking.7. Dalton Street/Belvidere Street intersection. V. Environmental Sustainability 12. Water Management: Reduce the usage of potable water on the Plaza and in the Church’s buildings, and the amount dis- charged to the combined sewer. The Church uses a significant amount of water for both the Reflecting Pool and the Children’s Fountain. Reducing this water usage would make these features more envi- ronmentally sustainable, while also decreas- ing the costs associated with supplying the water and treating the water through the wastewater system.8. Existing pedestrian circulation through the Chris-tian Science Plaza. 13. Sustainability: Further the goals and actions that the Church has already dem- onstrated with the renovation of the Publishing House, which was awarded a Leadership in Energy and Environ- mental Design for Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI) Gold certification for floors 5-9 (see Chapter 5 for more informa- tion). Sustainable development on the site will be encouraged, and new development will meet the requirements of Article 37 of the Boston Zoning Code, Green Buildings. 14. Groundwater: Protect the water table and9. Tour buses along Huntington Avenue. improve water infiltration.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 19Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 39. DRAFT ChaPTer 3 PurPose, objeCTives, and design CriTeriaThe Mother Church sits on approximately The Church will seek to have new devel-4,800 wood piles, and therefore, the protec- opment on the site that is able to help thetion of groundwater on the site and in the Church meet its goal of having its real estatesurrounding area is of paramount concern be self-supporting.for the Church and the neighborhood (seeFigure 10). New development must be ableto maintain the groundwater level so as tohave no negative impacts on the ChurchPlaza and its surrounding neighborhoods.VI. Economic Sustainability15. Financial Support: Promote development that will allow for the Church’s buildings and Plaza grounds to be fiscally self-sup- porting. Pile Groupings 10. Footprint plan of Church edifices, which are supported by approximately 4,800 wood piles. 20 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 40. DRAFTChaPTer 4Objective 1: enhance Open SpaceEnlarged section of the proposed enhanced open space (see Figure 9).The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 21Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 41. DRAFT ChaPTer 4 objeCTive 1: enhanCe oPen sPaCeOpen Space Plan ♦ Making the Pool area more attractive 12 months of the year.The Church and its consultants studied a ♦ Eliminating leaking into the parkingnumber of alternatives that included various garage below.changes and upgrades to the Plaza, including ♦ Reestablishing a historic pedestrianchanging the size and shape of the Reflecting pathway directly to the Original MotherPool and creating new landscaped areas. The Church, as well as providing a connectionmain conclusion from these studies is that the to Huntington Avenue.existing open space is a high-quality designthat would benefit more from improvements ♦ Facilitating pedestrian circulation at thethan a redesign. As seen through the recon- Sunday School end.struction of the Children’s Fountain in 2001,the opportunities to enhance the existing The Church will address these issues byspace while retaining its special characteris- rebuilding the Reflecting Pool. The newtics are many. The following sections discuss Reflecting Pool will provide the same ben-specific improvements to the open space. efits of the existing Pool, while decreasing the need for water because of a shallower depth—approximately 6 to 12 inches, com-Reflecting Pool pared to 26 inches currently—and the elimi- nation of leaks (see Figure 1). The ChurchDespite the Reflecting Pool’s iconic beauty, will study the possibility of including anthere are many opportunities for improve- artistic treatment on the bottom surface ofment. The Reflecting Pool is past its useful the Reflecting Pool, making it a year-roundlife and needs to be replaced. The 26-inchdeep Pool was constructed in the 1970s, amenity, rather than a seasonal feature.holds roughly 1.3 million gallons of water,and uses approximately 5 million gallons The redesign of the Reflecting Pool willof water per year for refilling because of address how it restricts pedestrian circula-backwashing, evaporation, and leaks. The tion. Introducing a new at-grade pedestrianPool, which covers approximately 1.5 acres, crossing will provide a direct connectiondominates the open space and is empty half from Huntington Avenue to the Originalthe year (approximately November to April). Mother Church and Dalton Street (see FigureThis limits its attractiveness, as well as its 2). The crossing will also create a view corri-contemplative and reflective features. During dor from Huntington Avenue to the Originalthe winter months, the empty Reflecting Mother Church, recalling the historical entryPool can feel uninviting and inhospitable to path to the Original Mother Church. Thethe surrounding neighborhoods. In addi- inclusion of a Reflecting Pool crossing willtion, the Pool acts as a barrier to pedestrian improve circulation, while also adding a newcirculation through the Plaza. architectural feature to the site.The issues related to the Reflecting Pool that The existing Pool is 686 feet long. The Poolneed to be addressed include: will be slightly shorter (by about 18 feet) at the end closest to the Sunday School Building♦ Reducing water use by 50 percent to 75 to facilitate pedestrian circulation across the percent per year while retaining beauty Plaza in that area, which is now constrained. and reflectivity. 22 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 42. DRAFTChaPTer 4objeCTive 1: enhanCe oPen sPaCePedestrian ExperienceThe Plaza is located at the nexus of severaldifferent neighborhoods, each with its ownstreet grid: Back Bay, Prudential, South 1. Current pool depth is 26 inches. New pool depthEnd/St. Botolph, and Fenway. The lines will be 6-12 inches.of the Plaza generally conform to this gridsystem (see Figure 3).The revitalization of the Plaza will take intoaccount urban grid systems in the surround-ing neighborhoods, and improve the pedes-trian experience as individuals travel to andfrom the surrounding neighborhoods. Longconcrete benches and raised concrete flowerboxes on the east side of the Reflecting Poolrestrict circulation between HuntingtonAvenue and the Reflecting Pool. These bar-riers will be reconfigured to provide a morepedestrian-friendly experience, inviting indi-viduals to walk through the site, whether theyare visiting the site or just passing through.Some of the planters will be replaced withan open area that acts as the transition to thenew pedestrian crossing across the ReflectingPool. 2. Illustrative sketch of proposed Reflecting Pool pedestrian crossing.New landscaping will include pathwaysdirecting pedestrians through the site and toimportant locations on its edges, includingSymphony Hall, Prudential Center, and cross-walks to the surrounding neighborhoods.Additional pathways on the MassachusettsAvenue side of the site will improve pedes-trian connections to the Reflecting Pool andother locations on the site. New pathwaysand landscaping will also create a new focuson the entrance to the Publishing House.On the northern edge of the Plaza, bothpedestrian and vehicular circulation isimpacted by the Dalton Street/BelvidereStreet intersection. The current lanemarkings and minimal signage make the 3. Aerial view showing the grid systems in the vicin- ity of the Plaza.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 23Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 43. DRAFT ChaPTer 4 objeCTive 1: enhanCe oPen sPaCe intersection dangerous for both pedestrians crossing the intersection and vehicles passing through. Landscaping Other significant changes related to the Plaza’s open space will be in the form of improved landscaping. The site currently contains hardscape and planters, while a4. View of the Massachusetts Avenue lawn as seen softer landscape of grass and trees wouldtoday. enhance the space. The plan includes expanding the lawn along Massachusetts Avenue and adding new pathways. This area will continue to be an area suitable for a variety of recreational and contemplative opportunities. Improved landscaping between Huntington Avenue and the Reflecting Pool will create a welcoming feel on this face of the Plaza to the community. The improved landscaping will include benches and areas for passive5. View of the Huntington Avenue Bosque as seen recreation, especially areas for contemplationtoday. and relaxation. Throughout the rest of the Plaza, a more welcoming experience will be included, with elements that are flexible and allow for maxi- mum use of the space. These elements could include tables and chairs that are not fixed to their location, but can be moved to suit the seasons and the change in uses throughout the year. Children’s Fountain Adjacent to the 177 Huntington Avenue building is the 80-foot-diameter Children’s Fountain, which is currently enjoyed by chil- dren and adults during the summer months. This successful feature will remain in its6. Areas on site for future improvements. 24 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 44. DRAFTChaPTer 4objeCTive 1: enhanCe oPen sPaCecurrent form. During the colder months Huntington Avenue Bus Areawhen the Fountain is not in operation, onepossible use would be an ice skating rink. Currently along Huntington Avenue, adja-The adjacent area could also include associ- cent to the Plaza, is a parking area for layoverated uses, such as vendors that would cater to tour and charter buses (Figure 8). The busesthe users of this portion of the site. obstruct access to the Plaza and block views of the Plaza from Huntington Avenue. They also impact the aesthetics of the site and diminish the welcoming feeling on this por- tion of the site. The Church looks forward to working with the City of Boston to find a different location for the buses that would improve the aesthetics of the Plaza and improve view corridors and the pedestrian experience, as well as vehicular safety along Children’s Fountain this portion of Huntington Avenue. Buses parked on Huntington Avenue. 7. The Children’s Fountain during the summer months. 8. Layover buses parked on Huntington Avenue.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 25Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 45. DRAFT ChaPTer 4 objeCTive 1: enhanCe oPen sPaCePublic BenefitsThe improvements to the Plaza open spacewill have a number of benefits to the Church,the City, and the neighborhood. These ben-efits include:♦ Improved open space for the public’s use.♦ New green space.♦ Groundwater infiltration to sustain adequate groundwater levels.♦ Improved aesthetics year-round.♦ Enhanced public experience year-round.♦ Improved site circulation.9. Proposal of the enhanced open space. 26 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 46. DRAFTChaPTer 5Objective 2: imprOve envirOnmentalSuStainability Sustainability Framework * Celebrate community * Achieve energy efficiency * Promote transportation options * Manage materials * Enhance water resources * Champion natural environmentThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 27Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 47. DRAFT ChaPTer 5 objeCTive 2: imProve environmenTal susTainabiliTyIntroduction Waste Management and RecyclingThe Church has taken significant steps to In 2007, the Church substantially increasedbecome more environmentally responsible in its recycling efforts. Since then, the Churchits current operations. These efforts include has recycled approximately 462,000 poundsrecycling and energy efficiency improve- of paper and 22,050 pounds of co-mingledments, such as the installation of new light recyclables (plastic, glass, and aluminum).fixtures and the implementation of programs Currently, all non-food paper and cardboard,to decrease energy use in the Publishing and all plastic, glass, and aluminum areHouse. Additional sustainability measures recycled.are being considered for implementation aspart of the Plaza Revitalization Project. The Church has also reduced the consump- tion of disposable materials, which in turnExisting Efforts has reduced the need for recycling. These efforts include:LEED Certification ♦ Effective May 1, 2009, the ChurchIn 2009, the renovation of floors 5-9 in the stopped purchasing bottled water,Publishing House achieved a Leadership reducing the amount of plastic to bein Energy and Environmental Design for recycled.Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI) Gold rat- ♦ Printer default options are set to printing from the U.S. Green Building Council. double-sided where possible, decreasingThe renovation received credits for: paper use.♦ Reducing water use by 30 percent— On the Plaza, the Church has purchased and mainly through the use of low-flow and installed “Big Belly” solar-powered trash metered plumbing fixtures. compactors. These containers help keep the♦ Storing and collecting recyclables. Plaza clean, while minimizing the amount of♦ Reusing, on or off the site, 23 tons of time needed to empty trash bins around the construction waste. site.♦ Recycling 717 tons of demolition Energy Conservation material and construction debris.♦ Reusing workstations, file cabinets, and The Church has implemented a number loose furniture. of other measures to decrease energy use.♦ Incorporating finish material and These measures include: furnishings that were manufactured within a 500-mile radius. ♦ Initiating programs to encourage employ-♦ Using low volatile organic compound ees to turn off computer monitors, (VOC) content adhesives, paints, and speakers, printers, copiers, and other carpets. powered devices at the end of each day, and unplugging certain electronics when not needed, such as cell phone chargers. 28 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 48. DRAFTChaPTer 5objeCTive 2: imProve environmenTal susTainabiliTy ♦ Installing automatic light sensors throughout the Publishing House. ♦ Replacing lamps and fixtures with more energy-efficient models. ♦ Operating all fan and pump motors with variable frequency drives. ♦ Using an automated temperature control system. ♦ Shutting down the boiler if outdoor1. “Big Belly” Solar powered trash compactors set upon the Plaza. winter temperatures permit. ♦ Implementing a four-day summer work week. ♦ Operating boilers with natural gas more often than with oil. ♦ Providing employees with transportation incentives, such as commuter vouchers and pretax MBTA passes. ♦ Including MBTA directions to the Plaza on the Church’s website. ♦ Installing bike racks, cycling lockers, and showers, which support bicycle commuting (some employees now commute up to 40 miles round trip).2. Plaque awarded for the 2008 renovation offloors 5-9 of the Publishing House. 3. Publishing House floors that were renovated in 2008 (in green).The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 29Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 49. DRAFT ChaPTer 5 objeCTive 2: imProve environmenTal susTainabiliTyFuture Actions Children’s FountainThe Church’s present actions in regard to Waterwallsustainability demonstrate commitment to & Pondenvironmental conservation as part of inter-nal operations and capital improvements. ReflectingGoing forward, the Church will investigate Poolhow future development on the site canincorporate sustainable features into buildingdesigns and practices.The Plaza Revitalization Project seeks toimplement improvements related to waterconservation, rainwater management, andthe urban heat island effect. The Project 4. Existing water features.introduces a mix of uses and new users tothe Plaza. Connections to the surroundingneighborhoods are improved, and the Plazais more welcoming year-round.Water ConservationAs mentioned in Chapter 4, the ReflectingPool uses approximately 5 million gallons peryear. The Plaza Revitalization Project pro-poses to decrease the depth of the ReflectingPool from approximately 26 inches tobetween 6 and 12 inches. Pool water use willbe reduced between 50 to 75 percent because 5. Mary Baker Eddy Waterwall and Gardenof this reduction in depth, as well as a slightreduction in length (only about 18 feet of the686-foot length) around the Sunday Schoolend of the Pool to allow better pedestriancirculation.In addition to water savings from the rebuiltReflecting Pool, new landscaping throughoutthe Plaza will include native or adapted plantsthat are appropriate for Boston’s climate,reducing potable water use for irrigation.Rainwater ManagementCurrently, approximately 87 percent of the 6. Existing features.Plaza is covered by impervious surfaces, 30 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 50. DRAFTChaPTer 5objeCTive 2: imProve environmenTal susTainabiliTyincluding roofs, pavement, and the ReflectingPool. These areas prevent groundwaterrecharge while increasing runoff to thecombined sewer system. The impervioussurfaces also prevent infiltration of rainfallto recharge groundwater. Large amounts ofpotable water are currently used to irrigatethe existing landscape and replenish waterin the Reflecting Pool and fountains lost toleakage, evaporation, and backwashing ofthe Pool and Fountain filters.The Revitalization Project will work to man-age stormwater to minimize the amount ofrainwater that is discharged to the combinedsewer system and maximize groundwater Lawnrecharge potential. The Church and future Planterdevelopers will capture and infiltrate run- 7. Existing landscaped areas.off in accordance with Article 32 of theBoston Zoning Code, as the Plaza is withinthe Groundwater Conservation OverlayDistrict. Improved landscaping will increasethe amount of pervious surface on the Plaza,reducing stormwater runoff and increasinginfiltration (see Figure 8). Additional mea-sures are also being studied for feasibilitythat would reuse rainwater throughout thesite and for the Reflecting Pool.Urban Heat Island EffectThe urban heat island effect refers to thehigher temperatures urban areas experiencecompared to rural areas because of theabundance of dark materials that absorbheat rather than deflect it. According to theUS Environmental Protection Agency, thiseffect can be associated with a difference Lawnin temperature between urban and rural Planterareas of between 1.8°F to 5.4°F during theday and a difference as high as 22°F in the 8. Proposed landscaped areas.evening. Urban heat islands negatively affectcommunities by increasing summertime peakenergy demand, air pollution, greenhouseThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 31Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 51. DRAFT ChaPTer 5 objeCTive 2: imProve environmenTal susTainabiliTy gas emissions, stormwater temperature, and discomfort for residents. Because so much of the Christian Science Plaza is hardscape, this adds to the urban heat island effect for the city. The Revitalization Project plans to increase the lawn area by around 20 percent and add more shade trees and landscaped areas (see Figures 8 and 9). By doing this, the heat island effect can be decreased. Other options that will be stud- ied include incorporating green roofs, using light-colored materials for surfaces, or paint- ing roofs and surfaces white. Repurposing Buildings Trees added Trees removed All buildings on the Plaza will continue to be9. Proposed tree planting changes. used (see Figure 10). These buildings repre- sent a significant amount of energy that was expended to extract raw materials for their manufacture, transport, assembly, and con- struction. Continued use of these buildings lessens the need for new construction and the use of additional resources. Public Benefits The Plaza Revitalization Project will provide a number of public benefits in regard to environmental sustainability. These benefits include: ♦ Decreased water use. ♦ Less water from the Reflecting Pool and rainstorms discharged to the combined sewer system. Buildings ♦ Decreased urban heat island effect. ♦ Increased groundwater infiltration.10. All buildings continued to be used. No demolition. ♦ A more welcoming site with increased use year-round. 