PARENTAL CHOICE, SOCIAL CLASS AND MARKET FORCES: A RESULT OF PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN EDUCATION José Luis Berna...
SCHEME <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Three networks </li></ul><ul><li>Justification of market system </l...
SCHEME <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Three networks </li></ul><ul><li>Justification of market system </l...
Ideas to start <ul><li>The privatization of public services in education   and the choice of school by parents is a comple...
Ideas to start <ul><li>Ideas like </li></ul><ul><li>take shape in several countries   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The key to b...
Ideas to start <ul><li>The privatization of public educational services forms part of the same economic, political and cul...
Subsidized private schools Private  Schools Public Schools Public Private Public Private CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT FINANCING ...
The 78.17% of education expenditure in Spain  is financed through public funds  ( State and Autonomous Communities ) While...
… establishing a sharing of powers between the State Administration and the Autonomous Communities The 1978 Spanish Consti...
Features private school <ul><li>Total freedom to organize the participation in school </li></ul><ul><li>Complete autonomy ...
Private school <ul><li>They receive all  from the market </li></ul><ul><li>High class and some middle class </li></ul><ul>...
Features Subsidized private school <ul><li>Democratic participation (Less than public school) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy i...
Subsidized private school <ul><li>They receive from the State and  from the market </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></u...
They are not always applied in practice, because schools use mechanisms to prevent certain students (immigrants, gypsies…....
Features public school <ul><li>Democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Little autonomy in business and performance </li...
Public school <ul><li>They receive all from the State </li></ul><ul><li>Working class and economically distressed parts of...
Justification of market system <ul><li>During Franco regime   (1939-1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Universualization </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>From 1939 to 1982 the State leant on confessional (Catholic) schools, opting for a secondary role in education, as...
<ul><li>Tax exemptions, subsidies and the support of “the national-catholic state” resulted in facilities and resources fo...
<ul><li>During the dictatorship of Franco the bases for a totally unbalanced position between public and private schools w...
Universualization <ul><li>From 1979 all children from 6 to 14 years old were enrolled in schools </li></ul><ul><li>From 19...
<ul><li>As a consequence of this  everybody  has schooling, those  who want to study  and those  who do not ,  good studen...
This creates a new situation This logically causes schools to be massified and the level  (¿What does concept level mean?)...
This creates a new situation People speak of school failure, children do not study as much as before, the general level in...
This creates a new situation They think: “ The loss of academic efficiency is very important to economic development ”  So...
<ul><li>Alumnos escolarizados en Enseñanzas de Regimen General y proyecciones de población del INE (base censo de Població...
RESPONSE TO THE PROBLEM  Market system <ul><li>A market system is presented as the best solution to resolve this problem. ...
One thing is clear:   “ If we must improve  the situation of people  in a disadvantageous position,  it is quite probable ...
What is not mentioned is that this market system is designed for a part of the population only <ul><li>The false believe t...
<ul><li>A good example is one of the most marginal areas in Zaragoza. There are two schools 200 meters apart, one is a sub...
Development of immigrant student enrollment in Spain 1992-2003
Private schools Evolution of immigrant student enrollment in Spain   1992-2003
Private schools Evolution of immigrant student enrollment in Spain   1992-2003   Public schools
Public schools Private schools Total 1996 the Popular Party   came to power introducing  market policies in education Evol...
Infant Ed. Primary Ed. Special Ed. Compulsory  Sec. Ed. Social Guarantee Programmes Vocational Training Public Schools Pri...
Public Schools Private Schools Development of immigrant student enrollment in Spain.  2003   Source: CIDE
Market system in Spain <ul><li>It is a combination of school choice and public financing </li></ul><ul><li>It is a market ...
FIVE CHARACTERISTICS of the market system in Spain <ul><li>Several schools (public and private schools) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Several schools (public and private schools) <ul><li>They compete for the same students  </li></ul><ul><li>In the same con...
Free choice of school <ul><li>Zones of influence bigger, where parents can choose a lot of schools, public as well as priv...
BUT…. <ul><li>Public schools apply these criteria when there is more demand than offer with control and seriousness. </li>...
Public financing for all, in public as well as in subsidized private schools <ul><li>The financing depends on number of cl...
Schools must be sold to parents <ul><li>Publicity of most outstanding aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity of academic resu...
Control and management decentralized. Autonomy <ul><li>There is a minimum for all schools: curriculum, ratio teacher/stude...
Research <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing factors in the choice of school </li></ul>
DESIGN <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Access  to Fieldwork: The schools </li></ul><ul><li>S...
DESIGN <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results and influencing...
