What is imperialism? Imperialism- The domination by a powerful nation over the political economical, and cultural affairs of another nation or region. - It is when a dominant and prosperous country invades and controls another country or they have the desire to do so.
What led to imperialism in the 19th century?
Industrialization, and the need for raw materials at a cheap price.
- Industrialism raised living standards and made countries that had gone through industrialization have more money to spend so they have a hunger to colonize other countries for the products they want or to become wealthier.
Why were the Europeans able t conquer large areas of the world?
Truth was that European countries were superior because they had gone through industrialization and they were modernized.
But the explanations that European countries gave themselves were that they were superior to non-European people.
There were a number of racist ideas widely believed by Europeans: ‘Whites were superior to non-whites. Rudyard Kipling's idea of the White Man's Burden. The white man had the burden and responsibility of bringing the blessings of their superior civilization to non-European world.’ ‘ Europeans were considered more fit in the struggle for survival, and that the only true religion was Christianity. ’ But however, not all of South Europeans believed this.
What are reasons for imperialism? Need for resources-need for raw materials; cotton, rubber (desire for new markets)1a. Secure source of cheap raw materials- monopoly-only provider of service or a product or only buyer of service or product.- avoid competition- mercantilism- colony provides cheap raw materials1b. Luxury items: silk, coffee, gems3. Sell manufactured goods to colonies4. Supply of soldiers 5. Prestige- appearance of power6. Outlets 4 population Spread religion (Christianity) 8. Resource/coal stations. Strategic vantage points in which ships can resupply their coal reserves/food 9. Strategic points for control of trade routes.
Examples of Imperialism
England conquered Egypt for a strategic point (Suez canal) and cotton- England conquered Australia as an outlet for population along with New Zealand- USA conquered Philippines to help it advance (white man's burden), and to have a strategic position there.
Italy conquered Libya for prestige.
Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without having to navigate around Africa.
What are the positive + negative effects of imperialism ? Positive: Imperialism helps industrializes (sometimes) and helps develop the colonized nation. Negative: It doesn't care for the population of that nation and it controls every aspect of that nation and makes it pay large sums of money for manufactured goods which profits the colonizer. It leaves an emotional and political impact on the nations that were colonized and it led some of the colonized nation on the path for industrialization and even developed some of them. However, some nations were introduced to these ideas too fast in in term they went through massive political change for the good and worse and are still unstable to this day.
Colonizers - England was the leading European colonial power and had already many countries by the beginning of the 19th century.
- France was second, having colonized Southeast Asia and North Africa during the 19th century.
- Portugal, Spain and Holland retained some colonies because they had been the earliest colonial powers, and still retained some of them in the 19th century.
- Germany and Italy unified themselves in the 186o’s so they arrived late in the colonial scene.
- The United States became a colonial power at the end of the 19th century.
Japan was the first Asiatic nation to become a colonial power. - They were isolated and refused trade with Europeans.
They were forced to trade with United States in 1845 which made them experience a political revolution.
- The political revolution made them modernize rapidly and they adopted European technology and organization.