32 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 52. DRAFTChaPTer 6Objective 3: Plan fOr UnderUtilized real estate The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 33 Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 53. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeRationale for Development Also, the density is quite low when compared to the FAR of the surrounding areas. TheNew development on the Plaza will support FAR of the nearby Prudential Center is 6,the Church’s continued stewardship of the the FAR for across the street on HuntingtonPlaza and help it achieve the goal of balanc- Avenue is 8 and on Massachusetts Avenue 5,ing real estate expenses and revenues. and FARs for nearby neighborhoods range from 2 to 4.An analysis to determine how much newdevelopment would be appropriate consid- 2. Open Space Sizeered the benefits of maintaining the largeexpanse of open space, the amount of exist- The Plaza’s open space in proportion to theing excess Plaza zoning capacity, the need for building footprints is high. It is approxi-the development to be concordant with the mately two-thirds of the total Plaza acreage.existing buildings on and near the Plaza, and The Church is not aware of any other pri-financial factors. This analysis resulted in the vately held, publicly accessible urban openproposal for 950,000 square feet on selected space of its size in the City of Boston. Evenedges of the Plaza. Five contributing factors with the addition of 950,000 square feet, thefor this amount of new space are discussed Plaza would still have the highest ratio ofbelow. open space to building square footage in the City.1. Density For example, 60 State Street has privatelyThe Plaza’s current density is very low. There held publicly-accessible space. The Plaza’sis significant untapped zoning capacity on ratio of open space to building square foot-the Plaza—about 650,000 square feet “as-of- age is approximately 13 times the ratio atright” when comparing the built Floor Area 60 State Street. With 950,000 square feet ofRatio (FAR) of 1.2 to the zoning FAR of 2. new development added to the Plaza, the 1. Graphical description of the floor area ratio (FAR). 34 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 54. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeratio would still be high—about 6 times thatof 60 State Street.3. Total Cost of Open SpaceThe cost of maintaining the Plaza open spaceis very high, not only because of its size, butalso because of its unique features.Since 1906, the Church has provided some 2. Working on the Reflecting Pool membrane.form of park or garden for the enjoyment ofits members and neighbors. It has borne thefull cost associated with upkeep and repairs.It is estimated that the cost over the last cen-tury is in excess of $60 million.Over the last 40 years, the cost of opera-tion has increased, in part because of theReflecting Pool and Children’s Fountain.Annual operating costs have grown toapproximately $2 million. This covers costssuch as maintenance and repairs, cleaning, 3. Working on wood piles beneath the Church edifces.landscaping, security, utilities, and insurance.In addition to maintenance, the Churchrequires significant funds for capital projectsto repair and improve the Plaza:♦ The Reflecting Pool.♦ Groundwater levels.♦ The Plaza hardscape surface (see Figure 4). 4. Site paving in need of repair.♦ The facades of the 1970s concrete buildings (see Figure 5).♦ Landscaping and outdoor seating.The capital costs associated with the openspace are anticipated to be in excess of $30to $40 million. Proceeds from the new devel-opment would be used for the upfront capi-tal costs and ongoing operating costs of thePlaza open space. More detail about theseimprovements can be found in Chapter 4. 5. Example of deteriorating facades on the Plaza buildings.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 35Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 55. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTe4. Open Space Cost as Percentage of To get the cost per building square footBuilding Square Footage to be similar to the norm, however, would require a significant infusion of new squareNot only is the cost to run the Plaza large in footage, approximately three million squareterms of total dollars, it is also large in terms feet, but the Church believes that muchof the square footage of development on the development would alter the Plaza in ansite. undesirable way. Instead, the Church prefers to maintain as much of the open space asConverting to the “cost per square foot feasible, limiting development to suitableof building space” is a way to compare locations, and increasing revenue to a levelthe Church’s costs to the norm. This is an projected to allow the Church’s real estate toimportant concept because the open space be self-supporting.is not leased and does not provide a revenuestream to support itself. 5. Real Estate CostsThe cost for maintaining the open space According to the American Institute ofis approximately $2.60 per square foot on Philanthropy, cost-effective charities spendthe Plaza. According to Leggat McCall approximately 25 percent of their budget onProperties (the Church’s real estate consul- administration and overhead, which includestant), based on discussions with representa- real estate. Donors want the highest percent-tives from leading property management age of their dollars used for the purpose offirms in the city, the average cost of manag- the nonprofit rather than its infrastructure.ing the open space associated with large-scalecommercial properties in the City of Boston The Church’s real estate costs represent ais 25 cents per square foot, with a range disproportionate amount of its total spend-from a few cents up to 50 cents per square ing; the Church spends around 20 percent offoot. The Church’s cost is approximately ten its budget on real estate infrastructure alone.times more expensive than the norm. The This cost is too high for the Church to con-proposed development would decrease these tinue to bear.costs to approximately $1.30 per square foot,lower than existing, but still significantly Site Analysisabove the norm. Development Potential The existing density on the Plaza in relation to the surrounding area and the amount of open space per square foot of building space underscore that the Plaza can be considered underdeveloped. A density analysis, in regard to the zoning of the Plaza, was conducted to determine the development potential of the Plaza.6. Leased Plaza properties. 36 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 56. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeThe first stage of the analysis determined density and have an urban nature similar tothe base amount of new space that could the surrounding neighborhoods. Overall,be created as-of-right. This stage of the this scenario would create approximatelyanalysis included two scenarios: one that was 650,000 square feet of new space on thewithin the as-of-right FAR, and one that was Plaza (see Figure 8).not limited by the FAR. The first scenarioincluded a build-out of structures across the The second scenario looked at potentialPlaza at existing allowable heights (75 feet build-out with 75-foot and 115-foot build-and 115 feet). This build-out would increase ings, but without an FAR limit. This scenario 7. Plaza and surrounding area.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 37Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 57. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTe8. Current zoning as-of-right new build-out (shown in red) of the Plaza. For illustration purposes only. 38 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 58. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeresults in approximately 1.15 million square Development Analysisfeet of new development if all new build-ings are 75 feet, or approximately 1.65 mil- The above site analysis is based on develop-lion square feet if the buildings are 115 feet. ment over the entire Plaza site. However,The FAR for each scenario is 3.04 and 3.84, seeing that a key objective is to maintainrespectively. These new dimensions would open space, the Church found that futurecreate similar or lower density than that in development would need to be concentratedthe surrounding area. on specific locations on the Plaza, and would need to be taller than what is currentlyThe above analyses provided the Church allowed as-of-right.with a picture of the potential of the sitewithin the limits of zoning, and what could To determine the potential locations forbe possible considering the characteristics of future development, nine areas (Sites) onthe surrounding area. the Plaza were identified (see Figure 9). As requested by the BRA planning staff, theseAfter consideration of noneconomic factors, Sites were analyzed to determine which loca-it was concluded that more than one million tions were most suitable for development.square feet of development could negativelyimpact the Plaza by decreasing the amount The number of Sites was narrowed basedof open space and impacting its historic on respect for the historical context of thesignificance. Therefore, it was concluded site and on the Church’s goal of preservingthat 300,000 square feet more than what is as much open space as feasible. Three sitesallowed as-of-right, for a total of 950,000 were eliminated from further considerationsquare feet of development, would be an because of size, location, or existing ameni-urban design solution that would meet the ties. Sites 1 and 3 were eliminated becausegoals of the Church while still maintaining of their small size and limited developmentthe character of the Plaza and the surround- potential because of location. Site 4 wasing areas. This would result in a Plaza FAR eliminated in order to preserve the Children’sof approximately 2.7.The Plaza Revitalization Project addresses 9new development on the Plaza itself. TheMidtown Hotel on Huntington Avenue is the 8only Church-owned property outside of the 1 7Plaza that is projected to have future devel-opment potential, but it is currently under 3a ground lease. Although it is not part of 4the Plaza Revitalization Project, its potential 2future redevelopment has been factored into 6the Church’s financial projections for achiev-ing self-supporting real estate. 5 9. Development locations studiedThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 39Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 59. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTe Fountain and the Reflecting Pool for both their aesthetic and social value. The remaining Sites were presented to the BRA and CAC and analyzed by the Church and its consultants for their merits and deficiencies in regard to the Church’s goals, objectives, and design criteria. Site 2 (see Figure 10), the lawn area along Massachusetts Avenue, was studied as both a location for a new building, as well as a location for an underground parking garage.10. Site 2. While the studies included various building alternatives, it was decided that this loca- tion was best retained as it currently exists. The lawn continues to be successful as a place for recreation and relaxation. The lawn provides a view toward The Mother Church Extension and serves as the primary entry to the Publishing House, the Church’s headquarters building. The enhancement of the lawn would provide more benefit to the community and the Church than the devel- opment of a building at this location. Site 5 (see Figure 11) is a small parcel of land along Huntington Avenue adjacent to11. Site 5. the Sunday School Building (the Huntington Site). While this Site dictates a rather small building footprint, a number of alternatives were studied that included larger massing by building a portion of the structure over portions of the Sunday School. In response to comments made by the CAC, alternative boundaries for Site 5 that included portions of Site 6 were studied. However, upon fur- ther review, it was determined that the Site as originally studied was a good candidate for new development and could provide a positive urban design solution that activates a portion of Huntington Avenue. Site 6 (see Figure 12) was studied for the12. Site 6. development of low-rise buildings in place 40 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 60. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeof the tree bosque. In addition, the CAC St. Botolph neighborhoods. A major newrequested alternatives that used a portion building is not viable at this location becauseof Site 6 combined with Site 5. However, of the proximity of the 177 Huntingtonafter further study, it was determined that Avenue building and the Children’s Fountain.this Site would be financially undesirable for However, this location holds the potential todevelopment and unattractive for retail pur- house a small retail structure that would caterposes. Developing this location would result to the users of the Children’s Fountain andin a number of drawbacks, including blocked potential ice skating area. When this Site wasviews of the Plaza and The Mother Church discussed with the CAC, it was agreed thatedifices, significant shadow impacts on the this location would not be a favorable loca-Plaza, an additional barrier to pedestrian tion for major development.circulation and access, and a compromise ofthe historic design of the Plaza. It was deter- Sites 8 and 9 (see Figure 13) were studiedmined that this Site would be better suited as extensively because of their location awaya tree bosque, or a blend between the existing from the contiguous Plaza open space andtree bosque and new landscaping, provid- the proximity to established hotel, retail,ing welcoming entrances to the Plaza from residential, and office density. Located onHuntington Avenue. the rear side of 101 Belvidere Street and adjacent to the Prudential Center, these SitesSite 7 is located at the corner of Huntington are suitable for development, complement-Avenue and Belvidere Street, and is an active ing existing uses and building massing. Inpedestrian area between the Prudential addition, development on these sites willCenter, the South End, the Back Bay, and the have minimal impacts on the Plaza, its open 9 8 8/913. Sites 8 and 9 as originally studied. 14. Sites 8 and 9 combined.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 41Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 61. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTespace, historic structures, and surrounding Recognizing the disadvantages of the largerresidential neighborhoods. proposed building on the Belvidere/Dalton Site, an additional alternative was studied.Building alternatives were initially studied This alternative would continue to combineon Sites 8 and 9 individually. Next, the two Sites 8 and 9, but would have new open spaceSites were combined into one, creating the and an opening between the two buildingsBelvidere/Dalton Site (see Figure 14). In an that would provide light and visibility for theearly combined Site scenario, consideration neighborhood. The Site 8 portion wouldwas given to Dalton Street south of Belvidere include a taller structure and a below-gradeStreet being relocated to run adjacent to the parking garage. Site 9 would include a mid-101 Belvidere Street building. Additional rise building, as well as a small parking garagealternatives considered a driveway in the below-grade. The combined Site would cre-location of the existing roadway between ate an improved Belvidere Street/DaltonSites 8 and 9. Street intersection. In addition, having two separated buildings would allow for a betterBuilding alternatives in these early itera- transition between the Prudential Center andtions generally created a streetwall along the the adjacent neighborhoods.entire combined Site along Belvidere Street.However, relocating a major six-foot sewer Belvidere/Dalton Site (Site 8/9)line under the existing Dalton Street wouldbe problematic. In addition, there were con- The Belvidere/Dalton Site consists of twocerns about the lack of open space in these parcels of land that can be connected throughalternatives and the overpowering massing appropriate easements and/or arrangementsof a combined building. with the City, creating one complete site and15. Existing Belvidere/Dalton Site plan. 16. Proposed Belvidere/Dalton Site site plan showing footprints of two new buildings and new open space. 42 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 62. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTea new Belvidere Street/Dalton Street inter- intersection. This building will continue thesection (see Figures 15, 16, and 17). step-down in building height toward the sur- rounding neighborhoods.The preferred building configuration onthe Belvidere/Dalton Site includes two Planned uses for the two buildings on thebuildings—a high-rise of approximately 512 Belvidere/Dalton Site are residential andfeet and a mid-rise of approximately 251 feet hotel, with ground-floor retail. Some limited(heights measured according to the Boston office use is possible, depending on marketZoning Code). The proposed high-rise will demands.be located on the existing triangle parcel andcontain approximately 600,000 square feet. Between the buildings will be a driveway thatTogether with the existing 111 Huntington provides public access to the alleyway northAvenue, it will provide a step-down transi- of St. Germain Street, as well as a drop-off/tion from the taller Prudential Building to pick-up area for the high-rise. Access tolower buildings on the Plaza and adjacent the parking garage and loading area for theneighborhoods. high-rise will be located off the proposed extension of Clearway Street all the way toThe proposed mid-rise building will contain Belvidere Street. Access to the parking andapproximately 200,000 square feet and will be loading area of the mid-rise building will belocated on the existing parking lot adjacent to from Belvidere Street, west of the Belviderethe existing Belvidere Street/Dalton Street Street/Dalton Street intersection. The17. Proposed Belvidere/Dalton Site ground plan.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 43Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 63. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeexisting parking lot at the intersection of should stop before continuing on BelvidereSt. Germain and Clearway Streets will Street. Driving north on Clearway Street tobecome an open space. Belvidere Street, there is no stop sign, and continuing along Dalton Street requiresThe portion of Dalton Street between crossing Belvidere Street, which narrows atBelvidere and St. Germain Streets would this point.continue to be two-way. The plan is to makethe Belvidere/Dalton intersection right turn The Church will work with the Bostononly, both in and out. Left turns would be Transportation Department (BTD) duringshifted to the intersection of Clearway and the design for the Belvidere/Dalton Site,Belvidere Streets. which proposes a new alignment of the streets at the intersection. Street flow andThe benefits of the proposed development clarity will be improved through the pro-plan are related to urban design, transporta- posed changes by maintaining an equal dis-tion, parking, and historic resources. tance between curb lines, and by a new curve on the southern side of the intersection thatTransportation will lead traffic onto Dalton Street. New stop signs, street painting, and more turning lanesAs described in Chapter 4, the intersection and through lanes will also improve vehicularof Dalton Street and Belvidere Street (see and pedestrian circulation. The proposedFigure 18) can be confusing to motorists and new Clearway Street extension to Belviderechallenging for pedestrians trying to cross Street will be farther from the intersection,the street. Driving west along Belvidere will be better placed for flowing traffic, andStreet, there is no stop sign at Dalton Street, will eliminate the need for a three-way stopthe road narrows, and it is unclear if one intersection.18. Belvidere Street/Dalton Street intersection. 19. Parking lot on Belvidere Street. 44 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 64. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeDalton Street between Belvidere Street and of spaces and the number of levels belowClearway Street would remain a City-owned grade). The Church will consult with BTDpublic street, and the surface treatment, to determine the parking strategy for the newproposed improvements, and maintenance development.issues will be reviewed and approved by theBRA, BTD, and the Public Improvement Compared to other potential parking garageCommission. The proposed new Clearway locations, such as the area along MassachusettsStreet extension to Belvidere Street will Avenue or an expansion of the existing Plazaremain privately owned, but will be opened to garage, development of parking beneath thethe public upon approval by the BRA, BTD, Belvidere/Dalton Site has the most advan-and the Public Improvement Commission. tages with the least impacts, and is the most economically feasible. Since the Belvidere/The construction of a below-grade parking Dalton Site will be excavated to accommo-garage at the Belvidere/Dalton Site offers date the new buildings, the addition of thethe ability to connect the new garage under parking garages would have little impact tothe high-rise building to the existing garage the surrounding area and would be inte-beneath the Plaza. A pedestrian connec- grated with the construction schedule andtion between these two garages would offer methodology. Parking beneath each buildinggreater flexibility for users. would allow for tenants and visitors of the building to have convenient access from theThe development of the Belvidere/Dalton parking garage.Site will also improve the pedestrian expe-rience. The Site is currently occupied bya surface parking lot and is in an area withlittle pedestrian activity. The redevelopmentof the site will create a new open space thatwill provide a more aesthetically pleasingconnection between St. Germain Street andthe Prudential Center area. New lobbies andground-floor entries at street level will alsoattract more pedestrians into this area andcomplement the adjacent existing retail.ParkingThe current 550-space parking garage belowthe Christian Science Plaza is insufficient forthe new development. As part of the devel-opment of the Belvidere/Dalton Site, newparking garages will be constructed beneaththe two new buildings. The size of the futuredevelopment and the parking needs of newdevelopment will ultimately determine thesize of the parking garages (i.e., the number 20. Residential buildings along St. Germain Street.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 45Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 65. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeHistoric Preservation Huntington Site (Site 5)Minimizing impacts to the Plaza and its The Huntington Site is adjacent to the Sundaybuildings is one of the design criteria of the School Building on Huntington Avenue (seePlaza Revitalization Project. The Belvidere/ Figure 21 and 22). The original analysis con-Dalton Site would allow for development sidered the Site between the Sunday Schoolof a building with minimal to no impact Building and the Huntington Avenue prop-on the Plaza or its buildings, since develop- erty line. Alternatives included constructingment of this Site would place buildings at portions of the structure above the Sundaya distance from the Plaza and its buildings. School, or between the Sunday School andIn addition, it is important to respect the Horticultural Hall. Subsequent analysesspecial environment of the adjacent resi- increased the size of the Huntington Site todential St. Germain Street. A discussion of include a small portion of the Huntingtonimpacts to historic resources can be found in Avenue tree bosque. The increased sizeChapter 7. E 21. The Huntington Site as the nexus of two prominent community connections. NUE AV TTS SE HU AC SS MA 22. Existing Huntington Site plan. 46 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 66. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTewould allow for a larger footprint, but would Building. The Huntington Site’s location ateliminate more of the tree bosque than would the intersection of Avenue of the Arts andthe other alternatives. The current plan (see Avenue of Music, adjacent to the SymphonyFigure 23) reduces the building compared Station on the MBTA Green Line, makes theto what was originally studied and aligns the Site appropriate for a number of uses, andnew construction with the facades of the ideal for its preferred residential use.Sunday School. A small portion of the mass-ing would be constructed above the Sunday Compared to other Plaza locations, theSchool, and a new lobby and entrance to the Huntington Site showcases the natural evo-Sunday School would be integrated with the lution of the Plaza and allows for the devel-new building along Huntington Avenue. This opment of a building with minimal impactsalternative would best preserve the historic to the surrounding Plaza. As mentioned,nature, original design, and vision of the alternative building massing schemes werePlaza. studied, but most had drawbacks, such as poor access to the Plaza, adverse shadowThe Huntington Site was chosen because of impacts, and/or impacts to historic proper-its size and location, suitable for residential ties. The proposed building connects with,uses that would activate the “pedestrian- and includes, a portion of the Sunday Schooldormant” corner of the Plaza with new life Building. This connection could potentiallyand activity. Together with the development meet the accessibility needs of the Sundayon the Belvidere/Dalton Site, it helps meet School Building, without the need for majordesign criteria by retaining most of the changes to the existing structure, as well asexisting open space on the Plaza and all of provide potential support areas, or a lobby,the buildings, including the Sunday School for future uses in the Sunday School Building.23. Proposed Huntington Site ground plan.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 47Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 67. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeThe proposed building (see Figures 24 and25) will be a slender structure, approximately291 feet tall (shorter than 177 HuntingtonAvenue) and will provide approximately150,000 square feet of space. The slenderform will be an integral part of the Plazaensemble and will integrate with the SundaySchool Building as a counterpoint, whilemaintaining the integrity of and preservingthe arched welcoming passageway to thePlaza.The new building would improve the view 24. Rendering showing Huntington Site proposalalong Huntington Avenue and provide an from the Children’s Fountain.animated street-level lobby adjacent to theexisting blank wall of the Sunday SchoolBuilding. The new building will serve as anarchitectural marker punctuating this cornerof the Plaza. The building will mirror inheight and massing the proportions of the177 Huntington Avenue brise soleil zone.This will contribute to grounding the newbuilding into the existing core and create agateway from Huntington Avenue, where theneighborhood, its cultural identity, and theChurch come together.Parking for the new Huntington buildingwill be accommodated in the Plaza’s existing 25. Rendering showing Huntington Site proposal with 177 Huntington Avenue in the foreground.underground garage. (The design will be determined at a later date.)26. Huntington Avenue elevation of the Plaza. 48 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 68. DRAFTChaPTer 6objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTe The combination of the new development, 9 Sunday School Building, and Horticultural 8 Hall offers the opportunity for a complex with a number of potential uses, including arts and entertainment uses. Current plans will relocate Sunday School classes to the Church edifices in 2012 in order to keep the children and their parents within the same building. This will allow for the Sunday School Building to be repurposed. 5 Proposed Development Sites27. Proposed development sites. In summary, in consultation with the CAC, it was determined that the most suitable loca- tions on the Plaza for development were: ♦ the Huntington Site (Site 5) adjacent to the Sunday School Building, and ♦ the Belvidere/Dalton Site (Sites 8 and 9).28. Proposed development sites.29. Model showing the proposed development.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 49Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 69. DRAFT ChaPTer 6 objeCTive 3: Plan For underuTilized real esTaTeArticle 80 Large Project ReviewThe schemes described in this chapter showbuilding footprints and describe massing,rather than final design possibilities. Theyare preliminary, and provide a vision of whatis feasible at the development sites. Afterapproval of zoning entitlements and selec-tion of developer partners, the proposeddevelopment will undergo Article 80 LargeProject Review and design review as requiredby the Boston Zoning Code.Public BenefitsThe proposed developments on theBelvidere/Dalton and Huntington Siteswill create a number of benefits to the City.These benefits include:♦ New vitality to the area.♦ New retail spaces and increased street- level activity.♦ New construction and permanent jobs.♦ New affordable housing units that comply with Mayor Menino’s Executive Order.♦ Integrated improvements with the Symphony Streetscape upgrades.♦ Increased tax revenues for the City.♦ Statutory linkage from possible office or hotel use.♦ An enhanced year-round experience for the public on the Plaza. 50 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 70. DRAFTChaPTer 7Historic resourcesThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 51Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 71. DRAFT ChaPTer 7 hisToriC resourCesOver the years, the Church has diligently At the time of construction, the site of themaintained, protected, and preserved the Original Mother Church was an undevelopedseven buildings located on the Christian parcel at the intersection of Norway (thenScience Plaza (see Figure 1). Each of the Caledonia) and Falmouth Streets.buildings contributes in its own way to thehistoric and architectural significance of the Welch’s original recommended building mate-site. Going forward, there are no plans to rial was brick; however, the Church Directorsdemolish any of the existing buildings. Any ultimately opted for New Hampshire granitenew construction would be executed in a in recognition of Mary Baker Eddy’s birthmanner that would be respectful of the exist- state.ing buildings while reflecting contemporarydesigns to illustrate the continual architec- The Original Mother Church features a five-tural evolution of the site. story, square apex tower. The base of the tower is connected to the remainder of theFrom its beginning, the Church has been church with three bay entry arcades detaileda part of and evolved with its surrounding with polished granite columns with foliageneighborhoods. capitals. The Original Mother Church is further detailed with stained-glass rose win- The Original Mother Church dows and figured stained-glass auditorium windows, illustrating scenes from the life ofConstructed in 1894, the Original Mother Christ Jesus.Church was designed by architect FranklinI. Welch of Malden, MA. Built in only 13 The organ, which has 2,825 pipes, wasmonths, the Original Mother Church was rebuilt in 1950 by the Aeolian-Skinner Organconstructed in the Romanesque Revival style. Company to replace the original organ. The Original Mother Church The Mother Church Extension Christian Science Publishing House Open Space and Buildings (1970s) Reflecting Pool Children’s Fountain Horticultural Hall1. The Christian Science Plaza key. 52 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 72. DRAFTChaPTer 7hisToriC resourCes The Mother Church ExtensionAlthough the Original Mother Church couldaccommodate nearly 1,000 churchgoers, ser-vices were so well attended that in August1901 Church Directors approved plans topurchase abutting properties for the purposeof an expansion. By April 1903, the Churchhad acquired the entire block enclosed byFalmouth, Norway, and St. Paul Streets, andsite preparations began for the constructionof The Mother Church Extension (seeFigure 2). Completed in 1906, The MotherChurch Extension was designed by notedBoston architect Charles Brigham. The out-side of the building is Italian Renaissance tomatch the architecture in Boston at that time.The dome is in the Byzantine style. The 2. The Mother Church Extension completed in 1906.building was constructed primarily of Ind-iana limestone, with some New Hampshiregranite incorporated into the elevations. TheExtension features arched windows trimmedin engaged Ionic columns with paired archedand columned openings forming an arcade atthe base of the dome. The exterior is furtherdetailed with two-story engaged Corinthiancolumns and pilasters at the second and thirdstories. The Extension seats approximately3,000 people.The organ, built by the Aeolian-SkinnerCompany of Boston, is one of the largest inthe world: it covers eight divisions and has atotal of 13,295 pipes ranging from one halfinch high to 32 feet high (see Figure 3).In 1975, a Neo-Classical semi-circular porticoconsisting of ten 42-foot-tall monumentalcolumns was added to the Extension to pro-vide an inviting entrance to the Church onthe Massachusetts Avenue side of the Plaza.It was designed by I.M. Pei and Partners andAraldo A. Cossutta, Associated Architects. 3. The organ by Aeolian-Skinner Company.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 53Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 73. DRAFT ChaPTer 7 hisToriC resourCes Christian Science Publishing House The Christian Science Publishing House (see Figure 4) of 1934 was designed by Boston architect Chester Lindsay Churchill in the Neo-Classical style. Constructed of limestone, the Publishing House is a 42- bay-wide structure with a 19-bay main core featuring a slightly projecting seven-bay, double-story, columned portico. A double architrave is inscribed “Founded by Mary Baker4. The Christian Science Publishing House, home to Eddy, The Christian Science Publishing Society.”The Christian Science Monitor, completed in 1934. The building features elongated second-floor windows, double-story piers and pilasters, and ornamental metal spandrels between the second- and third-floor windows. Originally, the 239,000-square-foot Pub- lishing House accommodated all of the Church’s publishing-related activities, includ- ing large printing presses, bindery equipment, production space, and offices.5. The garden wall before the renovation in 2002. In 2002, renovations were completed on the lower floors of the Publishing House to house The Mary Baker Eddy Library. The new design by Ann Beha Architects features a 1,000-square-foot entrance lobby facing Massachusetts Avenue. Beha’s design care- fully preserved many of the beautiful and historic elements of the building, including original mosaic floor tiles and wood paneling.6. The garden and new Massachusetts Avenueentrance after the renovation in 2002. The Library provides public access and context to original materials and educational experiences about Mary Baker Eddy, her life, ideas, and achievements, including her Church. The Library promotes explora- tion and scholarship through its collections, exhibits, and programs. Outside the entrance is a garden, complete with a water wall, shallow pool, trees, and7. The Mapparium® as completed in 1935. seating areas. A portion of a 12-foot-high wall was removed to create an inviting 54 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 74. DRAFTChaPTer 7hisToriC resourCesLibrary entrance and open this garden for 101 Belvidere Street building, together withpublic enjoyment. the Administration Building (currently known as 177 Huntington Avenue) and theInside the main floor of the Library is Sunday School Building represent thethe world famous Mapparium®. The three buildings constructed on the site in theMapparium is a three-story, stained-glass ® early 1970s on the newly created Christianglobe, where visitors can stand on a glass Science Plaza. Led by the design partnershipbridge and view the world as it was in 1935 of architects I.M. Pei & Partners and Araldofrom the inside out (see Figure 7). A. Cossutta, Associated Architects, the new Plaza and its associated buildings and featuresIn 2006, the Church announced that it would dramatically transformed the site. The inno-relocate its headquarters to the Publishing vative use of concrete in the constructionHouse where the newsroom of The Christian and design of these buildings, together withScience Monitor already resided. The reloca- the development of the Reflecting Pooltion, uniting the Church’s administrative and Children’s Fountain, are consideredoffices and all the functions of the Christian by many to be the most monumental andScience Publishing Society under one roof, significant collection of mid-20th centurywas completed in the spring of 2008 follow- modern architecture in the City of Boston.ing renovation of the building. The five-story 101 Belvidere Street build- Christian Science Plaza and Buildings ing measures 525 feet in length and features (see Figure 9) recessed window openings and flat, solid con- crete columns strategically angled to blockThe eastern end of the Publishing House is summer sunlight while allowing the sun’sconnected to the Colonnade Building (cur- rays during the winter months. Constructedrently known as 101 Belvidere Street). The parallel to the Reflecting Pool, 101 Belvidere 8. A view of the Church buildings and park prior to the creation of the Plaza in 1970.