Isw08 Lombe


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Isw08 Lombe

  1. 1. Measuring Inclusion: Some Lessons for Cross-nation Research/Evaluation Margaret Lombe, Ph.D. GSSW, Boston College [email_address]
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The use of concept of inclusion/exclusion in social science research is fairly recent </li></ul><ul><li>Major challenge has been operationalization and measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of inclusion/exclusion is essential </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, little is known about the meaning of inclusion across nations and cultures </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>An important step in the measurement of inclusion may be to specify the meaning of inclusion in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>A next important step may be systematic data collection so that a knowledge base can begin to build on a global basis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion <ul><li>Some promising approaches include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Indicators from the Center for the </li></ul><ul><li> Analysis of Social Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality of Life Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>- The Boston Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>- The Freedom House Index </li></ul><ul><li>- Social Inclusion Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>- Well-being measures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion <ul><li>Objectives of these indicators vary: </li></ul><ul><li>They may include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Monitoring the performance of </li></ul><ul><li>communities, nations, or regions </li></ul><ul><li> in effort to promote inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Assessing individual and household </li></ul><ul><li> experiences of inclusion/exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Assessing the extent of inclusion/exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>locally, nationally, and across nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion <ul><li>Measuring inclusion/exclusion using indicators </li></ul><ul><li>- Attempt to measure inclusion by means of the </li></ul><ul><li>five dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>- Indicators cover three broad categories: </li></ul><ul><li> economic, political, and social </li></ul><ul><li>- Items on each dimensions are scored to create an </li></ul><ul><li>index </li></ul><ul><li>- Each index is then subjected to a factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>or Cronbach’s alpha </li></ul>
  7. 7. Review of Existing Approaches to Measuring Inclusion <ul><li>Challenges inherent in use of indicators </li></ul><ul><li>The measures are numerically constrained </li></ul><ul><li>They do not adequately capture the process(es) of </li></ul><ul><li>social exclusion/inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>- The measures seem to lack cultural sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Measures may not be suitable for adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths of Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>They have potential for broad applicability </li></ul><ul><li>They reflect the main areas of participation </li></ul><ul><li>They contain small number of items </li></ul>
  8. 8. Measuring Inclusion: Some Lessons <ul><li>Lessons learned from use of indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>The need for measures that have contextual relevance and a certain degree of universalism </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of indicators may obscure development of meaningful measures </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of inclusion tend to converge around key areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Measuring Inclusion: The Way Forward <ul><ul><li>Way forward for social inquiry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 1) Accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Robust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Comparable across nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6) Sensitive to cultural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7) Amenable to adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8) Grounded in theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9) Relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10) Timely </li></ul></ul>
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