<ul><li>To study the reasons for  parents' choice of school </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the effect of the choice of schoo...
<ul><li>We have chosen a &quot;local market&quot; such as the city of  Zaragoza , because it represents the  typical param...
Primary Schools in the city of Zaragoza <ul><li>140 schools </li></ul><ul><li>Public 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Private  69 </li...
Methodology <ul><li>I have used an  ethnographic methodology , based on the analysis of classroom data obtained from obser...
FOUR MICRO MARKETS Reasons for choosing school   Private schools ( Subsidized private schools ) middle-high classes Public...
The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Safe environment: The students are protected </li></ul><ul><...
Three main reasons <ul><li>Elite and social prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline and order  </li></ul><ul><li>Level of pa...
The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Social atmosphere with no conflict , no existence of sociall...
The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Several factors can be seen to be repeated, but others typic...
Public schools  -  Working class (Most public schools) <ul><li>This micro market consists mainly of a large proportion of ...
The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Plurality of its pupils, which reflects social reality </li>...
Public schools  (economically distressed part of the populations) <ul><li>The proportion of families belonging to the unde...
Three social groups to choose school <ul><li>Non electors </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate   electors </li></ul><ul><li>Exigent ...
<ul><li>More than 50% of parents do not choose the school. </li></ul><ul><li>These parents take their children to the near...
<ul><li>A 1/3 of parents dedicate some effort to the choice of school </li></ul><ul><li>They look for a quality school rat...
<ul><li>The rest of parents believe that the choice of school is essential and they dedicate a lot of effort to choosing t...
Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; <ul><li>It is very interesting to point out that these micro marke...
Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; <ul><li>We must bear in mind that  Spain is not immersed in an ope...
Choice of school   <ul><li>We find some objective and important data which indicate that  private schools in Spain are in ...
So I have three questions to finish ¿What will happen if a market system is developed in which there is full freedom of ch...
<ul><li>It is possible to predict that the struggle between public education and the market system will produce bigger dif...
<ul><li>This reflect two clear options: </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention of State in education promoting quality education f...
The  public resources that go to private education  to finance it have been increased a lot over the last years
The assignment of public resources to private education  does not guarantee free enrollment in subsidized private schools ...
The  middle classes benefit  most from the financing of subsidize private schools
The policy of financing private schools  does not eliminate the tresshold to enroll in  private schools. The social and cu...
The policy of financing private schools  does not extend the possibilities of choice of school  for all students
The  selection of students is not arbitrary . The private schools discriminate against students, who do not correspond to ...
This &quot;old and stable&quot; market  reflects the social classes in society as they really are in Spain <ul><li>Each so...
Cristo Rey  59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen  33 Sagrado Corazón  32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilar...
Cristo Rey  59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen  33 Sagrado Corazón  32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilar...
Cristo Rey  59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen  33 Sagrado Corazón  32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilar...
“ I want my daughter to be educated as a responsible person. I want her to grow up in a right and healthy way ” A father s...
False idea of equality <ul><li>This false idea of equality ( universal education of quality for everybody, free and equal ...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The market structure we have founds responds to the model that works in Spain, that is to say, an &quo...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The results of our research show that &quot;the expectations, experiences and ideals of parents&quot; ...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>This &quot;old and stable&quot; market , reflects the social classes in society as they really are.  <...
Consequently… <ul><li>A completely open market system is not necessary in order to produce this reality.  </li></ul><ul><l...
CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH <ul><li>The  public resources that go to private education  with financing to subsidize private sch...
CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH <ul><li>The policy of financing private school  does not eliminate the barrier of access  to privat...
ENVIROMENT AND SCHOOL TYPE <ul><li>Demographic Cat.  1º   2º   3º   4º   5º </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools 86 76 65 55 3...
ENVIROMENT AND SCHOOL TYPE <ul><li>Quintil    1º   2º   3º   4º   5º </li></ul><ul><li>Public school 86 76 65 55 39 </li><...
EDUCATION LEVELS OF FATHERS AND TYPE OF SCHOOL <ul><li>Studies of father   Publique   Private </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete...
Students 2001-2002 Infant Ed. Primary Ed. Special Ed. Secondary Ed. Vocational Training Private Public Private Private Pub...
These market policies will  … <ul><li>Introduce mechanisms of competition between schools , that will improve quality and ...
Methodology <ul><li>I have used an  ethnographic methodology , based on the analysis of classroom data obtained from obser...
With the Quality Law the consequences will be more far-reaching and the social differences will increase with the financin...
¿Is there a future for them? ¿  Is there a future for them ? ¿  Is there a future for them ? ¿  Is there a future for them ?