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 55Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 75. DRAFT ChaPTer 7 hisToriC resourCesStreet is a concrete building which extends windows. The only opening on the eleva-north to Belvidere Street, the northern limits tion is a simple arch passageway providingof the Plaza. access to the Plaza. The three-story build- ing houses Sunday School classrooms andLocated across the Plaza from 101 Belvidere provides pedestrian access and egress to aStreet, opposite the Reflecting Pool, is the parking garage below the Reflecting Pool.26-story 177 Huntington Avenue building.The strong vertical nature of 177 Huntington Other elements created in the 1970s includeAvenue provides a balance to the domed the Reflecting Pool, Children’s Fountain, andExtension and defines the northeast limits underground parking garage.of the Plaza. The concrete building featuresa dramatic grid of recessed window open- Measuring 98 feet by 686 feet, the rect-ings on its east and west elevations. angular Reflecting Pool is approximately 26 inches in depth.101 Belvidere Street and 177 HuntingtonAvenue are currently leased by the Church to The Children’s Fountain, located at thethird-party office tenants. northern end of the Reflecting Pool, is 80 feet in diameter and sprays water asLocated at the southern end of the high as 40 feet into the air.Reflecting Pool, the Sunday School Buildingwas designed to direct one’s view toward the The Fountain was redesigned and rebuiltChurch edifices. The curved elevation of the in 2001, making it a safer play environ-building faces the Plaza and features recessed ment for the thousands of childrenwindow openings and a columned ground (and adults) who enjoy splashing in itlevel arcade. The Huntington Avenue eleva- each year. A new fiber-optic lightingtion of the building is a blank wall with no system was put in place, bringing color Creation of the Christian Science Plaza in 1970s Open Space and Buildings Reflecting Pool Children’s Fountain9. A view of the Plaza after the creation of the Plaza in the 1970s. 56 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 76. DRAFTChaPTer 7hisToriC resourCes and beauty to the streams of water. In addition, wind sensors were installed to control the height of the water display. The 550-space below-grade parking garage, used for the Church’s members,10. The Children’s Fountain in the 1970s before itwas redesigned to be more kid-friendly. employees, and visitors, is located below the Plaza. It is also made available for events at Symphony Hall. Horticultural Hall Acquired by the Church in 1992, Horticultural Hall (see Figure 13) is located directly south of the Sunday School at the11. The Children’s Fountain as seen today. northwest corner of the intersection of Massachusetts and Huntington Avenues. Constructed in 1901, the Classical Revival- style building was designed by the noted Boston architecture firm of Wheelwright and Haven. The building was constructed to house exhibition space, lecture halls, meet- ing rooms, and offices for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Its Massachusetts Avenue façade is 13 bays wide and features brick pilasters with cast stone Ionic capitals set between the bays. The raised first floor features arched topped windows recessed between the pilasters. Second-floor windows feature decorative iron balcony grills. Entries12. Children playing in the Children’s Fountain. are located in the three middle bays and feature cast stone pediments and surrounds Underground Garage13. Horticultural Hall. Horticultural HallThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 57Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 77. DRAFT ChaPTer 7 hisToriC resourCesset beneath boldly reliefed fruit and drapery Chapter 6, various siting and massing optionswreathed rondels. Over the central entries, were considered for the development on theat the frieze level, is a marble plaque which Huntington Avenue site. As envisioned, thereads “Massachusetts Horticultural Society” in proposed development on the Huntingtonbronze lettering. Horticultural Hall was Avenue site will be connected to the Sundayindividually listed in the National Register of School Building along its Huntington AvenueHistoric Places on May 30, 1975. elevation, thereby providing a more welcom- ing and finished treatment to the otherwisePotential Impacts to Historic blank elevation.Resources The new construction would rise aboveAs discussed in Chapter 3: Purpose, and extend over the smaller non-curvedObjectives, and Design Criteria and in portion of the Sunday School Building. ItChapter 6: Plan for Underutilized Real Estate, would appear to “float” above in a mannerrespecting and preserving the site’s signifi- that sensitively preserves the full identity ofcant historic and architectural resources is the original Sunday School Building withan important goal of the Plaza Revitalization its familiar curved form. Also, the SundayProject. No demolition of any of the exist- School Building’s distinctive arched passage-ing buildings on the site is being considered. way on the Huntington Avenue facade wouldThe siting of the proposed new development be preserved.has been carefully selected in order to mini-mize impacts to the historic resources on the The new slender addition would comple-site and in the area, including the adjacent ment 177 Huntington Avenue, but would beresidential buildings on St. Germain Street. shorter in height at approximately 291 feet tall. It is envisioned to be a contemporaryNew development on the Belvidere/Dalton building providing a sensitive contrast withsite would include two new buildings north- the concrete Sunday School Building and thewest of the Plaza and behind 101 Belvidere neighboring brick Horticultural Hall.Street. As discussed in the Shadow sectionin Chapter 8, shadow impacts associated As discussed in the Shadow section in Chapterwith new development envisioned on the 8, there would be some shadow impactsBelvidere/Dalton site would be cast to the to historic resources as a result of the newwest, north, and east with minimal to no development envisioned for the Huntingtonimpact to the historic resources on the site Avenue site. Specifically, during the morningor in the area. While the development will hours of the spring and fall months, thesebe taller than any existing building on the impacts would generally be limited to thesite, it will serve as a transition from the taller rooftop of the Sunday School Building andPrudential Center buildings to the shorter the Plaza between Massachusetts Avenue andbuildings on the Plaza and the adjacent the Original Mother Church and The Motherneighborhoods. Church Extension; whereas during the mid- day hours of the spring and fall months,The Huntington Avenue site is located there would be some impacts to the southadjacent to the Sunday School Building and elevation of the Original Mother Church andnear Horticultural Hall. As discussed in The Mother Church Extension. 58 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 78. DRAFTChaPTer 7hisToriC resourCesIn the summer months, morning impacts As discussed in greater detail in Chapter 9,would be limited to the roofs of the Sunday since January 2007 Church representativesSchool Building and Horticultural Hall, but have consulted with the BLC regardingnot the primary facades of these buildings. the potential Landmark designation of theDuring the mid-day hours in the summer Christian Science Plaza. Church represen-months, shadows would be at their shortest tatives have provided research materials toin length and would be limited to the roof BLC staff and its consultant team in theirof the Sunday School Building and a very development of a Boston Landmarks Studysmall portion of the southern end of the Report for the Christian Science Plaza.Reflecting Pool. Church representatives look forward to con-In the morning hours during the winter tinuing to work with the BLC staff as themonths, impacts would generally be limited development scenarios considered as partto the Plaza, the Original Mother Church of the Plaza Revitalization Project moveand The Mother Church Extension, and forward.the southern end of the Reflecting Pool;whereas during afternoon hours in the win-ter, impacts would extend to a portion of theside of 177 Huntington Avenue.In summary, there would be shadow impactsto historic resources as a result of the newdevelopment envisioned for the HuntingtonAvenue site; however, the slender form ofthe new building would minimize theseimpacts. None of the shadow impacts wouldbe significant enough to adversely impact thecharacter-defining features of the historicresources on the Plaza or those in nearbyneighborhoods. Chapter 8 includes a seriesof diagrams that document shadow impacts.Church representatives have apprised staffof the Boston Landmarks Commission(BLC) of the development scenarios beingconsidered for the Plaza RevitalizationProject. While there would be shadowimpacts to historic resources as a result ofthe development envisioned, these impactsare not anticipated to be adverse. None ofthe envisioned development scenarios wouldinclude demolition of any of the existingbuildings.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 59Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
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  • 80. DRAFTChaPTer 8EnvironmEntal StudiESThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 61Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 81. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesIntroduction How people travel to and from the site, as well as pedestrian circulation within theThis section provides a discussion of some site, is an important aspect of the overallof the overall issues associated with revitaliz- revitalization of the Plaza and developmenting the Plaza and constructing new buildings. program. Throughout the planning process,Potential solutions to some of the issues are access to the site by transit, pedestrians,also discussed; however, specific solutions bicycles, and vehicles has been a planningare contingent upon final designs. The com- criterion influencing the ultimate proposedpleted traffic and environmental studies will land-uses of predominantly residential andbe refined during the Article 80 process. hotel uses, with a smaller portion of office uses, which typically generates more peak-Transportation hour vehicle trips. Additionally, the devel- opment program minimizes the demand for increased parking.Overview Key FindingsTo assess the transportation impacts associ-ated with the proposed development plan, ♦ The proposed development plan hasa transportation impact analysis was con- minimal transportation impacts onducted. The analysis examined vehicle traf- nearby intersections because of thefic, parking conditions, public transportation proposed predominance of residentialservices, and pedestrian and bicycle activity and hotel land uses, combined with thein the area surrounding the Plaza based on proposed roadway improvements.a scope developed in coordination with theBoston Transportation Department (BTD). ♦ The proposed development has aA discussion of the study methodology, as minimal net increase in parking needswell as existing conditions (year 2009) and because of the existing on-site parkingexpected future conditions (year 2019) both supply and residential and hotel land-usewith and without the proposed development development program.are included as part of this Transportation ♦ The area currently has a high use ofsection. transit, bicycling, and walking versus drive-alone commuting which will beEvaluation of transportation impacts associ- encouraged as part of the developmentated with the proposed development plan is program.based upon an understanding of the existingtransportation system in the project study Methodologyarea. The evaluation of existing transpor-tation conditions in the study area includes The transportation analysis provides an eval-roadway geometry, traffic controls, daily and uation of anticipated impacts of the Plazapeak-hour traffic volumes, traffic safety data, Revitalization Project on the transportationand pedestrian, bicycle, and public trans- environment. This analysis was conductedportation information which have all been in three phases. The first phase (Evaluationundertaken as part of the traffic analysis of Existing Conditions) involved definingeffort. and quantifying the existing transportation 62 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 82. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesconditions in the project study area includ- Existing Site Accessing transit services, pedestrian and bicycleaccommodations, roadway and intersection Current access to the site is provided via twogeometrics, and traffic characteristics for the driveways: one off Huntington Avenue and asurrounding transportation infrastructure. second driveway off Massachusetts Avenue. Both driveways lead to the existing under-In the second stage of the study (Evaluation ground 550-space parking garage below theof Long-Term Transportation Impacts), Reflecting Pool. The Huntington Avenuetransportation conditions were projected driveway is being used by approximately 40for future No-Build Conditions (i.e., with- percent of entering vehicles, mainly trafficout the proposed development) and Build from I-90, Downtown, Chinatown, and BackConditions (i.e., with the proposed devel- Bay, and local traffic. The remaining 60 per-opment). Roadway, pedestrian, and transit cent use the driveway off of Massachusettscapacity were evaluated; and intersection Avenue, with 20 percent coming fromcapacity analyses were conducted and the north (Memorial Drive, Somerville,summarized for the Existing, No-Build Cambridge, Storrow Drive East and West,Conditions, and Build Conditions. Specific I-93, Route 1, Route 1A, and local Boylstontravel demand forecasts for the proposed Street traffic) and 40 percent coming fromdevelopment were assessed along with the south (Huntington Avenue local traf-future transportation demands because of fic, I-93 North and South, Massachusettsbackground traffic growth, and growth from Avenue local traffic).other planned or approved projects. Asdirected by BTD, a ten-year time horizon was When leaving the site, 43 percent of exist-used to analyze the development, from year ing vehicles use the Massachusetts Avenue2009 to year 2019 with a growth rate of 0.5 driveway to travel north and the remainingpercent per year. 57 percent of vehicles utilize the driveway on Huntington Avenue for points east andThe number of trips generated by the pro- south. There is a third driveway availableposed development was estimated using the for site egress also off Huntington AvenueInstitute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) which is currently used during events whenManual. The first and second phases utilized many cars are exiting the garage at the sameSYNCHRO v.6.0 software to analyze year time.2009 Existing Condition as well as year 2019No-Build and Build Conditions. Transit AccessThe final phase of the study identified As shown in Figure 1, the Plaza is wellmeasures to address pedestrian, traffic, and served by Massachusetts Bay Transportationpublic transportation impacts related to the Authority (MBTA) services. MBTA transitdevelopment plan, as well as improve exist- services in the vicinity of the Plaza includeing and future transportation. The transpor- multiple bus lines, the Green and Orangetation analysis was conducted in accordance Lines, and four commuter rail lines. Fivewith BTD methodology. bus routes are available in the vicinity of the Plaza giving access to/from Somerville, Cambridge, Waltham, Hyde Park, and Watertown. The Plaza is centrally locatedThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 63Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 83. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesbetween the E Green Line and Orange Line Forest Hills, which provides a roadway sepa-to the south and southeast, and the B, C, and rated bicycle and walking path for its length.D Green Lines to the north. Four commuter The corridor is approximately two blocksrail lines are accessible in the vicinity of the from the Plaza. In addition, the City is work-Plaza. The Providence/Stoughton line, the ing to provide bicycle lanes on MassachusettsFranklin/Forge Park line, and the Needham Avenue and bicycle accommodations onHeights line are accessible from Ruggles a network of city streets to make BostonStation, just over a half-mile away from the a more bike-friendly environment. Thesite. In addition, Back Bay Station is located Plaza has several bicycle rack locations, asless than a mile away from the Plaza and pro- well as bicycle racks in the existing garage.vides access to the previously listed lines in Enhancing bicycle accommodations is anaddition to the Worcester/Framingham line. element of the Revitalization Project, as well as a consideration in the design of the newThe project area is well served by multiple buildings.bus, rapid transit, and commuter rail ser-vices, and the increase in peak-hour transit Curb Usegenerated by the project is not anticipated tosignificantly impact the area’s transit capacity. Information regarding curb use within a one- quarter mile walk of the Plaza was collectedPedestrian/Bicycle Access and is graphically shown in Figure 2. As noted in Chapter 3, layover bus parking alongPedestrian circulation occurs through the the Huntington Avenue curb has detrimentalPlaza and on the sidewalks of streets around effects on pedestrian access to the Plaza, asit, where there is a steady flow of pedestrians well as adverse impacts on the pedestrian andthroughout the day. Heavily used pedestrian Plaza user experience.routes are ones that lead to/from train sta-tions. The area is well served by a sidewalk Study Area Intersectionsnetwork that connects it with the rest ofthe city. Pedestrian facilities in the study As shown in Figure 3, the study area is locatedarea include sidewalks that vary in width, in the Back Bay, Prudential, South End/St.crosswalks at major intersections, and acces- Botolph, and Fenway neighborhoods. It issible access ramps. A key improvement to generally outlined by Huntington Avenue topedestrian circulation on the Plaza is being the east, Massachusetts Avenue to the southaddressed as part of the Revitalization and west, and Belvidere Street and ClearwayProject’s urban design and landscaping plan Street to the north and includes the follow-which creates a pedestrian pathway across the ing key intersections:center of the Reflecting Pool (see Chapter 4for more information). Improvements to Signalized Intersections:crosswalks on Massachusetts Avenue nearthe Plaza are being undertaken by the City of ♦ Massachusetts Avenue at HuntingtonBoston as part of the Symphony Streetscape AvenueImprovement Project. ♦ Massachusetts Avenue at Westland Avenue/St. Stephen StreetThe Southwest Corridor Park is a 4.7 mile ♦ Massachusetts Avenue at Belvidere Streetlinear park stretching from the Back Bay to 64 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 84. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies♦ Massachusetts Avenue at Boylston Street The number of person trips estimated to be♦ Huntington Avenue at Belvidere generated by the proposed development is Street/W Newton Street then proportioned by the mode shares that are the percentage of persons who come to♦ Huntington Avenue at Cumberland the Plaza by automobile, transit, walking, and Street cycling. These percentages reflect how peo- ple currently travel to this area of the BackUn-signalized Intersection: Bay. The mode share percentages are shown in Figure 4 and were developed by BTD.