Major religionsoftheworld

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Major religionsoftheworld

  1. 1. Major Religions of the WorldMajor Religions of the World
  2. 2.  What does religion mean to you?What does religion mean to you?  something one believes in and follows devotedlysomething one believes in and follows devotedly  usually has some form ofusually has some form of ““higher powerhigher power””  Why do you think religion causes so manyWhy do you think religion causes so many conflicts and wars in the world when it isconflicts and wars in the world when it is supposed to promote peace?supposed to promote peace?  What religion are you?What religion are you?  Why do you practice that religion?Why do you practice that religion?
  3. 3. NumbersNumbers  Christianity: 1.9 billion peopleChristianity: 1.9 billion people  Islam: 1.1 billionIslam: 1.1 billion  Hinduism: 800 millionHinduism: 800 million  Buddhism: 325 millionBuddhism: 325 million  Judaism: 13 millionJudaism: 13 million
  4. 4. ChristianityChristianity  Based on the life and teachings of JesusBased on the life and teachings of Jesus ChristChrist  Originated in Palestine in the 1st centuryOriginated in Palestine in the 1st century ADAD  Believe that Jesus was the son of GodBelieve that Jesus was the son of God who came and died for peoplewho came and died for people’’s sins ands sins and then rose so that all people could bethen rose so that all people could be savedsaved  Believe in one God(monotheistic) whoBelieve in one God(monotheistic) who created the universe and all things in itcreated the universe and all things in it  Christianity originally developed as a partChristianity originally developed as a part
  5. 5. Christian Way of LifeChristian Way of Life  Fellowship with GodFellowship with God  Our relationships with othersOur relationships with others  Obedience to God's commandsObedience to God's commands  DisciplineDiscipline
  6. 6. Ten CommandmentsTen Commandments
  7. 7. Important DaysImportant Days  Ash Wednesday-LentAsh Wednesday-Lent  Palm SundayPalm Sunday  Maundy ThursdayMaundy Thursday  Good FridayGood Friday  EasterEaster  AscensionAscension  PentecostPentecost  AdventAdvent  ChristmasChristmas  EpiphanyEpiphany
  8. 8. JudaismJudaism  Is a monotheistic religionIs a monotheistic religion  Judaism is the oldest and smallest of theJudaism is the oldest and smallest of the world's five great religionsworld's five great religions  Being a part of a Jewish community andBeing a part of a Jewish community and living one's life according to Jewish lawliving one's life according to Jewish law and traditions is very important.and traditions is very important.  The fundamental beliefs of Judaism are:The fundamental beliefs of Judaism are: -There is a single, all-powerful God,-There is a single, all-powerful God, who created the universe andwho created the universe and everything in it.everything in it. -God has a special relationship with the-God has a special relationship with the Jewish people due to covenant thatJewish people due to covenant that God made with Moses on MountGod made with Moses on Mount Sinai, 3500 years ago.Sinai, 3500 years ago.