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Parental Choice, Social Class And Market Forces

  1. 1. PARENTAL CHOICE, SOCIAL CLASS AND MARKET FORCES: A RESULT OF PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN EDUCATION José Luis Bernal [email_address] Seminar Four: “ The International Perspective” London, July 1st 2004
  2. 2. SCHEME <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Three networks </li></ul><ul><li>Justification of market system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With dictatorship of Franco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction: Market system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market system in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables in choice school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. SCHEME <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Three networks </li></ul><ul><li>Justification of market system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With dictatorship of Franco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction: Market system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market system in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influencing factors in the choice of school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ideas to start <ul><li>The privatization of public services in education and the choice of school by parents is a complex and topical subject. It is now being debated in Europe and the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>It is linked to market forces and particularly to the mechanisms of social classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some countries, rules for choosing a public school have been liberalized , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in others, subsidies to private schools have been introduced or maintained, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and in some cases, public schools are subject to greater competition . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ideas to start <ul><li>Ideas like </li></ul><ul><li>take shape in several countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The key to better schools lies in institutional reform creating markets where consumers influence schools by their choices &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Markets offering what people want “ </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ideas to start <ul><li>The privatization of public educational services forms part of the same economic, political and cultural process all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>But, I am convinced we can change it in the future, we can do something in education </li></ul><ul><li>The educational world is a complex system of interests, values and circumstances, that is impossible to understand out of its own context. The educational policies can only be understood, analysed and evaluated relating them to their own context </li></ul><ul><li>So, I will try to explain the Spanish process from its own context </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subsidized private schools Private Schools Public Schools Public Private Public Private CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT FINANCING Three networks X
  8. 8. The 78.17% of education expenditure in Spain is financed through public funds ( State and Autonomous Communities ) While the remaining 21.83% comes from private funds (families) Non university educational establishments in Spain
  9. 9. … establishing a sharing of powers between the State Administration and the Autonomous Communities The 1978 Spanish Constitution laid down a new model for a decentralised State…
  10. 10. Features private school <ul><li>Total freedom to organize the participation in school </li></ul><ul><li>Complete autonomy in business and perfomance </li></ul><ul><li>Little State control </li></ul><ul><li>Hard competition between schools </li></ul><ul><li>The parents choose the school using market parameters </li></ul>
  11. 11. Private school <ul><li>They receive all from the market </li></ul><ul><li>High class and some middle class </li></ul><ul><li>elitist education </li></ul>
  12. 12. Features Subsidized private school <ul><li>Democratic participation (Less than public school) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy in business and perfomance </li></ul><ul><li>Little State control </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between schools </li></ul><ul><li>The parents choose the school using three basic criteria of selection </li></ul>They receive from the State and the market budget students
  13. 13. Subsidized private school <ul><li>They receive from the State and from the market </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Different education </li></ul>Big buildings in densely populated areas School buses in thinly populated areas
  14. 14. They are not always applied in practice, because schools use mechanisms to prevent certain students (immigrants, gypsies….) from enrollment, like charging for uniforms, extracurricular activities, catering, parent associations,… <ul><li>Three basic criteria of selection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proximity of the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>family income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brothers or sisters already at the school </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Features public school <ul><li>Democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Little autonomy in business and performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(It tends to change according to market policies ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State control </li></ul><ul><li>Little competition between schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(It tends to change according to market policies ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The parents choose the school using three basic criteria of selection </li></ul>
  16. 16. Public school <ul><li>They receive all from the State </li></ul><ul><li>Working class and economically distressed parts of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Plural education </li></ul>