♦ Belvidere Street at Dalton Street Based on the portion of mode share useTrip Generation shown in Figure 4, the number of vehicle, transit, and pedestrian/bicycle trips to theThe amount of new activity on the Plaza site was estimated for the morning peak hour,is reflective of the amount and types of evening peak hour, and daily conditions.land-uses in the development program.The project is planned to be comprised of Parking Supply and Demand Estimatesapproximately 950,000 square feet of newdevelopment composed of a mix of residen- For the transportation analysis, based on thetial, hotel, and office uses. For purposes of existing and future parking supply on thethe transportation analysis, 150,000 square site, the vehicle trips associated with the pro-feet of residential development was assumed posed development have been distributed tofor the Huntington Avenue mid-rise, 400,000 garage entry and exit ramps. Figure 5 showssquare feet of residential development and the addition of two new garage entry and200,000 square feet of office development in exit ramps associated with the Belvidere/the Belvidere/Dalton high-rise, and 200,000 Dalton high-rise and mid-rise buildings. Thesquare feet of hotel development in the overall parking demand for existing and newBelvidere/Dalton mid-rise. Currently, there buildings is in the range of 800 to 950 park-are 72 existing surface parking spaces located ing spaces. This reflects BTD’s low end andon the future Belvidere/Dalton mid-rise high end of parking space provision. Theparcel. Plaza’s existing and planned underground garages will contain approximately 870 park-Within those land-uses, there is a range of ing spaces which are sufficient to accommo-activity that could be generated based on the date the range of parking demand that maysize of the residential units and size of the be required. Taking into account the existinghotel units reflective of the type of residen- 622 parking spaces today, this is a net newtial and hotel buildings developed. To con- increase of approximately 248 parking spacesduct a conservative transportation impact to be constructed under the Belvidere/analysis, the top of the range of potential Dalton high-rise and mid-rise buildings. Aactivity generated by each of these land-use new pedestrian connection between thetypes was used in this analysis. The number existing Huntington Avenue garage (550of trips generated by the proposed develop- parking spaces) and the Belvidere/Daltonment was estimated using the ITE Manual high-rise will facilitate use of both garagesrates for each land-use type as is standard by office and residential tenants. Off-siteengineering practice and required by BTD.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 65Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 85. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesparking for hotel users, a common practice the 2019 No-Build and Build conditions. Aby downtown Boston hotels, may be neces- summary of the signalized capacity analysissary for the mid-rise hotel. is presented in Table 1 and Table 2.Vehicular Traffic Analysis Existing Conditions AnalysisVehicle Level Of Service (LOS) is a qualita- Capacity analysis for the year 2009 Existingtive measure of control delay at an intersec- Conditions was conducted for each of thetion providing an index to the operational signalized and un-signalized intersectionsqualities of a roadway or intersection. LOS listed above to assess the existing quality ofdesignations range from A to F, with LOS traffic flow. The study found that all intersec-A representing the best operating conditions tions operate at LOS D or better under theand LOS F representing the worst operating 2009 Existing Conditions. The Church rec-conditions. LOS A through D are consid- ognizes that events such as Red Sox gamesered acceptable, while LOS E indicates driv- and Symphony concerts cause temporaryers experience notable delays, common in congestion in the study area which is notan urban area, and LOS F suggests a level reflected in this analysis of non-event dayof delay that exceeds the intended capacity peak-hour street conditions.of that respective intersection. The LOSthreshold criteria are defined in the 2000 Future Conditions AnalysisHighway Capacity Manual, and it is standardengineering practice to use it to measure Capacity analysis for the year 2019 withtransportation impacts. background growth and other planned developments was conducted for each ofTraffic Operations Analysis the signalized and un-signalized intersections listed above to assess the future quality ofCapacity analyses were conducted for the traffic flow and intersection operations with-2009 Existing, 2019 No-Build, and 2019 out the proposed development (No-BuildBuild Conditions to determine how well Condition). A capacity analysis for thethe roadway facilities serve the existing and year 2019, including the proposed develop-future traffic demands. These roadway oper- ment buildings in addition to the No-Buildating conditions are classified by quantified Condition was then analyzed to assess thelevels of service. impact of the proposed development on the street system.Consistent with BTD’s guidelines,SYNCHRO 6 software was used to model BTD is planning and designing streetscapeLOS operations at the study area intersec- and transportation improvements in the studytions. Overall intersection LOS and delay are area known as the Symphony Streetscapeonly provided for signalized intersections by Improvement Project. The streetscape andSYNCHRO. transportation improvements are anticipated to be constructed in 2011. The preferredCapacity analyses were conducted for the six design includes proposed improvementsexisting signalized intersections identified along a portion of Massachusetts Avenue,in the study area. A capacity analysis was from St. Botolph Street to Westland Avenue.conducted for 2009 Existing conditions and Primary transportation improvements 66 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 86. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesinclude the incorporation of the ChristianScience Plaza driveway on MassachusettsAvenue into the signal control at the inter-section of Massachusetts Avenue/WestlandStreet/St. Stephen Street with new signalequipment. Signal phasing and timingupgrades as well as a new pedestrian cross-walk, enhancement of handicap accessibilityfeatures, and the relocation of bus stops willgreatly improve the pedestrian and vehicularconditions at this key location. The City isalso planning bicycle accommodations aspart of the overall roadway improvement tothis section of Massachusetts Avenue. Signalimprovements and streetscape enhancementsare also planned for Huntington Avenue atMassachusetts Avenue.As part of the Plaza Revitalization Project,streets adjacent to the Belvidere/Daltonhigh-rise and mid-rise buildings will be rede-signed to improve site access and neighbor-hood circulation in the area. The BelvidereStreet/Dalton Street intersection will beredesigned resulting in a clearer definitionof the lane geometry and stop controls toimprove the overall safety and functioningof the intersection. Clearway Street willbe extended to Belvidere Street providingaccess to the garage and loading area as wellas a preferable location for vehicles from theBelvidere/Dalton high-rise garage to enteronto Belvidere Street.With the inclusion of the SymphonyStreetscape Improvement Project transpor-tation improvements and the improvementsto the Belvidere/Dalton Street intersectionas described above, all signalized and unsig-nalized study area intersections are expectedto operate at an acceptable LOS D or betterunder the 2019 Build Conditions. Theseimprovements will benefit both existing andnew users of the site.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 67Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 87. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies 68 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 88. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies1. Existing transit access.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 69Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 89. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies2. Existing curb use. 70 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 90. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 3. Study area intersections.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 71Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 91. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies 4. Modes of transportaion.5. Existing and future site access/egress. 72 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 92. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesWind pedestrian-level wind (PLW) impacts fromIntroduction the proposed buildings. The assessment considered both the local wind climate asTall buildings can significantly affect the well as the physical nature of the proposedintensity and patterns of pedestrian-level buildings and their surroundings.winds. Large buildings tend to intercept thestronger winds at higher elevations and redi- The wind analysis was done using a com-rect them down to the ground level. This bination of numerical modeling software“down washing” flow is the main cause for and computational fluid dynamics software,wind accelerations at the pedestrian level. and was based upon a review of long-term meteorological data and a 3-D model of theThere is also a tendency for increased wind existing Plaza and its surroundings underacceleration at the corners of tall buildings both the No-Build and Build conditions,as the down-washed wind flows around the i.e., without and with the proposed newedge of the building. When two buildings buildings. More specifically, the Build con-are situated side by side, wind flow tends to dition included the proposed approximatelyaccelerate through the gap between them cre- 310-foot Huntington Building abutting theating a channeling effect. If these buildings Sunday School Building at the south end ofand wind combinations occur for prevailing the Plaza and the proposed buildings on thewinds, there is an increased potential for Belvidere/Dalton Site (approximately 270even higher wind activity. Monolithic build- feet and 535 feet tall).ings (i.e., those that do not change shapewith height), if they are significantly taller Meteorological Datathan most of the surrounding buildings,almost invariably will be windy at their bases. The wind study relied on weather dataHowever, when there are many buildings of recorded at Logan International Airportsimilar height in an area, they tend to shelter between 1973 and 2006. On an annual basis,one another. the dominant winds in Boston are from the southwest through northwest direc-The results of the wind analysis show that tions. The strongest winds come from theannual wind conditions will remain suitable west-northwest, west, and the northeast.for walking across the majority of the Plaza, Although the wind study considered allsimilar to the existing conditions. Existing wind directions, it considered those from theuncomfortable wind conditions will lessen southwest through northwest directions, andnear 177 Huntington Avenue and on the northeast as most important.northern sidewalk of St. Germain Street. The wind study generally looked at typicalMethodology annual winds in Boston; the summer and fall winds tend to be more comfortable than theThe Church contracted with the firm of annual winds, while the winter and springRowan Williams Davies & Irwin, Inc. winds are less comfortable than the annual(RWDI) to perform a preliminary analysis of winds.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 73Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 93. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesBRA Wind Comfort Criteria thoroughfares and meets the BRA effectiveThe BRA has adopted two standards for gust velocity criterion of 31 mph.assessing the relative wind comfort of pedes-trians. First, the BRA wind design guidance Figures 6 and 7 (provided at the end of thecriterion states that an effective gust veloc- analysis) summarize the predicted annuality of 31 miles per hour (mph) should not average wind speeds around the Plaza areabe exceeded more than one percent of the for No-Build and Build conditions, respec-time. The second set of criteria is used to tively. Figures 8 through 10 (provided at thedetermine the relative level of pedestrian end of the analysis) depict visualizations ofwind comfort for activities such as sitting, the wind conditions under No-Build andstanding, or walking. Build conditions for winds from the south- west, northwest, and northeast, respectively.The criteria are expressed in terms of bench- These figures represent the average windmarks for the one-hour mean wind speed speed for the selected directions, and actualexceeded one percent of the time. They wind flows will fluctuate and approach fromare categorized as follows: Comfortable different directions. In these figures, bluefor Sitting, less than 12 mph; Comfortable represents low wind speed areas, green rep-for Standing, between 12 and 15 mph; resents low to moderate wind speeds, yellowComfortable for Walking between 15 and represents moderate wind speeds, and red19 mph; Uncomfortable, between 19 and 27 indicates high wind speeds.mph; and Dangerous, greater than 27 mph.As this massing analysis is preliminary and Resultsdesign of the buildings has not been final-ized, the analysis focuses on three comfort The results of the PLW study have beencriteria instead of five: Comfortable for broken down into and are discussed for fiveStanding, Comfortable for Walking, and areas as follows (the letter-number designa-Uncomfortable. tions, e.g., A1, refer to the locations depicted on Figures 6 and 7):Generally, wind conditions suitable for walk-ing are appropriate for sidewalks, and wind ♦ The open space and sidewalksspeeds comfortable for standing are pre- surrounding the Original Mother Churchferred for building entrances, pick-up and/or and The Mother Church Extensiondrop-off areas. During the summer, lower (Areas A1 through A3);wind speeds are preferred for areas that are ♦ The Belvidere/Dalton Site area (Areasused for passive recreation, while higher B1 through B13);wind speeds are suitable in the same areas ♦ Horticultural Hall, Sunday School, andduring the winter when passive recreation is Huntington Site (Areas C1 through C7);unlikely. ♦ The Reflecting Pool (Areas D1 through D4); andThe wind climate found in a typical down-town location in Boston is generally comfort- ♦ The 177 Huntington Avenue buildingable for the pedestrian use of sidewalks and (Areas E1 through E5). 74 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 94. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesOpen Space and Sidewalks Surrounding or improved wind conditions under the BuildThe Original Mother Church and The condition.Mother Church Extension (A1-A3) Southwest and northwest winds are generallyThis area is exposed to prevailing winds from similar or stronger during the Build conditionthe southwest through northwest directions. than the No-Build condition. The arrange-The open space area is sheltered from north- ment of the proposed Belvidere/Daltoneast winds by the tall buildings upstream. buildings will help mitigate west-northwestAnnual wind conditions, as well as northwest, winds because the two buildings are alignednortheast, and southwest winds in this area with the flows from this wind direction,are projected to be similar to the No-Build with the taller building on the east side. Incondition. The trees along the west edge of addition, the new open space created on thethe Plaza adjacent to Massachusetts Avenue site will have lower, more comfortable windprovide some sheltering to pedestrians, speeds for all wind conditions.mainly in the summer and fall months. For northeast winds, the Build condition willThe Belvidere/Dalton Site (B1-B13) improve wind conditions in the area, espe- cially in front of the Sheraton Boston Hotel,Under the No-Build condition, the open which currently experiences high winds, butspace and parking lot along Dalton Street, is projected to experience more moderatesouth of Belvidere Street (Areas B1 through wind conditions.B5), are exposed to northeasterly windsdown-washing off the east facade of the Horticultural Hall, Sunday SchoolHilton Hotel and accelerating along Dalton Building, and Proposed HuntingtonStreet. The area is also exposed to west- Building (C1-C7)northwest and northwest winds, channelingalong Dalton and Belvidere Streets, but the Annual wind conditions during the Buildsite is sheltered from southwest winds by condition around the Sunday School Buildingthe 101 Belvidere building and other existing and Horticultural Hall are projected to bebuildings. The proposed taller building’s foot- similar to the No-Build condition, except forprint with a low podium at the northeast and the area to the north of the Sunday Schoolnorth corners, and the colonnades included and proposed Huntington building. Thisalong the north facade of both buildings and area may be subject to gusty winds that canin the gap between the buildings, will help be addressed in the final design.lessen wind speeds and will not negativelyimpact the St. Germain neighborhood. Under the Build condition, west-northwest and northwest winds will down-wash off theAnnual wind conditions are projected to north facade of the proposed Huntingtonbe similar around the Belvidere/Dalton building; however, no excessive gust speedsSite, except for areas that are projected to are predicted because the adjoining Sundaybe uncomfortable on the north and north- School Building serves as a podium block-east sides of the new buildings. Dalton ing the flows. The proposed HuntingtonStreet northwest of Belvidere Street and St. building will be protected from northeasterlyGermain Street are projected to have similar winds by the upstream buildings. WhenThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 75Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 95. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudieswinds are from the southwest, the massing conditions. Annual wind conditions aroundof the existing Horticultural Hall will provide the Reflecting Pool close to 177 Huntingtonsome sheltering to sidewalks around the pro- Avenue will still be uncomfortable for walk-posed Huntington building. In general, with ing, but within a slightly smaller area whenthe proposed Huntington building in place, compared to the existing conditions.wind conditions to the north of the SundaySchool Building are expected to remain com- 177 Huntington Avenue (E1-E5)fortable for walking. 