  9. 9. RambamRambam’’s 13 Principles ofs 13 Principles of FaithFaith1.1. G-d existsG-d exists 2.2. G-d is one and uniqueG-d is one and unique 3.3. G-d is incorporealG-d is incorporeal 4.4. G-d is eternalG-d is eternal 5.5. Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no otherPrayer is to be directed to G-d alone and to no other 6.6. The words of the prophets are trueThe words of the prophets are true 7.7. MosesMoses’’ prophecies are true, and Moses was theprophecies are true, and Moses was the greatest of the prophetsgreatest of the prophets 8.8. The Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and OralThe Written Torah (first 5 books of the Bible) and Oral Torah were given to MosesTorah were given to Moses 9.9. There will be no other TorahThere will be no other Torah 10.10. G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of menG-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men 11.11. G-d will reward the good and punish the wickedG-d will reward the good and punish the wicked 12.12. The Messiah will comeThe Messiah will come 13.13. The dead will be resurrectedThe dead will be resurrected
  10. 10. 613 Mitzvot613 Mitzvot  Judaism 101: List of the 613 MitzvotJudaism 101: List of the 613 Mitzvot
  11. 11.  The Jewish place of worship is called aThe Jewish place of worship is called a SynagogueSynagogue  The religious leader of a JewishThe religious leader of a Jewish community is called a Rabbicommunity is called a Rabbi  Unlike leaders in many other faiths, aUnlike leaders in many other faiths, a rabbi is not a priest and has no specialrabbi is not a priest and has no special religious statusreligious status  The Jewish holy day, orThe Jewish holy day, or Sabbath(Shabbat), starts at sunset onSabbath(Shabbat), starts at sunset on Friday and continues until sunset onFriday and continues until sunset on SaturdaySaturday  During the Sabbath, Jews do notDuring the Sabbath, Jews do not work(drive, cook, etc)work(drive, cook, etc)
  12. 12. 7 Holy Days7 Holy Days  Rosh Hashanah-Jewish New YearRosh Hashanah-Jewish New Year  Yom Kippur-A day of fasting and prayingYom Kippur-A day of fasting and praying which occurs 10 days after the first day ofwhich occurs 10 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah. The holiest day in theRosh Hashanah. The holiest day in the yearyear  Sukkot-8 day festival of thanksgivingSukkot-8 day festival of thanksgiving  Hanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 dayHanukkah-The Feast of Lights is an 8 day Feast of Dedication.Feast of Dedication. It recalls the warIt recalls the war fought by the Maccabees in the cause offought by the Maccabees in the cause of religious freedom religious freedom 
  13. 13.  Purim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat byPurim-The Feast of Lots recalls the defeat by Queen Esther of the plan to slaughter all ofQueen Esther of the plan to slaughter all of the Persian Jews, circa 400 BCthe Persian Jews, circa 400 BC  Pesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls thePesa(Passover)-The 8 day festival recalls the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egyptexodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt circa 1300 BCE. A holiday meal, the Seder,circa 1300 BCE. A holiday meal, the Seder, is held at homeis held at home  Shavouth-Pentecost recalls God's revelationShavouth-Pentecost recalls God's revelation of the Torah to the Jewish peopleof the Torah to the Jewish people
  14. 14.  Menorah-It is aMenorah-It is a symbol of the nationsymbol of the nation of Israel and aof Israel and a mission to be "a lightmission to be "a light unto the nations.unto the nations.
  15. 15.  A Yarmulke is wornA Yarmulke is worn during prayer to shoeduring prayer to shoe respect to G_drespect to G_d
  16. 16.  The Star of David isThe Star of David is the internationalthe international symbol of Judaismsymbol of Judaism  Flag of Israel has itFlag of Israel has it
  17. 17. Kosher FoodsKosher Foods  Foods are kosher when they meet allFoods are kosher when they meet all criteria that Jewish law applies to foodcriteria that Jewish law applies to food  Characteristics that make a food non-Characteristics that make a food non- kosher:kosher:  the mixture of meat and milkthe mixture of meat and milk  the use of cooking utensils which hadthe use of cooking utensils which had previously been used for non-kosher foodpreviously been used for non-kosher food  The type of animal it isThe type of animal it is