  17. 17. Justification of market system <ul><li>During Franco regime (1939-1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Universualization </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction:Market system </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>From 1939 to 1982 the State leant on confessional (Catholic) schools, opting for a secondary role in education, assisting only in those areas where private schools did not provide education </li></ul><ul><li>Franco utilized especially the Catholic Church to carry out his policies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So, confessional schools obtained a well established infrastructure and very considerable cultural and social influence on Spanish society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Tax exemptions, subsidies and the support of “the national-catholic state” resulted in facilities and resources for private confessional schools that public schools lacked </li></ul><ul><li>This caused a lack of modernization of the educational system and inequality between public and private schools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The public school especially attended to families belonging to the underprivileged class and rural environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private confessional schools attended the middle and high classes, most of them in cities </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>During the dictatorship of Franco the bases for a totally unbalanced position between public and private schools was laid </li></ul><ul><li>So, in 1970 we find deficient capacity and bad quality of infrastructure in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence of this, the initial stages of the conversion to a market system saw the public schools in a disadvantageous position </li></ul>Three important consequences
  21. 21. Universualization <ul><li>From 1979 all children from 6 to 14 years old were enrolled in schools </li></ul><ul><li>From 1990 all children from 4 to 16 years old were enrolled in schools </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>As a consequence of this everybody has schooling, those who want to study and those who do not , good students as well as borderline students , those belonging to middle and high classes and those belonging to low classes , Spanish students as well as immigrants ,… . </li></ul><ul><li>This change happened in a period with a limited budget for education, causing a lack of resources when resources, material and people, are essential to give quality attendance to different students with different needs and abilities </li></ul>
  23. 23. This creates a new situation This logically causes schools to be massified and the level (¿What does concept level mean?) will go down: Discipline problems, complex schools,… creating the circumstances for a culture of school failure in the educational system. This culture makes it necessary to intervene in the educational system in order to solve “the problem”
  24. 24. This creates a new situation People speak of school failure, children do not study as much as before, the general level in Spanish and Mathematics goes down,… (The same happened in the USA with “ A nation at risk ” -1983-) The report about the Quality Law (2002) justified this law because of school failure and the need to resolve it. It proposes some measures, considering middle and high class students only, not those belonging to the lower classes. (The report in the USA had a similar focus)
  25. 25. This creates a new situation They think: “ The loss of academic efficiency is very important to economic development ” So, only market forces can resolve this problem. A hard competition between schools, complete autonomy in economic functioning and performance, little State control and the free choice of school using market parameters will improve education
  26. 26. <ul><li>Alumnos escolarizados en Enseñanzas de Regimen General y proyecciones de población del INE (base censo de Población de 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Isabel Muñoz. Revista Fuentes Estadísticas </li></ul><ul><li>Educación - Revista Nº 18 - Julio / Agosto de 1996 </li></ul>53.2 % 43.7 % 32.9 % 18-20 79.2 % 67.9 % 56.3 % 16-17 98.6 % 93.1 % 83.4 % 14-15 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 6-13 100.0 % 98.5 % 93.8 % 4-5 54.2 % 28.2 % 16.5 % 3 1994-95 1990-91 1985-86 Age  ENROLMENT
  27. 27. RESPONSE TO THE PROBLEM Market system <ul><li>A market system is presented as the best solution to resolve this problem. Its objective is to minimize the production cost of public services and increase the possibilities of choice for parents. </li></ul><ul><li>It is thought that market forces will cause hard competition between schools, will motivate teachers and will reduce school failure,… With fewer resources, it is said, we can get better results because the use of resources is optimized. </li></ul>
  28. 28. One thing is clear: “ If we must improve the situation of people in a disadvantageous position, it is quite probable that the privileged will have less opportunities and resources”
  29. 29. What is not mentioned is that this market system is designed for a part of the population only <ul><li>The false believe that the market system improves education for all social classes is based on a wrong assumption: “ Everybody can choose the school they want for their children and, on top of that, with State financing ” </li></ul>The middle and high classes, because only they will benefit from it
  30. 30. <ul><li>A good example is one of the most marginal areas in Zaragoza. There are two schools 200 meters apart, one is a subsidized private school, run by a religious congregation, and the other one is a public school. </li></ul><ul><li>The public school receives the economically less affluent part of the population, which constitutes 95% of the pupils in this school, whereas the private school receives the population of a nearby area with lower-middle class families. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The criteria for admission are the same in both schools, so what is the reason for this situation? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Development of immigrant student enrollment in Spain 1992-2003
  32. 32. Private schools Evolution of immigrant student enrollment in Spain 1992-2003
  33. 33. Private schools Evolution of immigrant student enrollment in Spain 1992-2003 Public schools
  34. 34. Public schools Private schools Total 1996 the Popular Party came to power introducing market policies in education Evolution of immigrant student enrollment in Spain 1992-2003. Source: CIDE
  35. 35. Infant Ed. Primary Ed. Special Ed. Compulsory Sec. Ed. Social Guarantee Programmes Vocational Training Public Schools Private Schools Development of immigrant student enrollment in Spain. 2003 A-Levels
  36. 36. Public Schools Private Schools Development of immigrant student enrollment in Spain. 2003 Source: CIDE
  37. 37. Market system in Spain <ul><li>It is a combination of school choice and public financing </li></ul><ul><li>It is a market system, but with some mechanisms of public intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of competition between schools, which causes the decrease of public services. One mechanism is the free choice of school. </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing of part of public services, reducing the cost and stimulating competition </li></ul><ul><li>A clear example is the group of 0-3 year olds, that the State delegates to city-councils or private organizations </li></ul>TWO MEASURES TO DEVELOP A MARKET SYSTEM IN SPAIN