177 Huntington Avenue is exposed to windsWind conditions to the north of the pro- from the prevailing west-northwest, north-posed building will be uncomfortable, while west, northeast, and southwest directions.wind speeds in other areas will be comfort- Under the No-Build condition, winds aroundable for walking. There is some potential for the building are known to be uncomfortable.excessive wind gusts to the north of the pro- Gusty winds are projected on the north andposed Huntington building based on annual south sides of the building. Wind conditionswind speeds, but mitigation measures will be farther away from the building are comfort-studied in the final design. able for walking or better.Reflecting Pool (D1-D4) Under the Build conditions, although the pro- posed Belvidere/Dalton buildings will pro-The annual winds for both the No-Build vide some shelter resulting in slightly reducedand Build conditions are generally the same. wind speeds in the immediate vicinity of 177Under the No-Build condition, the wind Huntington Avenue, wind conditions are stillconditions are uncomfortable on the north- expected to remain uncomfortable annually.ern and eastern side, while under the Build However, the extent of the uncomfortablecondition, the wind conditions are uncom- wind conditions in the Build condition is lessfortable on the southern side. The Reflecting than the No-Build condition.Pool is partly sheltered from west-northwestand northwest winds by the Original Mother If the Children’s Fountain is used for iceChurch, The Mother Church Extension, and skating during the winter, wind mitigation101 Belvidere Street, but is exposed to winds measures may be needed to shield the highfrom the northeast and southwest directions. wind speeds from the northeast.Close to 177 Huntington Avenue, however,existing uncomfortable wind speeds are Summaryexpected and will need to be addressed in thefinal plans. Under the Build condition, most areas on and around the Plaza are projected to haveIn general, under the Build condition, there similar conditions, suitable for walking, towill be increased wind speeds at the south the No-Build condition. The wind condi-end of the Reflecting Pool. These wind con- tions of a portion of the area east of theditions will range from comfortable for walk- 177 Huntington Avenue building and theing to potentially uncomfortable on windy northern sidewalk of St. Germain Street aredays. Wind speeds at the central area of the projected to improve. High wind speeds arePool are expected to be similar to No-Build predicted locally around the new buildings 76 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 96. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesand in a few areas farther away from the build- Wind conditions around the Original Motherings. For the proposed Belvidere/Dalton Church and The Mother Church Extensionbuildings, uncomfortable wind conditions will not be significantly influenced by thewill be experienced on exposed sidewalks new development.along the Belvidere Street facade, while suit-able wind conditions are expected within the Potential Mitigationcovered arcade areas along Belvidere Streetand on the proposed open space adjacent to As mentioned above, the wind analysis is pre-the St. Germain Street and Clearway Street liminary as the design of the buildings will beintersection. Uncomfortable wind speeds finalized during the Article 80 process. Aswith severe gusts are predicted on Dalton the design is better defined, potential mitiga-Street north of the Site, similar to the exist- tion will be studied further. Potential mitiga-ing conditions. Final building designs will tion measures include:address these impacts and provide mitigationsolutions. ♦ For the Belvidere/Dalton buildings, recessing building entrances from theFor the Huntington building, uncomfortable facades and installing wind screens orwind conditions with the potential for exces- large planters in specific locations aroundsive gustiness will be experienced at areas to entrances.the north of the building. These potentially ♦ For the Huntington building, thehigh wind speeds can be mitigated by imple- provision for setbacks or a podium on thementing design features such as trellises, can- north side of the building, which wouldopies, wind screens, and landscape elements. serve to block the prevailing northwest winds from reaching the pedestrian level,Under Build conditions, slightly reduced the introduction of a covered walkwaywind activity will be experienced around the on the north side of the Huntington177 Huntington Avenue building. However, Building to shield pedestrians from downthe existing uncomfortable wind conditions washing winds, or overhead trellises orwith excessive gustiness are expected to additional landscaping.persist.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 77Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 97. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies6. Predicted pedestrian annual wind conditions - No Build7. Predicted pedestrian annual wind conditions - Build 78 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 98. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 8. SOUTHWEST - Wind Simulation ResultsThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 79Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 99. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies9. NORTHWEST - Wind Simulation Results 80 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 100. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 10. NORTHEAST - Wind Simulation ResultsThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 81Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
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  • 102. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesShadow for a small portion of Southwest Corridor Park at 6:00 pm on June 21, no new shadowIntroduction is created on parks or open spaces in the vicinity of the Plaza.New shadow impacts can vary greatlydepending on time of year and the prox- Methodologyimity and height of the existing structuressurrounding the site. Morning and late-day To assess the shadow impacts associ-shadows are long, but have a less significant ated with the proposed developments, aimpact because they tend to overlap preexist- shadow impact analysis was conducteding heavy shadow conditions. December has for the hours of 9:00 am, 12:00 noon,the most shadow impacts due to the low sun and 3:00 pm during the summer solsticeangle, while summer has the least. (June 21), the spring and autumnal equinoxes (March 21 and September 21), and the winterThe shadow analysis is a preliminary study solstice (December 21), as well as 6:00 pm forthat looks at shadow impacts from the pro- the summer solstice and spring and autumnalposed buildings on the 21st of each equinox equinoxes, as typically required by the BRA.and solstice. The analysis focuses on: The shadow analysis presents existing♦ Public streets and open spaces. shadow as well as net new shadow from♦ Neighboring properties. the proposed new buildings to illustrate the new buildings’ incremental impact. For the♦ The Christian Science Plaza. purposes of clarity, new shadow is shown in♦ The Mother Church edifices. a yellow color while the existing shadow is shown in grey. Results of the shadow impactThe shadow analysis will be refined during study are discussed in the following sections,the Article 80 review process, if required. and are supported by Figures 11 through 21 (located at the end of this section).In general, shadow created by the newHuntington building will be cast in the Resultsarea between Massachusetts Avenue andHuntington Avenue, including at times por- Spring and Fall Equinoxes (March 21tions of the Plaza open space, the Original and September 21)Mother Church and The Mother ChurchExtension, and the Reflecting Pool. New At 9:00 am on the equinoxes, shadow fromshadow from the proposed Belvidere/Dalton the proposed new Huntington building willbuildings will generally be in the zone north fall across the roof of the Sunday Schoolof Belvidere Street and east of Huntington Building and onto the Massachusetts AvenueAvenue, including the pedestrian areas at the lawn and adjacent sidewalk. At the sameintersection of Dalton and Belvidere Streets time, shadow cast by the Belvidere/Daltonand along Belvidere Street. Most of the new buildings will fall onto the intersection ofshadow from the Belvidere/Dalton buildings Belvidere and Dalton Streets and onto thewill be cast on rooftops. No new shadow is Hilton Hotel.cast on the open space at the intersection ofClearway Street and Dalton Street. Except At noon on the equinoxes, shadow fromThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 83Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 103. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesthe Huntington building will fall across the At noon, shadows are at their shortest. NewReflecting Pool and a portion of the Plaza shadow from the Huntington building will fallopen space adjacent to the Sunday School. only on the roof of the Sunday School andShadow from the Belvidere/Dalton build- the very southern end of the Reflecting Poolings will again fall on the intersection of and adjacent open space. Meanwhile, shad-Belvidere and Dalton Streets as well as the ows from the Belvidere/Dalton buildingsSheraton Hotel. will fall onto the intersection of Belvidere and Dalton Streets and the Sheraton Hotel.By 3:00 pm, shadow from the proposedHuntington building will have swung By 3:00 pm on the summer solstice, shadoweastward to fall on the tree bosque and cast by the proposed Huntington buildingHuntington Avenue, while new shadow from will extend eastward across the tree bosque,the Belvidere/Dalton buildings will cross Huntington Avenue, and onto the MidtownBelvidere Street and fall upon the Sheraton, Hotel. Shadows from the Belvidere/Daltonthe roof of the Hynes Convention Center, buildings will extend along Belvidere Streetand the Belvidere Condo building. and its sidewalks.Late in the day on the equinoxes (6:00 Late in the day on the summer solstice (6:00pm), most of the area is already under pm), much of the area is already undershadow. New shadow cast by the proposed shadow. New shadows from the proposedHuntington building will be cast onto build- Huntington building and the Belvidere/ing rooftops across Huntington Avenue. Dalton buildings will generally fall acrossShadow cast by the Belvidere/Dalton build- rooftops.ings will also be cast onto building rooftopsand on the sidewalk along the southern side Winter Solstice (December 21)of Belvidere Street. The winter solstice is the least favorableSummer Solstice (June 21) time of year for sunlight in New England because the sun’s low angle causes shadowsBecause the sun is at its highest on the sum- to elongate.mer solstice, shadows are shortened com-pared to other times of the year, and fewer At 9:00 am on the winter solstice, shadowareas are shaded. from the Huntington building will be cast west onto portions of the MassachusettsAt 9:00 am on the summer solstice, shadow Avenue lawn and portions of Massachusettscast by the Huntington building will fall Avenue and its sidewalks. New shadows castmostly on the roofs of the Sunday School by the proposed Belvidere/Dalton buildingsand Horticultural Hall with a small por- will extend west across a minor portion oftion falling on the Massachusetts Avenue Commonwealth Avenue, but generally fallinglawn. New shadows from the Belvidere/ on rooftops.Dalton buildings will fall on the roofs of theresidential buildings immediately adjacent By noon on the winter solstice, shadow castto Belvidere Street, onto the proposed new by the Huntington building swing eastwardopen space, and onto a portion of Belvidere falling on the southern end of the ReflectingStreet’s southern sidewalk. Pool, the Original Mother Church, and the 84 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 104. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesPublishing House. Shadows cast by theBelvidere/Dalton buildings fall on the inter-section of Belvidere and Dalton Streets,the Sheraton Hotel, the roof of the HynesConvention Center, and a few rooftops at thecorner of Boylston and Gloucester Streets.By mid-afternoon (3:00 pm) on the wintersolstice, new shadow cast by the Huntingtonbuilding will extend across the Plaza and fallupon a portion of the tree bosque adjacentto Huntington Avenue and on the side of the177 Huntington Avenue building. A narrowsliver will extend farther along HuntingtonAvenue, past its intersection with BelvidereStreet. Shadows from the Belvidere/Daltonbuildings will be cast across Belvidere Streetand its sidewalks, and nearby rooftops.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 85Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 105. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies11. Shadow Study - March 21/September 21, 9:00 am 86 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 106. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 12. Shadow Study - March 21/September 21, 12:00 pmThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 87Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 107. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies13. Shadow Study - March 21/September 21, 3:00 pm 88 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 108. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 14. Shadow Study - March 21/September 21, 6:00 pm (Because of the extent of the new shadow, the scale of this figure is smaller than on the other figures.)The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 89Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 109. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies15. Shadow Study - June 21, 9:00 am 90 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 110. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 16. Shadow Study - June 21, 12:00 pmThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 91Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 111. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies17. Shadow Study - June 21, 3:00 pm 92 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 112. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 18. Shadow Study - June 21, 6:00 pm (Because of the extent of the new shadow, the scale of this figure is smaller than on the other figures.)The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 93Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 113. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies19. Shadow Study - December 21, 9:00 am 94 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 114. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies 20. Shadow Study - December 21, 12:00 pmThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 95Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 115. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies21. Shadow Study - December 21, 3:00 pm 96 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 116. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesGeotechnical Conditions/ groundwater on the Plaza and conductedGroundwater a test recharge program, and in November 2009 the Church put into operation a per-Introduction manent groundwater recharge system. In addition, the Church conducted a study toA large percentage of the buildable land evaluate whether its building systems werein Boston, including the area of the Plaza, contributing to the lowering of the ground-consists of former low-lying areas that were water and found no sources of groundwaterfilled. Many of the buildings constructed in drawdown.these filled areas in the late 1800s and early1900s are supported on timber pile founda- The proposed redevelopment of the Plazations. The timber piles have generally per- provides an opportunity to further contrib-formed satisfactorily where the entire pile ute to the Church’s ongoing efforts to stabi-has remained submerged below groundwa- lize groundwater levels on the Plaza throughter. However, in some of these filled areas the recharge of storm water from the devel-of Boston, groundwater levels have dropped oped areas of the site. Where the proposedbelow their historic levels. Where ground- buildings that are part of the redevelopmentwater levels have dropped below the tops of of the Plaza extend below groundwater, thethe timber piles, the tops of the piles have buildings will be waterproofed and will notdeteriorated resulting in settlement of the impact groundwater levels.buildings. Some of the piles supporting theOriginal Mother Church and The Mother Subsurface ConditionsChurch Extension have been affected bydropping groundwater levels, and the Church To understand why the groundwater levelshas repaired or replaced those piles. are dropping, it is helpful to understand the typical soil profile at the Plaza and the sur-It is believed that throughout Boston leaky rounding community. The typical soil profilestorm drains and sewers, sump pumps, consists of the following strata, beginning atfoundation under drains, leaks in foundation the ground surface:walls, construction dewatering, and reducedstorm water infiltration have contributed to ♦ Sand and Gravel Fill: Miscellaneousthe lower groundwater levels. In areas of granular fill consisting of sand andthe City at risk because of dropping ground- gravel with varying amounts of silt,water levels such as the Plaza, the City cre- bricks, cinders, and other debris (Upperated Groundwater Conservation Overlay Aquifer).Districts (GCODs) in an effort to prevent ♦ Organic Silt: Tidal marsh deposits offurther lowering of groundwater levels, and organic soil and peat with shells and finewhere possible, to restore groundwater levels sand (Aquitard).through recharge and elimination of sources ♦ Sand and Gravel Glacial Outwash:of groundwater drawdown. Stratified deposits of sand and gravel (Lower Aquifer).The Church has been monitoring ground-water levels since the early 1930s. In the ♦ Marine Clay: Silty, medium plasticityfall of 2007, the Church initiated a program clay, commonly referred to as Bostonto evaluate the feasibility of recharging the Blue Clay.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 97Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 117. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies♦ Glacial Till: Very hard sandy, gravelly Groundwater levels have been monitored at clay. the Plaza since about 1931, when preparation♦ Bedrock: Cambridge Argillite and Slate for the construction of the Publishing House underlain by Roxbury Conglomerate. building began. The Boston Groundwater Trust (BGWT) also monitors groundwaterThere are two relatively shallow aquifers levels around the perimeter of the Plaza and(water-bearing soil layers) underlying the in the surrounding community. Figure 17Plaza and the surrounding community. The shows the Church and BGWT wells on andUpper Aquifer is within the sand and gravel around the Plaza. Based on the extensivefill layer, and the Lower Aquifer is within the database of groundwater level data, ground-sand and gravel glacial outwash layer. The water levels in the area of the Church haveorganic silt layer acts as an aquitard, restrict- stabilized and have risen in response to theing groundwater flow between the Upper Church’s efforts to recharge the groundwater.Aquifer and the Lower Aquifer.The Upper Aquifer is an unconfined Proposed Development(perched) aquifer in the sand and gravelfill layer that is perched on the top of the The planned redevelopment of the Plazarelatively low permeability organic silt. The will provide an opportunity to further con-Upper Aquifer is recharged by rainwater tribute to the stabilization of groundwaterinfiltration and possibly leakage from storm levels through the collection and rechargedrains and sewers in the fill. The volume of of storm water from the developed areasrecharge of rainwater to the Upper Aquifer of the site. Where the proposed buildingshas decreased because of development and on the Belvidere/Dalton Site extend belowthe decrease of pervious surface area allow- the groundwater table, the construction willing infiltration. In addition to the decrease in include installation of groundwater cutoffsinfiltration, other factors as noted above are and waterproofed below-grade structures.contributing to the dropping groundwater Because the proposed building on thelevels in the Upper Aquifer. Huntington Site will not extend beyond the groundwater table, there will not be a needThe Lower Aquifer is a confined aquifer to install groundwater cutoffs or waterproofin the sand and gravel glacial outwash and below-grade structures.marine clay layers. The groundwater in theLower Aquifer is confined by the relatively The Church will consider installing newlow permeability overlying organic silt layer. groundwater wells if it is determined thatThe Lower Aquifer is recharged by gradual they will provide additional helpful data.infiltration of water from the Upper Aquiferthrough the organic silt, or by direct flow fromthe Upper Aquifer in areas where the organicsilt has been perforated. Construction dewa-tering within the Lower Aquifer can causegroundwater levels in the Lower Aquifer tobe lowered up to a mile from the construc-tion site, because of the limited recharge tothe Lower Aquifer. 