  18. 18.  Leviticus 11:3 says that Jews may eat allLeviticus 11:3 says that Jews may eat all animals that have cloven hooves and chewanimals that have cloven hooves and chew their cudtheir cud  Leviticus 11:4 explicitly prohibited theLeviticus 11:4 explicitly prohibited the consumption of animals that do not have theseconsumption of animals that do not have these characteristics designating them "unclean tocharacteristics designating them "unclean to you."you."  Six mammals are specifically not allowed:Six mammals are specifically not allowed:  The camelThe camel  The hyraxThe hyrax  The hareThe hare  The pigThe pig  Whales and dolphinsWhales and dolphins
  19. 19.  Kosher animals are as follows:Kosher animals are as follows:  Cows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes, okapis andCows, goats, sheep, antelope, deer, giraffes, okapis and pronghornspronghorns  Most fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octupus, eels andMost fish(excluding shellfish, sharks, octupus, eels and squid)squid)  Chicken, duck, turkeyChicken, duck, turkey  Milk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten with meatMilk and cheese are kosher but cannot be eaten with meat or mixed with meat.or mixed with meat.  PreparationPreparation  the slaughter of animals is designed to minimize the pain—the slaughter of animals is designed to minimize the pain— usually done by a slice across the throatusually done by a slice across the throat  this eliminates the practice of hunting for food unless it canthis eliminates the practice of hunting for food unless it can be captured alive and ritually slaughtered.be captured alive and ritually slaughtered.  All blood and veins must be removed from meat(salting andAll blood and veins must be removed from meat(salting and broiling are common methods)broiling are common methods)
  20. 20. IslamIslam  Islam is the world's second most followed religionIslam is the world's second most followed religion  It began around 1400 years ago in Arabia, but swiftlyIt began around 1400 years ago in Arabia, but swiftly become a world faith, and now has around 1.2 billionbecome a world faith, and now has around 1.2 billion peoplepeople  "Islam" is an Arabic word which means"Islam" is an Arabic word which means ““surrenderingsurrendering oneself to the will of Godoneself to the will of God””  One will achieve peace and security by doing soOne will achieve peace and security by doing so  A person surrenders to the will of Allah by living andA person surrenders to the will of Allah by living and thinking in the way Allah has instructed.thinking in the way Allah has instructed.  Islam is more than a system of beliefs. The faithIslam is more than a system of beliefs. The faith provides a social and legal system and governs thingsprovides a social and legal system and governs things like family life, law and order, ethics, dress, andlike family life, law and order, ethics, dress, and cleanliness, as well as religious ritual and observancecleanliness, as well as religious ritual and observance —Islamic Republic—Islamic Republic
  21. 21. Where is Islam practiced?Where is Islam practiced?  The countries with the largest IslamicThe countries with the largest Islamic populations are not in the Middle East aspopulations are not in the Middle East as most would thinkmost would think  The largest are Indonesia (170 million),The largest are Indonesia (170 million), Pakistan (136 million), Bangladesh (105Pakistan (136 million), Bangladesh (105 million), and India (103 million)million), and India (103 million)  Islam's three holiest places, the cities ofIslam's three holiest places, the cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, are all inMecca, Medina and Jerusalem, are all in the Middle Eastthe Middle East
  22. 22.  The present form of Islam began in Arabia inThe present form of Islam began in Arabia in 622 AD622 AD  It is based on the ministry of a man namedIt is based on the ministry of a man named Muhammad and on the words that Allah gave toMuhammad and on the words that Allah gave to the world through himthe world through him  Muhammad did not found Islam. Islam wasMuhammad did not found Islam. Islam was created by Allah at the beginning of time, and increated by Allah at the beginning of time, and in fact Muslims regard Adam as the first Muslimfact Muslims regard Adam as the first Muslim  Muhammad was the final messenger throughMuhammad was the final messenger through whom Allah revealed the faith to the worldwhom Allah revealed the faith to the world  There had been earlier messengers, amongThere had been earlier messengers, among them Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.them Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.