  38. 38. FIVE CHARACTERISTICS of the market system in Spain <ul><li>Several schools (public and private schools) </li></ul><ul><li>Free choice of school </li></ul><ul><li>Public financing for all, in public as well as in subsidized private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must be sold to parents </li></ul><ul><li>Control and management decentralized. Autonomy </li></ul>
  39. 39. Several schools (public and private schools) <ul><li>They compete for the same students </li></ul><ul><li>In the same context </li></ul><ul><li>They offer different products </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized private and public schools receive public financing </li></ul>
  40. 40. Free choice of school <ul><li>Zones of influence bigger, where parents can choose a lot of schools, public as well as private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic criteria of selection: Proximity, family income and brothers or sisters already at the school, if the demand exceeds the offer </li></ul><ul><li>All schools (public and subsidized private schools) have the same criteria of selection </li></ul>
  41. 41. BUT…. <ul><li>Public schools apply these criteria when there is more demand than offer with control and seriousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized private schools use them, in practice, to select their students, because they use mechanisms to prevent certain students (immigrants, gypsies….) from enrollment, like charging for uniforms, extracurricular activities, catering, parent associations,… </li></ul><ul><li>It is beyond doubt that parents choose school considering facilities, student type, social prestige, tradition,…and not criteria related to education, like curricular program, methodology,… . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Public financing for all, in public as well as in subsidized private schools <ul><li>The financing depends on number of classes in school, which means that more classes (more children) get more funding </li></ul><ul><li>The State pays every teacher directly in public and subsidized private schools </li></ul>
  43. 43. Schools must be sold to parents <ul><li>Publicity of most outstanding aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity of academic results </li></ul><ul><li>Use of education indicators </li></ul><ul><li>External evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>“ General evaluation of diagnosis” (LOCE) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Control and management decentralized. Autonomy <ul><li>There is a minimum for all schools: curriculum, ratio teacher/student,.. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, in public schools there is an excessive legislative intervention and in subsidized private schools only the owner controls </li></ul>
  45. 45. Research <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing factors in the choice of school </li></ul>
  46. 46. DESIGN <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Fieldwork: The schools </li></ul><ul><li>Setting the interviews up </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork: interviews, documents, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Codify data </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate data </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  47. 47. DESIGN <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results and influencing factors in the choice of school </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>To study the reasons for parents' choice of school </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze the effect of the choice of school and the consequences of education markets for the distribution of social groups among schools and thus for patterns of social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>To find out how markets in education are distributed and their features </li></ul>Objectives
  49. 49. <ul><li>We have chosen a &quot;local market&quot; such as the city of Zaragoza , because it represents the typical parameters we can encounter in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the social classes represented in this city, its socioeconomic indicators and the proportion of public and private schools mark it as a typical city in Spain </li></ul>Sample I have worked with 13 schools, a representative sample of different types of schools that receive different pupils from different social groups in Zaragoza from the socioeconomic point of view, not only in public education but in subsidized education as well
  50. 50. Primary Schools in the city of Zaragoza <ul><li>140 schools </li></ul><ul><li>Public 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Private 69 </li></ul><ul><li>Private subsidized schools 57 (48 confesional schools) </li></ul><ul><li>Without state subsidy 12 </li></ul>
  51. 51. Methodology <ul><li>I have used an ethnographic methodology , based on the analysis of classroom data obtained from observation, interviews with the different people concerned in the process and analysis of results </li></ul><ul><li>Strausian methodology (Straus 1987) has been used and his proposal of analysis to transcribe and analyze data </li></ul>
  52. 52. FOUR MICRO MARKETS Reasons for choosing school Private schools ( Subsidized private schools ) middle-high classes Public schools Working class (Most public schools) Public schools Economically distressed part of population Public schools Middle class (few schools)
  53. 53. The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Safe environment: The students are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Values related to discipline or obedience and not to religious values </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline and order </li></ul><ul><li>More academic pressure with more guarantees of social success </li></ul><ul><li>There are no conflictive social groups ( They make the academic level go down ) </li></ul><ul><li>Parents' experience and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity, social prestige and good reputation </li></ul>
  54. 54. Three main reasons <ul><li>Elite and social prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline and order </li></ul><ul><li>Level of participation always controlled by authority </li></ul>