98 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 118. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudies Upper Aquifer The First Church of Christ, Scientist Upper Aquifer Boston Groundwater Trust Lower Aquifer The First Church of Christ, Scientist22. Groundwater monitoring locations.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 99Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 119. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudies TYPICAL PROFILE WELL IN WELL IN BUILDING ON LOWER UPPER AQUIFER AQUIFER TIMBER PILES FILL UPPER AQUIFER ORGANIC SILT SAND LOWER AQUIFER CLAY23. Typical Back Bay soil profile showing building on timber piles and difference in ground-water levels between the upper and lower aquifers. BUILDING FILL SEWER ORGANIC SILT SAND CLAY24. Sources of drawdown of upper aquifer groundwater levels. 100 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 120. DRAFTChaPTer 8environmenTal sTudiesWater and Sewer Infrastructure BWSC. The BWSC system is a part of the Massachusetts Water Resources AuthorityThis section provides information about the (MWRA) service area.water and sewer infrastructure systems serv-ing the site. GenerationThe analysis of sewer generation and water The sewer generation calculation describedconsumption is preliminary and will be fur- below evaluates the three buildings includedther refined during the Article 80 process. in the Plaza Revitalization Project. SewerThis preliminary analysis shows, as described generation from other components of thebelow, that the location and capacity of exist- existing development will remain in compa-ing infrastructure in the vicinity of the Plaza rable uses and therefore is not included inis anticipated to be able to accommodate the this computation.proposed development. Although the exact number of residentialInfrastructure Systems and hotel units has not been established at this time, sewer use has been estimated basedThe water and sewer infrastructure systems on recent comparably sized projects in theserving the Plaza will be designed to meet Boston area. Conservatively, all ground-or exceed applicable guidelines and regula- floor spaces proposed as retail/restauranttions. At this early stage of the Revitalization have been assumed to be 100-seat restau-Project, no significant infrastructure miti- rants. Pursuant to the Massachusetts Stategation measures are anticipated, but the Environmental Code (Sewer Connection andChurch will undertake appropriate steps to Extension Regulations, 314 CMR 7.15), theensure compliance with all regulations. For sewage generation rates were calculated byeach development project, a Site Plan and gallons per day (gpd) using the following:a General Service Application will be pre-pared and submitted to the Boston Water ♦ Office = 75 gpd/1000 sfand Sewer Commission (BWSC) for all new ♦ Restaurant = 35 gpd/seatwater, sewer, and storm drain connections to ♦ Multiple dwelling units = 110 gpd/the new buildings. As required by BWSC, bedroomall new connections to the BWSC’s systemswill be constructed at the Church’s and/or ♦ Standard hotel room = 110 gpd/roomfuture development partner’s expense andare subject to approval by the Commission. The projected sewage generation rate is conservatively projected to be approximatelyMany of the existing infrastructure systems 174,000 gpd.that serve the Plaza are privately owned andmaintained. At this time, it is anticipated Existing Sanitary Systemthat this arrangement will be continued. The existing sanitary sewer collection sys-Sewer Service tem in the vicinity of the Belvidere/Dalton Site consists of a 48-by-50 inch combinedThe wastewater collection system in the vicin- brick (common) sewer in Dalton Street asity of the Plaza is owned and operated by the well as the (lower) 57-by-66 inch West SideThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 101Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 121. DRAFT ChaPTer 8 environmenTal sTudiesInterceptor which continues from the termi- estimated sewage generation with an addednus of Dalton Street under the 101 Belvidere factor of 10 percent for consumption, sys-Street building and turns to run under tem losses, and other usage.the Reflecting Pool toward MassachusettsAvenue. There are additional BWSC sanitary System Configurationsewer mains in Belvidere Street which areaccessible to the development, but it is likely The Plaza is supplied via a master-meteredthat new connections in this area will be to private water distribution system within thethe Dalton Street common sewer. site. All water lines within the interior of the Plaza are private and will continue to serveThe proposed Huntington Avenue build- the existing buildings. The new Huntingtoning will likely pursue a sewer connection to Avenue building will likely pursue a con-the West Side Interceptor which consists of nection to this private system within thea 72-inch steel pipe running in a concrete Plaza and therefore will not require a newvault under the existing garage floor. As the connection to BWSC-owned infrastructure.design of each proposed building advances, The Church and/or its development partnerthe flows at each proposed discharge point will be responsible for sub-metering the newwill be determined, and a further analysis of building if the new tenant is to be respon-the existing flows and remaining capacities sible for water use charges.in those sewer mains can be finalized. TheChurch and its development partners will The Belvidere/Dalton buildings are remotework closely with the BWSC to determine the from the private system and will likely pursueexisting system capacities and preferred con- individual connections to the BWSC system.nection points to the existing infrastructure. There is a 10-inch water main in Dalton StreetThe Church has conducted initial discussions and two 12-inch lines in Belvidere Street forwith the BWSC regarding the development potential connection points in the vicinity ofplans, but since no specific development the new development parcels.proposal had evolved at the time of thesediscussions, no specific connections werepresented and/or approved by BWSC.Water ServiceThe water distribution facilities in the generalvicinity of the Plaza are owned and operatedby the BWSC. The MWRA supplies water tothe BWSC system.ConsumptionThe BWSC currently provides water to thePlaza, and will continue to provide water toall proposed facilities. Determination ofexisting and future water usage is based upon 102 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 122. DRAFTChaPTer 9ImplementatIonThe FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 103Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 123. DRAFT ChaPTer 9 imPlemenTaTionCity Implementation and Approval quality, and noise. The PNF is followed byProcess the issuance of a Scoping Determination by the Boston Redevelopment AuthorityThe implementation of the Project will (BRA). The Scoping Determination eitherrequire certain zoning relief. There has been waives further review or outlines the scopeno final determination as to the exact form of the Draft Project Impact Report (DPIR)this will take, but it will include one or more including each of the environmental issuesof the following alternatives. that needs to be studied for the DPIR, as well as comments from public agencies and♦ Establishment of a Planned Develop- communities. ment Area. Continuing Community Review♦ Establishment of an Urban Renewal Area District. During the Article 80 review process, there♦ Zoning map changes. are a number of opportunities for the com-♦ Zoning variances. munity to be involved and comment on the proposals. After each document, there is aAll of these alternatives will require further comment period during which individualspublic process in the form of formal sub- can provide comments to the BRA. Theremissions to the BRA and other City agencies will also be public meetings on the specificwith public hearings and the opportunity for proposals, during which comments will alsoadditional community input. be welcome. In addition, it is anticipated that an Impact Advisory Group (IAG) will be setIn addition, regardless of the form of zoning up for the individual or combined projectsrelief, Article 80 Large Project Review will be during the Article 80 process, and will likelyrequired for each building that is developed be made up of individuals who currentlyas a part of the Project, which will require serve on the CAC. The IAG assists the BRAa formal submission to the BRA, a public in determining how to mitigate impacts fromhearing, and the opportunity for community the future development.input concerning the specific building. Boston Landmarks CommissionArticle 80 Large Project Review Landmark Study ReportProcess In early January 2007, a petition was submit-The proposed buildings, individually or ted by 15 Boston residents to the Bostontogether, will be subject to Article 80B, Large Landmarks Commission (BLC) to designateProject Review. The Large Project Review the Christian Science Plaza as a Bostonprocess is a three-phased process allowing Landmark.truncation of the process at the end of eachphase. Typically, the process begins with a At its January 23, 2007, public hearing, theProject Notification Form (PNF), which BLC voted to accept the petition for furtherincludes a brief description of the Project and study. The petition was then placed on thebrief qualitative discussions of the potential BLC’s list of properties requiring a land-environmental impacts, such as transporta- mark study report. At the hearing, Churchtion, wind, shadow, daylight, solar glare, air officials did not raise any objections to BLC 104 The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 124. DRAFTChaPTer 9imPlemenTaTionconducting the study and expressed an inter-est in working with BLC staff as the studyreport moved forward.Since the January 2007 hearing, the Churchhas kept the BLC staff informed of variousmaintenance-related activities at the Churchand other projects being undertaken. Inaddition, Church representatives have metwith BLC staff to apprise them of the vari-ous development scenarios being consideredfor the Plaza Revitalization Project.At its February 23, 2010, public hearing, theBLC voted to move forward with the studyreport on the Plaza, with an expectation ofhaving it completed in June 2010. To assistthe advancement of the study report, Churchrepresentatives have provided the BLC staffand its consultant team with backgroundmaterials and tours of the site, as well asthe opportunity to conduct research at theChurch’s archives.The BLC study report was made availablefor review on June 22, 2010, and a publichearing was held on July 13, 2010. The BLCwill consider public comments and requestedamendments before a vote is taken at a sub-sequent public hearing.The Church is looking forward to workingwith the BLC to develop appropriate stan-dards and criteria for the revitalization andredevelopment of the Plaza so improve-ments are integrated sensitively within thehistoric context.The FirsT ChurCh oF ChrisT, sCienTisT 105Plaza reviTalizaTion ProjeCT
  • 125. DRAFTINDEX OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS
  • 126. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings COVER Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image Front Boston Aerial Photo of the Christian Science © Skyshots Skyshots Plaza and Boston. Back The Mother Church The Mother Church at sunrise. Photo by Charles Meyer Meyer, Charles © meyermedia EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Plaza - from Photo of the Christian Science © The First Church of Photo: Herlinger, Prudential Skywalk Plaza from the Prudential building Christ, Scientist Robert A.; Modified Skywalk. by: Williams, Kayle 1 Boston Aerial Photo depicting the location of the © Skyshots Aerial: Skyshots; Christian Science Plaza. Modified by: Williams, Kayle 2 Site Sketch Site Sketch of the Christian Courtesy of The First Sketch: Unknown; Science Plaza. Church of Christ, Modified by: Williams, Scientist Kayle 3 Boston Aerial Aerial view of the Christian © Skyshots Aerial: Skyshots; Science Plaza and surrounding Modified by: Williams, areas. KayleUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 1 of 20
  • 127. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 4 Existing Conditions Existing Site Plan. Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Plan Church of Christ, Architects Scientist 5 Enhanced Open Illustrative plan showing proposed Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Space open space improvements and Church of Christ, Architects footprints of new buildings. Scientist 6 Massing Model Model showing proposed new Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi buildings. Church of Christ, Architects Scientist CHAPTER 1 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0.1 Model Discussion 1 Consultant Howard Elkus of Elkus © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Manfredi Architects, discusses Christ, Scientist design proposal with the CAC members and public. 0.2 Presentation 1 Consultant Jim Van Sickle of Elkus © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Manfredi Architects, discusses Christ, Scientist design proposal with the CAC members and public. 0.3 Model Discussion 2 Consultant Howard Elkus of Elkus © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Manfredi Architects, discusses Christ, Scientist design proposal with the CAC members and public. 0.4 Presentation 2 "Economic Rationale" presented to © The First Church of Furbush, Julie the CAC and public by Harley Christ, Scientist Gates.Use of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 2 of 20
  • 128. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 1 Presentation 3 "Economic Rationale" presented to © The First Church of Furbush, Julie the CAC and public by Harley Christ, Scientist Gates. 2 Presentation 4 "Economic Rationale" presented to © The First Church of Furbush, Julie the CAC and public by Harley Christ, Scientist Gates. 3 Model Discussion 3 Consultant Howard Elkus of Elkus © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Manfredi Architects, discusses Christ, Scientist design proposal with the CAC members and public. CHAPTER 2 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0.1 Massachusetts Elevation drawing of the Plaza Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates; Avenue Elevation from Massachusetts Avenue. Church of Christ, Altered by: Williams, Scientist Kayle 0.2 Huntington Avenue Elevation drawing of the Plaza Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates; Elevation from Huntington Avenue. Church of Christ, Altered by: Williams, Scientist Kayle 1 Mary Baker Eddy Mary Baker Eddy, founder of The Courtesy of The Mary Portrait First Church of Christ, Scientist, Baker Eddy Library and The Christian Science Collection Monitor. 2 Church Service Special meeting being held in the © The First Church of Menchel, Neil Original Mother Church. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 3 of 20
  • 129. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 3 Reading Room The Christian Science Reading © The First Church of Tyler, Cynthia Room at 194 Massachusetts Christ, Scientist Avenue. 4 Christmas Toy Drive Church members helping during a © The First Church of Unknown, Church Christmas toy drive. Christ, Scientist employee 5 Opening Our Doors Opening Our Doors kick-off event © The First Church of Unknown, from the taking place on the Massachusetts Christ, Scientist Library Avenue lawn. 6 "One World" Event Children painting murals during a © The First Church of McNichol, Taryn community program hosted by Christ, Scientist TMC Youth. 7 Mapparium The world-renowned Mapparium. Photo by Mark Thayer, Thayer, Mark The Mary Baker Eddy Library, Boston, MA 8 Childrens Fountain Childrens Fountain on the Plaza. Courtesy of The First Unknown, from the Church of Christ, Mary Baker Eddy Scientist Library 9 Christian Science Visitors on the Plaza. © The First Church of McNichol, Taryn Plaza Christ, Scientist 10 Site Plan Site Plan of the Christian Science Courtesy of The First Created by: Site Plaza. Church of Christ, Services; Modified by: Scientist Williams, KayleUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 4 of 20
  • 130. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 11 Site Sketch Site Sketch of the Christian Courtesy of The First Unknown; Modified Science Plaza. Church of Christ, by: Williams, Kayle Scientist 12 Aerial - Boston, for Aerial photo of the Plaza and © Skyshots Aerial: Skyshots; Church Properties surrounding Church properties. Modified by: Williams, Kayle TIMELINE: Page 13 & 14 T1 Aerial - 1894-2008 Image altered to give context of the Courtesy of The First evolution of the Plaza. Church of Christ, Scientist T2 1894 - The Mother Adaptation of image P07972 to Courtesy of The Mary Church Original show the beginning of the Churchs Baker Eddy Collection presence in the Boston. T3 1906, 1908 & 1917 - Adaptation of image P08707 to Courtesy of The Mary Aerial show changes of the Churchs Baker Eddy Collection property. T4 1934 - Aerial Adaptation of image P08698 to Courtesy of The Mary show changes of the Churchs Baker Eddy Collection property. T5 1971-75 to 2008 - Aerial image that has been altered © Skyshots Skyshots Aerial to show changes of the Churchs property.Use of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 5 of 20
  • 131. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings CHAPTER 3 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Original Pathway to Picture of the "direct" pathway to Courtesy of Robert A. Herlinger, Louis F. the The Mother the Original Mother Church, as Herlinger. Church seen in the 1950s. 1 Reflection The Reflecting Pool. © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Christ, Scientist 2 French Bosques Example of well-used open space Unknown (Jardin des Tuileries, Paris). 3 Boston Open Space Example of well-used open space © Halvorson Design Halvorson Design (Post Office Square, Boston). Group Group 4 Original Pathway to Picture of the "direct" pathway to Courtesy of Robert A. Herlinger, Louis F. the The Mother the Original Mother Church, as Herlinger. Church seen in the 1950s. 5 Plaza completed in Picture of the Christian Science Unknown the 1970s Plaza in the early 1970s. 6 Publishing House Main entrance for the worldwide © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Entrance administrative headquarters of the Christ, Scientist Church and the Christian Science Publishing Society.Use of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 6 of 20