  23. 23. 5 Pillars of Islam5 Pillars of Islam 1.1. Shahada(witness)Shahada(witness) is the Muslimis the Muslim profession of faithprofession of faith -- "I witness that there is no god but"I witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is theAllah, and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah"prophet of Allah"  Muslims say this when they wake up inMuslims say this when they wake up in the morning and just before they go tothe morning and just before they go to sleep at nightsleep at night
  24. 24.  2.2. Salat(daily prayer)Salat(daily prayer) is ais a prayer ritualprayer ritual performed 5 times a day by all Muslimsperformed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10over the age of 10  Between first light and sunriseBetween first light and sunrise  After the sun has passed the middle ofAfter the sun has passed the middle of the skythe sky  Between mid-afternoon and sunsetBetween mid-afternoon and sunset  Between sunset and the last light of theBetween sunset and the last light of the dayday  Between darkness and dawnBetween darkness and dawn
  25. 25. 3.3. Sawm(fasting)Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day duringis abstaining each day during RamadanRamadan  Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gainSawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God's gifts anda better understanding of God's gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived.greater compassion towards the deprived.  Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marksRamadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when Muhammad had the Qur-an revealed towhen Muhammad had the Qur-an revealed to himhim  Sawm is usually described as fasting, but itSawm is usually described as fasting, but it actually involves abstaining from all bodilyactually involves abstaining from all bodily pleasures between dawn and sunsetpleasures between dawn and sunset  Not only is food forbidden, but also things likeNot only is food forbidden, but also things like smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts andsmoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and sexual activitysexual activity
  26. 26. 4.4. Zakat(almsgiving)Zakat(almsgiving) is giving alms to theis giving alms to the poorpoor  This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % ofThis is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % of one's savings each yearone's savings each year  Giving in this way is intended to freeGiving in this way is intended to free Muslims from the love of moneyMuslims from the love of money  It reminds them that everything theyIt reminds them that everything they have really belongs to God.have really belongs to God.
  27. 27. 4. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all4. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims shouldphysically/financially able Muslims should make at least once in their lifemake at least once in their life  Mecca is the most holy place for MuslimsMecca is the most holy place for Muslims  Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12thth month of the Islamic Lunar calendarmonth of the Islamic Lunar calendar  They circle the Kaaba seven times onThey circle the Kaaba seven times on three occasions, say prayers, drink from athree occasions, say prayers, drink from a holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray,holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones at three pillars(to fightfeast, cast stones at three pillars(to fight SatanSatan’’s temptations), shave hair, runs temptations), shave hair, run seven times between some hillsseven times between some hills
  28. 28. The KaabaThe Kaaba Kaaba - Wikipedia, the freeKaaba - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaencyclopedia
  29. 29. Other InfoOther Info  The QurThe Qur’’an is the Islamic holy bookan is the Islamic holy book  The Qur'an is the actual word of God, andThe Qur'an is the actual word of God, and contains the fundamental beliefs of Islamcontains the fundamental beliefs of Islam  Mecca, Medina and Jerusulem are holyMecca, Medina and Jerusulem are holy citiescities  According to tradition, the Qur'an wasAccording to tradition, the Qur'an was dictated to Muhammaddictated to Muhammad  Two major sectsTwo major sects  Sunni-920 million people(everywhere else)Sunni-920 million people(everywhere else)  Shiite-120 million people(Iran)Shiite-120 million people(Iran)  Comparing the Sunni and Shiite branches ofComparing the Sunni and Shiite branches of IslamIslam