  55. 55. The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Social atmosphere with no conflict , no existence of socially isolated people, good social, cultural and family atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Good name and prestige of the school </li></ul><ul><li>Secular ideology . We could say that those parents who agree with the variables of private schools but don't want a religious option are in this micro market . </li></ul><ul><li>Parents' experience and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity . If the concept of proximity of the home to the school is unanimous in almost all the interviews in the schools, as we descend in this classification of micro markets this tendency confirms itself </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in the discipline and behaviours , less pressure and more tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities offered </li></ul>
  56. 56. The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Several factors can be seen to be repeated, but others typical of public schools appear: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a more tolerant atmosphere, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a greater pluralism, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less academic pressure, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values of no ideological persuasion in particular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, we could say that both, this micro market and the previously mentioned have more aspects in common than differentiating ones, partly because the social background of both is not very different </li></ul>
  57. 57. Public schools - Working class (Most public schools) <ul><li>This micro market consists mainly of a large proportion of working class people. </li></ul><ul><li>Here we find what we call &quot; the typical public school &quot; since it is the model for the rest of schools </li></ul>
  58. 58. The reasons for choosing a school in the micro market <ul><li>Plurality of its pupils, which reflects social reality </li></ul><ul><li>No strict discipline. Flexibility, less pressure and more tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Secular ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Parents' experience and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities offered </li></ul><ul><li>We must add that in this micro market many parents send their children to the nearest school without the least analysis or interest </li></ul>
  59. 59. Public schools (economically distressed part of the populations) <ul><li>The proportion of families belonging to the underprivileged class is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>In this micro market the central idea is that &quot; the parents don't even think about where to send the child &quot;, they send them to the nearest school because the only thing they are interested in is closeness. </li></ul><ul><li>The school carries out the social function of taking care of some children for a period of time, children who otherwise would begin to commit offenses at a very early age. It's hard but true. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Three social groups to choose school <ul><li>Non electors </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate electors </li></ul><ul><li>Exigent electors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spanish family and the education of their children. Colección Estudios sociales nº 5. Fundación LA CAIXA </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>More than 50% of parents do not choose the school. </li></ul><ul><li>These parents take their children to the nearest public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them belong to low classes and some of them to middle classes </li></ul><ul><li>They are non electors </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>A 1/3 of parents dedicate some effort to the choice of school </li></ul><ul><li>They look for a quality school rather than proximity </li></ul><ul><li>These parents take their children to subsidized private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them belong to middle classes </li></ul><ul><li>They are moderate electors </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>The rest of parents believe that the choice of school is essential and they dedicate a lot of effort to choosing the best school for their children </li></ul><ul><li>These parents take their children to private and subsidized private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them belong to high and middle classes </li></ul><ul><li>They are exigent electors </li></ul>
  64. 64. Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; <ul><li>It is very interesting to point out that these micro markets are not determined by a certain geographical situation, but by social and cultural spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of their choice is clear, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the underprivileged population - groups of gypsies, immigrants, the socially isolated- always go to public schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the middle classes go to private ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The working class are more evenly distributed but mainly go to public schools. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Micro markets as &quot;social and cultural spaces&quot; <ul><li>We must bear in mind that Spain is not immersed in an open and brutal market in the field of compulsory education among all schools . it only exists among private schools with no State subsidy, but there are some criteria of access in the public schools and State subsidized schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, the results are almost the same as if we were in a free market system . </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, if we are going towards a free market structure, where competition among schools is essential, the results are clear: “It accelerate and point out the socioeconomic differences in society” . </li></ul>
  66. 66. Choice of school <ul><li>We find some objective and important data which indicate that private schools in Spain are in higher demand than public ones . It's a reality and we have to assume it. Accepting it, improving it or changing it is another question. </li></ul><ul><li>I must insist we are &quot;living history&quot; and in the culture of society the idea that &quot;private education is better&quot; still remains. The idea of &quot;better&quot; is associated with ideas like discipline, attention, the level of education , etc..... </li></ul><ul><li>We should not forget that traditionally in Spain the public education system has seen to all the necessities of the working class and the underprivileged, and the private system has done likewise for the middle classes and people in power. </li></ul>
  67. 67. So I have three questions to finish ¿What will happen if a market system is developed in which there is full freedom of choice of school, without compensatory action? Everybody will have the same rights, but ¿will they have the same conditions and possibilities? ¿All schools (private and public) will start from the same position and under the same circumstances?