  • 132. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 7 Dalton/Belvidere Dalton Street/Belvidere Street © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Intersection intersection. Christ, Scientist 8 Picture depicting Existing pedestrian circulation © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. pedestrian circulation through the Christian Science Christ, Scientist Plaza. 9 Busses along Tour buses along Huntington © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Huntington Ave. Avenue. Christ, Scientist 10 The Mother Church Footprint plan of the Church Courtesy of The First Plan: Simpson, Structural Plan edifices, which are supported by Church of Christ, Gumpertz & Heger approximately 4,800 wood piles. Scientist Inc; Modified by: Williams, Kayle CHAPTER 4 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Plaza and Reflecting Illustrative plan to give detail of the Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Pool improvements potential open space Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. improvements. Scientist 1 Illustrative pool depth Sketch of the current pool depth Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi change (26 inches) and the new pool depth Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. will be 6-12 inches. Scientist 2 Reflecting Pool Illustrative sketch of the proposed Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Sketch Reflecting Pool crossing. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 7 of 20
  • 133. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 3 MassGIS image with Aerial view showing the grid Courtesy of The First MassGIS Satellite grid overlay system in the vicinity of the Plaza. Church of Christ, image; Modified by: Scientist Epsilon Associates, Inc. 4 Mass. Avenue Lawn View of the Massachusetts Avenue © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. as seen today. Christ, Scientist 5 Huntington Bosque View of the Huntington Avenue © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Bosque as seen today. Christ, Scientist 6 Areas on site for Site plan depicting areas on site for Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi future improvements future improvements. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Scientist 7 Childrens Fountain in The Childrens Fountain in the © The First Church of Carr, Jennifer action summer months. Christ, Scientist 8 Huntington Ave Layover buses parked on © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Buses Huntington Avenue. Christ, Scientist 9 Open Space Proposal of the enhanced open Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Improvements space. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 8 of 20
  • 134. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings CHAPTER 5 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Sustainability Framework in which sustainability Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, Framework was studied Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist 1 Big Bellys "Big Belly" Solar powered trash © The First Church of Williams, Kayle compactors set up on the Plaza. Christ, Scientist 2 LEED Plaque Plaque awarded for the 2008 © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. renovation of floors 5-9 of the Christ, Scientist Publishing House. 3 Elevation Drawing of Drawing of the Publishing House © The First Church of Unknown the Publishing House floors that were renovated in 2008. Christ, Scientist 4 Existing Water Plan of the existing water features. Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, Features Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist 5 Garden and Mary Baker Eddy Library Waterwall © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Waterwall and Garden Christ, Scientist 6 Existing Water Photo of the existing water © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Features features. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 9 of 20
  • 135. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 7 Existing Landscaped Plan of the existing landscape Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, Features area. Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist 8 Illustrative Plan of the proposed landscaped Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, Landscaped Features areas. Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist 9 Illustrative Tree Plan of the proposed tree planting Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, Planting Changes changes. Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist 10 Plaza Buildings Plan of all buildings continued to Courtesy of The First Sasaki Associates, be used. No demolition. Church of Christ, Inc. Scientist CHAPTER 6 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Massing Model Image created to show the Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi massing of the potential Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. development. Scientist 1 FAR Description Graphical description of the floor Boston Redevelopment Boston area ratio (FAR). Authority Redevelopment Authority 2 Reflecting Pool Working on the Reflecting Pool © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Damage (repeat) membrane. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 10 of 20
  • 136. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 3 Contractor Repairing Working on wood piles beneath © The First Church of Lehr, Paul Wood Pile the Church edifices. Christ, Scientist 4 Repairing Paving on Site paving in need of repair. © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Plaza Christ, Scientist 5 Deteriorating Façade Example of the deteriorating © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. facades on the Plaza buildings. Christ, Scientist 6 Aerial - Boston; Aerial image showing leased © Skyshots Aerial: Skyshots; Leased Plaza properties on the Plaza. Modified by: Williams, Properties Kayle 7 BRA Zoning Map Zoning Map created based on the Courtesy of The First Original Map: Boston Boston Redevelopment Zoning Church of Christ, Redevelopment Map of the area around the Plaza. Scientist Authority; Recreated: Williams, Kayle 8 As-of-Right Plaza Computer model showing what the Courtesy of The First Model: Sasaki Build-out Plaza would look like if they were Church of Christ, Associates, Inc.; to build-out all of the open space Scientist Modified by: Williams, per "as-of-right" zoning. Kayle 9 Plaza Development "9 Plan of the development locations Courtesy of The First Plan: Elkus Manfredi Sites" studied. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd; Scientist Modified by: Williams, Kayle 10 Site 2 Photo of Site 2 that was analyzed © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. for potential development. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 11 of 20
  • 137. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 11 Site 5 Photo of the Site 5 that was © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. analyzed for potential Christ, Scientist development. 12 Site 6 Photo of the Site 6 that was © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. analyzed for potential Christ, Scientist development. 13 Sites 8 & 9 Plan of "Sites 8 & 9" as originally Courtesy of The First Plan: Elkus Manfredi studied. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd; Scientist Modified by: Williams, Kayle 14 Site 8/9 Plan of "Site 8/9" studied as a Courtesy of The First Plan: Elkus Manfredi combined property. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd; Scientist Modified by: Williams, Kayle 15 Sketch-Up: Dalton Plan of the existing conditions at Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Existing the Belvidere/Dalton Site. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Scientist 16 Sketch-Up: Proposed Plan of the proposed Belvidere/ Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi footprint of the Dalton Site showing footprints of Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Dalton/Belvidere site two new buildings and new open Scientist space. 17 Sketch-Up: Potential Proposed Belvidere/ Dalton Site Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi ground floor of the ground plan. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Dalton/Belvidere site Scientist 18 Traffic at Picture of Belvidere Street/Dalton © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Belvidere/Dalton Street intersection. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 12 of 20
  • 138. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 19 Belvidere Parking Lot Picture of the Belvidere Street © The First Church of Lawrence, Deb parking lot. Christ, Scientist 20 Historic Saint Picture of the historic row houses © The First Church of Herlinger, Robert A. Germain along St. Germain Street. Christ, Scientist 21 Community The Huntington Site as the nexus MassGIS Image Elkus Manfredi Connectivity of two prominent community Architects Ltd. connections. 22 Sketch-Up: Existing conditions plan of the Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Huntington Existing Huntington Site. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Scientist 23 Sketch-Up: Proposed Huntington Site ground Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Huntington Proposed plan. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Scientist 24 Sketch-Up: Proposed Rendering showing Huntington Site Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Massing of the proposal from the Childrens Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Huntington Ave site Fountain. Scientist 25 Sketch-Up: Rendering showing Huntington Site Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Huntington Rendered proposal with 177 Huntington in the Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Massing foreground. Scientist 26 Huntington Elevation Huntington Avenue elevation of the Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi of the Plaza ONLY Plaza. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 13 of 20
  • 139. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 27 Sites 5, 8 & 9 Plan of the proposed development Courtesy of The First Plan: Elkus Manfredi sites. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd; Scientist Modified by: Williams, Kayle 28 Community Aerial of the proposed © Skyshots Skyshots; Modified Connectivity development sites. by: Elkus Manfredi Architects Ltd. 29 Massing Model Model showing the proposed Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi development. Church of Christ, Architects Ltd. Scientist CHAPTER 7 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 The Mother Church Historic photo of the Mother Courtesy of The Mary Original Church Original. Baker Eddy Library and The Mary Baker Eddy Collection 1 Site Sketch The Christian Science Plaza key. Courtesy of The First Sketch: Unknown; Church of Christ, Modified by: Williams, Scientist Kayle 2 The Mother Church The Mother Church Extension Courtesy of the Mary Extension completed in 1906. Baker Eddy Collection 3 TMCX Organ The organ by Aeolian-Skinner © The First Church of Site Services Company. Christ, Scientist EmployeeUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 14 of 20
  • 140. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 4 Christian Science The Christian Science Publishing Courtesy of The Mary Unknown Publishing House House, home to The Christian Baker Eddy Library and Science Monitor, completed in The Mary Baker Eddy 1934. Collection 5 Garden Wall The garden wall before the © The First Church of Site Services renovation in 2002. Christ, Scientist Employee 6 Garden Renovated The garden and new Photo by Mark Thayer, Thayer, Mark Massachusetts Avenue entrance The Mary Baker Eddy after the renovation in 2002. Library, Boston, MA 7 Mapparium Historic The Mapparium as completed in Courtesy of The Mary Unknown 1935. Baker Eddy Library and The Mary Baker Eddy Collection 8 Historic Photo from A view of the Church buildings and Courtesy of The Mary corner of Norway & park prior to the creation of the Baker Eddy Library and Falmouth Streets Plaza in 1970. The Mary Baker Eddy Collection 9 Aerial - 1970s A view of the Plaza after its Courtesy of The First creation in the 1970s. Church of Christ, Scientist 10 Original Childrens The Childrens Fountain in the © The First Church of Unknown, Church Fountain 1970s before it was redesigned to Christ, Scientist employee be more kid-friendly. 11 Childrens Fountain The Childrens Fountain as seen © The First Church of Williams, Kayle Today today. Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 15 of 20
  • 141. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 12 Childrens Fountain in Children playing in the Childrens © The First Church of Carr, Jennifer action Fountain. Christ, Scientist 13 Horticultural Hall Horticultural Hall. © The First Church of Lawrence, Deb Christ, Scientist CHAPTER 8 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Environmental Chapter title page - 4 doodles Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Studies - Doodles Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 1 Transit Access Transportation - Existing transit Courtesy of The First Vanasse Hangen access. Church of Christ, Brustlin, Inc. Scientist 2 Curb Use Transportation - Existing curb use. Courtesy of The First Vanasse Hangen Church of Christ, Brustlin, Inc. Scientist 3 Intersections studied Transportation - Study area Courtesy of The First Vanasse Hangen intersections. Church of Christ, Brustlin, Inc. Scientist 4 Modes of Transportation - Modes of Courtesy of The First Vanasse Hangen transportation transportation. Church of Christ, Brustlin, Inc. ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 16 of 20
  • 142. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 5 Access/Egress Transportation - Existing and Courtesy of The First Vanasse Hangen future site access/egress. Church of Christ, Brustlin, Inc. Scientist 6 Wind - Pedestrian Wind - Predicted pedestrian Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams Conditions No Build annual wind conditions - No Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 7 Wind - Pedestrian Wind - Predicted pedestrian Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams Conditions Build annual wind conditions - Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 8.1 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams SW - No Build from the Southwest - No Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 8.2 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams SW - Build from the Southwest - Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 9.1 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams NW - No Build from the Northwest - No Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 9.2 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams NW - Build from the Northwest - Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 10.1 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams NE - No Build from the Northeast - No Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 17 of 20
  • 143. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 10.2 Wind - Simulations - Wind - Simulation Results - Winds Courtesy of The First Rowan Williams NE - Build from the Northeast - Build Church of Christ, Davies & Irwin, Inc. Scientist 11 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - March Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Spring/Fall 21/September 21, 9:00am Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 12 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - March Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Spring/Fall 21/September 21, 12:00pm Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 13 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - March Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Spring/Fall 21/September 21, 3:00pm Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 14 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - March Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Spring/Fall 21/September 21, 6:00pm Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 15 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - June 21, 9:00am Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Summer Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 16 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - June 21, 12:00pm Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Summer Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 17 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - June 21, 3:00pm Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Summer Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 18 of 20
  • 144. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings 18 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - June 21, 6:00pm Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Summer Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 19 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - December 21, Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Winter 9:00am Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 20 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - December 21, Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Winter 12:00pm Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 21 Shadow Study - Shadow Study - December 21, Courtesy of The First Elkus Manfredi Winter 3:00pm Church of Christ, Architects, Ltd Scientist 22 Groundwater Groundwater monitoring locations. Courtesy of The First GEI Consultants, Inc. Church of Christ, Scientist 23 Groundwater - Soil Groundwater - Soil Profile. Courtesy of The First GEI Consultants, Inc. Profile. Church of Christ, Scientist 24 Groundwater - Water Groundwater - Water drawdown. Courtesy of The First GEI Consultants, Inc. drawdown. Church of Christ, ScientistUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 19 of 20
  • 145. DRAFTPhotographs and Drawings CHAPTER 9 Figure Title Description Credit Creator Image 0 Spiral Doodle Chapter title page - Doodle created © The First Church of Original: Herlinger, by Robert Herlinger Christ, Scientist Robert A.; Re- created: Williams, KayleUse of the photographs and drawings in this report is restricted, and is by permission.Request for use of individual images for uses outside this report should be directed to: permissions@marybakereddycollection.org 20 of 20
  • 146. DRAFTThe First Church of Christ, Scientist 210 Massachusetts Avenue Boston, MA 02115 General inquiries on the Christian Science Plaza Revitalization Project: csplaza@csps.com Media Inquiries: Sharon Frey freys@csps.com 617-450-3324 Visit us at: www.christianscience.com http://christianscience.com/CSmediaNews www.csmonitor.com http://tmcyouth.com www.spirituality.com www.marybakereddylibrary.org www.facebook.com/CSmediaNews