W R I T I N G O R N O T W R I T I N G. (IT’S NOT A QUESTION)
WRITING IN THE CLASSROOMNeeds that require to work on writing skills: Academic study Examination, Preparation and Bussines English Writing involves different kind of mental process.
TEACHING THE SKILL WRITING Set writing task Collecting in Mark
YOU CAN DO AS TEACHER : Choose a topic choose a genre get ideas discuss ideas with others to get new perspectives find grammar and lexis suitable for the text study sample and model texts similar to what they want to write co-write sections of text in groups write a final version, find appropriate readers.
STAGES OF TEACHING WRITING (SEOW)Planing. RespondingDrafting. Evaluating.Revisng. Post-writingEditing.
OLD SCHOOL WRITING VS CREATIVE WRITING
Write real letters / emails Think of real people to whom students can write, eg Members of Parliament, manufacturing companies, fan clubs, local newspapers, other schools, etc. Send them. Get replies. Write back. Write your own newsletter, Class magazine, school magazine,magazine, blog, etc fan newsletter, local news, campaigning on environmental or political issues, etc. Advertise (ideas, school events, Advertise around the school,products, etc) around town; send in your ads to local papers. Send comments, replies to There are now a wide number ofdiscussions, reviews, etc to websites discussions, message boards and newsgroups specifically for students or for special-interest groups. Many shop and consumer sites invite reader reviews of books, products, events, etc.
Write questionnaires and then These can be written in Englishuse them out In the street or in the learners own language. Write up the results. Publish them! Long-term projects These are a good way of integrating writing with other work. The aim could be a file or book at the end . Apply for things, fill in forms This can be done directlyregister for things, etc online if students have Internet access or printed out on paper.
STEPS IN PLANING A WRITING COURSEAND TRAINING TEACHERS OF WRITING STEP 1. ASCERTAINING G OA L S A N D I N S T I T U T I O N A L CONSTRAINS: • MINISTRIES OF EDUCATION • EXAMININ AND AC C R E D I TATI O N AG E N C I E S.
Writing in 1L Writing in 2L Confortable I’m not the real me. Free. I’m choking in a word that Self-assured. won’t come out. Open. Loud PsotiveInstitutional Constraints ----- Form committes, find ways.
S T E P 3 . P L A N N I N G C O N T E N T.
STEP 3 Is there a correct content of writing classes?Social issues Personal ExperiencesCultural Issues LiteratureEtc.
Rhetorical ModelStudents need topics that allowed them togenerate ideas, find the forms to fit ideas and invite risk taking.
STEP 5. DRAWING UP A SYLABUSTYPES OF THE SYLLABUS ORGANIZATION FOR WRITING COURSES.STRUCTURAL.- Organizated around grammar and sentecepatterns. (sentences, descriptions, analyses… etc)FUNCTIONAL.- Organizated around Rhetorical activities:describing, defining, explaining, arguing, persuading, comparing andcontrasting, classifying.
TOPICAL.- Organized around themes: housing, health, house, educationor abstractions like succes or courage.SITUATIONAL.- Organized around situational transactions: Applyingfor a jobs, writing letter to the newspaper, writing bussines memo etc.SKILLS AND PROCESS.- Organized around skills ad process asgenerating ideas, organizing ideas, revising, writing fluency, writingefective.
S T E P 7 . - P R E PA R AT I N G AC T I V I T I E S A N D RO L E S The teacher have to be student to. Think about what students will be doing and lerning in theclassroom rather than the comprehensiveness of the information wewill imparting. “Banking”: depositing knowledge in the learner’s head.
S T E P 9 . - E VA L UAT I N G T H E C O U R S E Use of questionenaires, reflective logs. PORTFOLIOS Include some specified types of writing: in-class writing andrevised work. Another teacher could be the evlatuator, and the teacher becomesin a coach.
1.- Introduce the Get students interested, maybe by reading atopic text (article, letter; advert, etc) showing figures, discussing some key issues, etc. 2.- Introduce and Make sure students are clear what they have tosummarise the main do. They need to know the genre (magazine article?writing task letter? formal report? etc), who they are writing for and why. Avoid bland, genre-free text for no particular audience writing tasks. 3.- Brainstorm Whole class: use the board to collect as manyideas ideas as possible. Small groups: speak and take notes. 4.- Fast-write A very good way to overcome blank page terror and get ideas flowing is to fast-write (see Section 7).
5 5.- Select and Whats worth leaving but?reject ideas6 6.- Sort and Start to plan structure of text byorder ideas arranging ideas. 7 7.- Decide on How is the text to be laid out,specific paragraphed, organised? Are there anyrequirements: special rules (eg if its a letter, report, etc)?style, information, Are there things that must be included orlayout, etc stated in a certain way?8 8.- Focus on Help students to study sample(s) ofuseful models written texts similar to the one they are writing. Focus on content, message, organization, grammar, phrases, etc.
