Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Isw08 Lombe
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Isw08 Lombe



Published in Economy & Finance , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Measuring Inclusion: Some Lessons for Cross-nation Research/Evaluation Margaret Lombe, Ph.D. GSSW, Boston College [email_address]
  • 2. Introduction
    • The use of concept of inclusion/exclusion in social science research is fairly recent
    • Major challenge has been operationalization and measurement
    • Measurement of inclusion/exclusion is essential
    • At this point, little is known about the meaning of inclusion across nations and cultures
  • 3. Introduction
    • An important step in the measurement of inclusion may be to specify the meaning of inclusion in different contexts
    • A next important step may be systematic data collection so that a knowledge base can begin to build on a global basis
  • 4. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion
    • Some promising approaches include:
    • - Indicators from the Center for the
    • Analysis of Social Exclusion
    • - Quality of Life Indicators
    • - The Boston Indicators
    • - The Freedom House Index
    • - Social Inclusion Indicators
    • - Well-being measures
  • 5. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion
    • Objectives of these indicators vary:
    • They may include:
    • - Monitoring the performance of
    • communities, nations, or regions
    • in effort to promote inclusion
    • - Assessing individual and household
    • experiences of inclusion/exclusion
    • - Assessing the extent of inclusion/exclusion
    • locally, nationally, and across nations
  • 6. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion
    • Measuring inclusion/exclusion using indicators
    • - Attempt to measure inclusion by means of the
    • five dimensions
    • - Indicators cover three broad categories:
    • economic, political, and social
    • - Items on each dimensions are scored to create an
    • index
    • - Each index is then subjected to a factor analysis
    • or Cronbach’s alpha
  • 7. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion
    • Challenges inherent in use of indicators
    • The measures are numerically constrained
    • They do not adequately capture the process(es) of
    • social exclusion/inclusion
    • - The measures seem to lack cultural sensitivity
    • Measures may not be suitable for adoption
    • Strengths of Indicators
    • They have potential for broad applicability
    • They reflect the main areas of participation
    • They contain small number of items
  • 8. Measuring Inclusion: Some Lessons
    • Lessons learned from use of indicators:
    • The need for measures that have contextual relevance and a certain degree of universalism
    • Large numbers of indicators may obscure development of meaningful measures
    • Measures of inclusion tend to converge around key areas
  • 9. Measuring Inclusion: The Way Forward
      • Way forward for social inquiry:
      • 1) Accessible
      • 2) Measurable
      • 3) Robust
      • 4) Reliable
      • 5) Comparable across nations
      • 6) Sensitive to cultural diversity
      • 7) Amenable to adaptation
      • 8) Grounded in theory
      • 9) Relevant
      • 10) Timely