  68. 68. <ul><li>It is possible to predict that the struggle between public education and the market system will produce bigger differences between social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, this will provoke the death of the public school in Spain. Public schools will receive only the economically distressed sectors of the population </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>This reflect two clear options: </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention of State in education promoting quality education for all in the same conditions </li></ul><ul><li>A market system, where families of middle and high classes use State funding to carry out their objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Every option is influenced by their way of understanding the world and life </li></ul>
  70. 70. The public resources that go to private education to finance it have been increased a lot over the last years
  71. 71. The assignment of public resources to private education does not guarantee free enrollment in subsidized private schools , because they use mechanisms to prevent certain students (immigrants, gypsies….) from enrollment, like charging for uniforms, extracurricular activities, catering, parent associations,…
  72. 72. The middle classes benefit most from the financing of subsidize private schools
  73. 73. The policy of financing private schools does not eliminate the tresshold to enroll in private schools. The social and cultural level determines the access to these schools
  74. 74. The policy of financing private schools does not extend the possibilities of choice of school for all students
  75. 75. The selection of students is not arbitrary . The private schools discriminate against students, who do not correspond to a particular social and cultural profile, or need a learning process that is more expensive for the schools
  76. 76. This &quot;old and stable&quot; market reflects the social classes in society as they really are in Spain <ul><li>Each social class is clearly linked to the one or other of the different micro markets </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, a completely open market system is not necessary in order to produce this reality. It is already produced in a system where the possibilities of choice are conditioned in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>At the moment the middle class is favoured and the working class is worse hit in their possibilities of choice </li></ul><ul><li>If these possibilities of choice require a better capacity of decision taking the damage is much greater for the working class </li></ul>
  77. 77. Cristo Rey 59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen 33 Sagrado Corazón 32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilarión Gimeno 24 Juan XXIII 23 Salesianos del Pilar 21 Agustinos 20 Escolapios 20 La Salle Montemolín 20 Parque Goya 74 Calixto Ariño 59 J. A. Labordeta 43 Marcos Frechín 40 Jerónimo Zurita 35 Antonio Beltrán 31 Cesáreo Alierta 24 Sainz de Varanda 23 Río Ebro 22 Cándido Domingo 21 More applicants Less applicants Non placed students Place vacancy Public Schools Zaragoza 2003-2004 Subsidized Private Schools All are catholic schools
  78. 78. Cristo Rey 59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen 33 Sagrado Corazón 32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilarión Gimeno 24 Juan XXIII 23 Salesianos del Pilar 21 Agustinos 20 Escolapios 20 La Salle Montemolín 20 Parque Goya 74 Calixto Ariño 59 J. A. Labordeta 43 Marcos Frechín 40 Jerónimo Zurita 35 Antonio Beltrán 31 Cesáreo Alierta 24 Sainz de Varanda 23 Río Ebro 22 Cándido Domingo 21 More applicants Less applicants Students Without place Vacant places Public Schools Zaragoza 2003-2004 Subsidized Private Schools
  79. 79. Cristo Rey 59 Maristas 59 Nª Sª del Carmen 33 Sagrado Corazón 32 Sto. Domingo de Silos 32 Jesús Mª-El Salvador 25 Hilarión Gimeno 24 Juan XXIII 23 Salesianos del Pilar 21 Agustinos 20 Escolapios 20 La Salle Montemolín 20 Parque Goya 74 Calixto Ariño 59 J. A. Labordeta 43 Marcos Frechín 40 Jerónimo Zurita 35 Antonio Beltrán 31 Cesáreo Alierta 24 Sainz de Varanda 23 Río Ebro 22 Cándido Domingo 21 More applicants Less applicants Non placed students Vacant places Public Schools Subsidized Private Schools Zaragoza 2003-2004 All are catholic schools
  80. 80. “ I want my daughter to be educated as a responsible person. I want her to grow up in a right and healthy way ” A father said The right and healthy way to grow up is only what the father thinks I think…
  81. 81. False idea of equality <ul><li>This false idea of equality ( universal education of quality for everybody, free and equal access to schools for everybody with State financing ) is reflected in the following data about enrolment of immigrant students in education in Spain </li></ul>
  82. 82. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The market structure we have founds responds to the model that works in Spain, that is to say, an &quot; old and stable market &quot; that does not correspond to the typical rules of the market where there is a brutal competitiveness among schools, but its functioning and results are quite similar. </li></ul><ul><li>Up until now, the real competition among schools occurs in private education and not in education financed by the State (public and subsidized private schools). </li></ul><ul><li>In the future, it tends to change according to market policies and the public and subsidized private schools will entry in the new game rules. </li></ul>
  83. 83. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The results of our research show that &quot;the expectations, experiences and ideals of parents&quot; are a fundamental factor in the choice of the schools. </li></ul><ul><li>It is undeniable in our &quot;old and stable market&quot; that middle class families have more resources and a higher cultural level, so they don't only go to the nearest school, but sometimes got further a field to find the school they really want. </li></ul><ul><li>As we move down the social scale we observe that mobility gets less frequent. Many social groups find the complexity of the choice much too bewildering. </li></ul>