9 9.- Plan the text Use notes, sketches or cut-up cards to start organising a possible shape for the text. 10.- Get feedback At various points, you, other students or groups can read and make helpful comments / suggestions about a text. This help may be on the content and message, the organisation, the language, etc. 11.- Prepre Students often benefit from preparing a draftdraft(s) version before the final one. This gives them the chance to get reader reactions and corrections. . 12.-Edit Students carefully go through their own text, checking if it says what they want it to, if it reads clearly and smoothly, if its language is correct, eta. 13.- Prepare final Based on feedback, students write a finishedtext text 14.- Readers! Rather than simply mark a text, get other students to respond to it in some^ more realistic ways.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES AND STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP THE WRITING SKILL Text-startsA lot of real-life writing involves looking at other texts andsummarising, reporting, responding to them, selecting ideas fromthem, commenting on them, etc. Supplying text-starts can be a goodway to provide useful writing work for students and practise reading /writing skills that are useful in professional life and academic research.
FAST-WRITING start writing about the topic; not stop writing; not put their pen down at all; not worry about spelling, grammar, etc; write um, um, um or rubbish or something else if they cant think ofwhat to write; not stop to go back and read what they have written; keep writing till you say stop (which will be after five / eight / ten minutesor however long you think is appropriate for your group).
USING A DIALOGUE JOURNAL Be creative and adapt the activity to the situation and the learners needs. Keeping a dialogue journal can be a practical way to help learners develop reading and writing fluency: improve spelling and handwriting understand that writing is a means of communicating, and make reading and writing part of everyday life.
STEPS1. Write a personal message in the journal that is designed to get aresponse from the learner.Examples: Start with a question such as "Have you planted your garden? What do you usually plant?" "What is the next event to celebrate? How will you celebrate it?"
2. Have the learner write a response and return the journal to the teacher to continue the dialogue. Have the class discuss and agree upon a question for the next entry in the journals. Have learners exchange journals and read each others thoughts andideas.3. Continue to exchange the journal in this way to keep the dialoguegoing
CONFERENCE WRITINGConference writing is an activity where writersdiscuss and share their writing with an individual orgroup.
WRITING FLUENCY ACTIVITY Fluency in writing, as in reading, should be one of the aims even of beginning lessons. This writing fluency activity helps learners learn to: transfer a flow of speech to written words on paper visualize spoken words, phrases, and sentences as they hear them write entire chunks of speech rather than syllable by syllable write fluidly rather than haltingly
WRITING FLUENCY ACTIVITY Begin working word by word. Progress as soon as possible tophrases and then to entire sentences, according to the learners ability. Encourage the learners to write the entire chunk (word, phrase, orsentence) without stopping to correct mistakes. Encourage them to write quickly but legibly. Work on problem words only after a sentence has been written.Do not stop during writing to sound out letters or make corrections.
FREE RESOURCES THAT WILLI M P R OV E YO U R W R I T I N G S K I L L S 1. Grammar, Punctuation & Co. Ultimate Style: The Rules Of Writing
Grammar Girl Grammar Girl provides short,friendly tips to improve your writing.Covering the grammar rules and wordchoice guidelines that can confound eventhe best writers. Grammar Girl makescomplex grammar questions simple withmemory tricks to help you recall andapply those troublesome grammar rules.
2 . C O M M O N M I S TA K E S A N D P RO B L E M S Common Errors in EnglishA collection of common errors in English, with detailed explanationsand descriptions of each error.
AskOxford: Better WritingA very useful reference for classic errors and helpful hints with aterrible site navigation.
Dr. Grammar’s Frequently Asked QuestionsAnswers to common grammar questions related to English grammar,with examples and additional explanations.
3. GENERAL WRITING SKILLS Writer’s DigestWriter’s Digest offers information on writing better and gettingpublished. The site also includes community forums, blogs and hugelists of resources for writers
Infoplease: General Writing SkillsVarious articles that aim to teach students how to write better.
The Elements of StyleA freely available onlineversion of the book “TheElements of Style” byWilliam Strunk, Jr., theclassic reference book.
Poynter Writing ToolsA blog dedicated to writers andjournalists. Poynter alsoprovides Fifty Writing Tools:Quick List, a collection ofpodcasts related to writing.
4. PRACTICAL GUIDES TO BETTER WRITING SKILLS Copywriting 101: An Introduction to CopywritingThis tutorial is designed to get you up and running with the basics ofwriting great copy in ten easy lessons..
A Guide to Writing Well“This guide was mainly distilled from OnWriting Well by William Zinsser and TheElements of Style by Strunk and White.Other sources are listed in the bibliography.My memory being stubborn and lazy, Icompiled this so I could easily refresh myselfon writing well. I hope it will also be helpfulto others.”
Better to write for yourself and have no public, than to writefor the public and have no self. Cyril Connolly, The New Statesman The original writer is not one who imitates nobody, but onewhom nobody can imitate. ~François-René de Chateaubriand THANKS