  30. 30. Islamic LawIslamic Law  The Sharia outlines all of the laws(comesThe Sharia outlines all of the laws(comes from the Koran)from the Koran)  5 Major Crimes:5 Major Crimes:  theft, highway robbery, intoxication, adulterytheft, highway robbery, intoxication, adultery and falsely accusing another of adulteryand falsely accusing another of adultery  Sharia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSharia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  31. 31. Food LawsFood Laws  Very similar laws to the Jewish kosherVery similar laws to the Jewish kosher foodsfoods  No alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fatNo alcohol, pork, blood, no pork fat products, scavenger animalsproducts, scavenger animals  Food must be prepared similarly to theFood must be prepared similarly to the JewsJews  Slice to the jugularSlice to the jugular  Drain bloodDrain blood
  32. 32. HinduismHinduism  Hinduism includes a very wide range ofHinduism includes a very wide range of beliefs and practices, so there aren't manybeliefs and practices, so there aren't many things that are common to all Hinduthings that are common to all Hindu groupsgroups  Hinduism has no founder, no single bookHinduism has no founder, no single book of faith, no creed, and no single source ofof faith, no creed, and no single source of authority(such as Jesus)authority(such as Jesus)  Hinduism is very individualistic but a bigHinduism is very individualistic but a big part of a personpart of a person’’s everyday lifes everyday life  There are 750 million Hindus in the world,There are 750 million Hindus in the world, mostly in Indiamostly in India
  33. 33.  For many Hindus, religion is a matter ofFor many Hindus, religion is a matter of practice rather than of beliefs. It's more whatpractice rather than of beliefs. It's more what you do than what you believe.you do than what you believe.  Behind Hindu practice is the belief that everyBehind Hindu practice is the belief that every soul is trapped in a cycle of birth-death-soul is trapped in a cycle of birth-death- rebirth(reincarnation). Every Hindu wants torebirth(reincarnation). Every Hindu wants to escape from this cycle.escape from this cycle.  Hindus aim to live in a way that will causeHindus aim to live in a way that will cause each of their lives to be better than the lifeeach of their lives to be better than the life before.before.  Whether one is reborn into a better life, aWhether one is reborn into a better life, a worse life, or even to live as an animal,worse life, or even to live as an animal, depends on Karma, which is the value of adepends on Karma, which is the value of a soul's good and bad deeds.soul's good and bad deeds.
  34. 34.  Dharma is aDharma is a ““cosmic natural lawcosmic natural law”” that forms the basisthat forms the basis for Hindu philosophies, beliefs and practices andfor Hindu philosophies, beliefs and practices and holds everything togetherholds everything together  People that live in harmony with Dharma proceedPeople that live in harmony with Dharma proceed more quickly toward Mokshamore quickly toward Moksha  Hindus ultimate aim is escape from the life cycleHindus ultimate aim is escape from the life cycle altogether and achieve the ultimate liberation—altogether and achieve the ultimate liberation— MokshaMoksha  Hindus believe the universe doesn't have a beginningHindus believe the universe doesn't have a beginning and an end. It's a cyclical pattern, so once it ends, itand an end. It's a cyclical pattern, so once it ends, it begins again.begins again.  One attains Moksha when one has "overcomeOne attains Moksha when one has "overcome ignorance" and no longer desires anything at all(andignorance" and no longer desires anything at all(and yes, that includes the desire for Moksha)yes, that includes the desire for Moksha)
  35. 35. Hindu BeliefsHindu Beliefs  All good things in life are gifts from GodAll good things in life are gifts from God  Finding out what your lifeFinding out what your life’’s calling is ass calling is as Dharma suggest/requires is a veryDharma suggest/requires is a very important goalimportant goal  Being a fair and decent person is veryBeing a fair and decent person is very importantimportant  Wealth, power and material belongingsWealth, power and material belongings are good goals as long as they donare good goals as long as they don’’tt become all importantbecome all important  Moksha is the ultimate goalMoksha is the ultimate goal
  36. 36. Four Stages of LifeFour Stages of Life 1.1. Ages 12-24 you get educated and trainedAges 12-24 you get educated and trained 2.2. Ages 24-48 you get married, raise a family,Ages 24-48 you get married, raise a family, make money, get involved in many thingsmake money, get involved in many things 3.3. Ages 48-72 you become a mentor to a youngAges 48-72 you become a mentor to a young person and start isolating themselves from theperson and start isolating themselves from the outside worldoutside world 4.4. At age 72 you end ties to the outside world andAt age 72 you end ties to the outside world and get rid of your worldly possessions. Prayer andget rid of your worldly possessions. Prayer and devotion become very important.devotion become very important.  Mostly aimed at men and is not followed asMostly aimed at men and is not followed as much as it used to bemuch as it used to be