  84. 84. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>This &quot;old and stable&quot; market , reflects the social classes in society as they really are. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the children of the middle class are distributed among the middle class private and public schools, leaving the rest of the public schools for the working class and the underprivileged. </li></ul><ul><li>Each social class is clearly linked to the one or other of the different micro market. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Consequently… <ul><li>A completely open market system is not necessary in order to produce this reality. </li></ul><ul><li>It is already produced in a system where the possibilities of choice are conditioned in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>At the moment the middle class is favoured and the working class is worse hit in their possibilities of choice. </li></ul><ul><li>If these possibilities of choice require a better capacity to decide the damage is much greater for the working class. </li></ul>
  86. 86. CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH <ul><li>The public resources that go to private education with financing to subsidize private schools increase a lot of last years. </li></ul><ul><li>The assignment of public resources to private education do not guarantee the real free of charge to subsidize private schools , because uses mechanism to prevent certain students (immigrants, gypsies….) from enrolment, like charging uniforms, extracurricular activities, catering, for parent associations,… </li></ul><ul><li>The middle class are the more benefit of financing of Subsidize private schools. </li></ul>Villarroya Planas, A. (2000): Financing of Subsidized private schools. Madrid: CIDE, 301-315
  87. 87. CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH <ul><li>The policy of financing private school does not eliminate the barrier of access to private schools. The social and cultural level determines the access a these schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy of financing private school does not extend the possibilities of choice school for all students. </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of students is not arbitrary . The private schools discriminate against students, which do not have a profile determinate social and cultural or demand more process learning more expensive for school. </li></ul>Villarroya Planas, A. (2000): Financing of Subsidized private schools. Madrid: CIDE, 301-315
  88. 88. ENVIROMENT AND SCHOOL TYPE <ul><li>Demographic Cat. 1º 2º 3º 4º 5º </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools 86 76 65 55 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools 14 24 34 44 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools 2 5 6 3 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Concerted schools 12 19 28 41 52 </li></ul>
  89. 89. ENVIROMENT AND SCHOOL TYPE <ul><li>Quintil 1º 2º 3º 4º 5º </li></ul><ul><li>Public school 86 76 65 55 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Private school 14 24 34 44 61 </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools 2 5 6 3 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidize school 12 19 28 41 52 </li></ul>
  90. 90. EDUCATION LEVELS OF FATHERS AND TYPE OF SCHOOL <ul><li>Studies of father Publique Private </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete primary 84 % 16 % </li></ul><ul><li>Complete primary 69 % 32 % </li></ul><ul><li>Complete secondary 62 % 38 % </li></ul><ul><li>Universitary 40 % 61 % </li></ul>
  91. 91. Students 2001-2002 Infant Ed. Primary Ed. Special Ed. Secondary Ed. Vocational Training Private Public Private Private Public Public TOTAL Compulsory education
  92. 92. These market policies will … <ul><li>Introduce mechanisms of competition between schools , that will improve quality and develop the talents of everybody, stimulate the motivation of teachers and improve school failure,… . For example, the free choice of school. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to an educational offer that is more varied and broader , in which schools must be able to meet any kind of demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the equal opportunity (which is a fallacy), because, it is expected, that they will break the restrictive criteria of selection in schools and the students from less prosperous environments will be able to choose from a greater variety of schools. </li></ul>
  93. 93. Methodology <ul><li>I have used an ethnographic methodology , based on the analysis of classroom data obtained from observation, interviews with the different people concerned in the process and analysis of results. </li></ul><ul><li>Strausian methodology (Straus 1987) has been used and his proposal of analysis to transcribe and analyze data. </li></ul><ul><li>I think that this reality can neither be found nor analyzed with cold and closed surveys, but it is necessary to talk to parents, interview teachers, watch different situations, analyze results etc. . In order to know what parents and teachers think, why they think the way they do, what circumstances they are conditioned by, it is necessary to be there, talk to them, observe, in short use an ethnographic approach. </li></ul>
  94. 94. With the Quality Law the consequences will be more far-reaching and the social differences will increase with the financing of more years in private schools. (This year the financing of kindergartens -3-6 years old- starts) In Spain a market system already existed, but without there being a clear intention to develop it, as can be seen in my research. In this system the middle and high classes were already present in private schools especially With the PSOE (Socialist Party) and the LOGSE With the PP (Popular Party) and the Quality Law
  95. 95. ¿Is there a future for them? ¿ Is there a future for them ? ¿ Is there a future for them ? ¿ Is there a future for them ?

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