  37. 37. Hindu GodsHindu Gods  One would think Hinduism is polytheistic. MostOne would think Hinduism is polytheistic. Most Hindus would say they worship one God.Hindus would say they worship one God.  There is only one ultimate God, Brahman, butThere is only one ultimate God, Brahman, but shows itself in many formsshows itself in many forms  The gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, forThe gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, for example, are different aspects of Brahman:example, are different aspects of Brahman:  BrahmaBrahma reflects God's divine work of creatingreflects God's divine work of creating the universethe universe  VishnuVishnu reflects God's work in keeping thereflects God's work in keeping the universe in existenceuniverse in existence  ShivaShiva reflects God's work in destroying itreflects God's work in destroying it
  38. 38. BuddhismBuddhism
  39. 39.  Founded in India around 500 BC byFounded in India around 500 BC by Siddhartha GuatamaSiddhartha Guatama  Became Buddha, the Enlightened One,Became Buddha, the Enlightened One, when he was 29when he was 29  He was trying to find the true meaning ofHe was trying to find the true meaning of life and eventually, through four trance-likelife and eventually, through four trance-like stages of meditation, he was enlightenedstages of meditation, he was enlightened to the Buddhist was of lifeto the Buddhist was of life  His main teachings was to eliminateHis main teachings was to eliminate human wants as they are the cause ofhuman wants as they are the cause of suffering in the worldsuffering in the world
  40. 40.  Buddhism has no unique creed, no single authorityBuddhism has no unique creed, no single authority and no single sacred bookand no single sacred book  Buddhism focuses on each individual seeking toBuddhism focuses on each individual seeking to attain enlightenmentattain enlightenment  Key beliefs and values are contained in "The FourKey beliefs and values are contained in "The Four Noble TruthsNoble Truths““  1. Life means suffering1. Life means suffering  2. The origin of suffering is attachment to worldly2. The origin of suffering is attachment to worldly thingsthings  3. The end to suffering is attainable through3. The end to suffering is attainable through eliminating physical wants/needseliminating physical wants/needs  Eventually can achieve Nirvana(no wind)Eventually can achieve Nirvana(no wind)  Nirvana means freedom from all worries and troublesNirvana means freedom from all worries and troubles
  41. 41.  4. The path to the end suffering and4. The path to the end suffering and achieve Nirvana is to follow theachieve Nirvana is to follow the Eight Fold PathEight Fold Path
  42. 42. Eight Fold PathEight Fold Path  1. Right View1. Right View  To see and view things as they really areTo see and view things as they really are  Attained true wisdomAttained true wisdom  2. Right Intention2. Right Intention  Think and do the right things at all timesThink and do the right things at all times  3. Right Speech3. Right Speech  Do not lie, curse, slander, or gossipDo not lie, curse, slander, or gossip  4. Right Action4. Right Action  Do not harm yourself or others, do not steal,Do not harm yourself or others, do not steal, and no sexual misconductand no sexual misconduct
  43. 43.  5. Right Livelihood5. Right Livelihood  No jobs dealing in weapons, in living beingsNo jobs dealing in weapons, in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well(including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution), working inas slave trade and prostitution), working in meat production and butchery, and sellingmeat production and butchery, and selling alcohol and drugsalcohol and drugs  6. Right Effort6. Right Effort  Give 100% effort in what you doGive 100% effort in what you do  7. Right Mindfulness7. Right Mindfulness  Having the power to control our thoughtHaving the power to control our thought process and see the truth behind thingsprocess and see the truth behind things  8. Right Concentration8. Right Concentration  Ability to have deep concentration and abilityAbility to have deep concentration and ability to focus on wholesome thoughts and actionsto focus on wholesome thoughts and actions
  44. 44. AssignmentAssignment  Try to follow BuddhistTry to follow Buddhist’’s Eight Fold Path fors Eight Fold Path for 48 hours.48 hours.  Blog your results. Did you make itBlog your results. Did you make it through? If so, was it tough? If not, whatthrough? If so, was it tough? If not, what made it challenging?made it challenging?

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