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is the study of the atmosphere and it's interaction with earth's surface. Ever since there have been people on earth, it has been someone's job to figure out the weather.
the word "meteorology" is from Greekμετέωρος, metéōros, "high in the sky"; and-λογία, -logia.
is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. There is also broad discussion of atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry, including such topics as air pollution, tropical cyclones, mid latitude weather. is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology). Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the eighteenth century. The nineteenth century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries. Breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved in the latter half of the twentieth century, after the development of the computer.
are scientists who study meteorology. Meteorologists work in government agencies, private consulting and research services, industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations, and in education.
are best-known for forecasting the weather. Many radio and television weather forecasters are professional meteorologists, while others are merely reporters with no formal meteorological training
micro-scale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena of about 1 km or less. Individual thunderstorms, clouds, and local turbulence caused by buildings and other obstacles, such as individual hills fall within this category.
is the study of atmospheric phenomena that has horizontal scales ranging from micro-scale limits to synoptic scale limits and a vertical scale that starts at the Earth's surface and includes the atmospheric boundary layer, troposphere, tropopause, and the lower section of the stratosphere. Meso-scale timescales last from less than a day to the lifetime of the event, which in some cases can be weeks.
meteorology can be divided into distinct areas of emphasis depending on the temporal scope and spatial scope of interest. At one extreme of this scale is climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology. Respectively, the geospatialsize of each of these three scales relates directly with the appropriate timescale. Other sub-classifications are available based on the need by or by the unique, local or broad effects that are studied within that sub-class.
is generally large area dynamics referred to in horizontal coordinates and with respect to time. The phenomena typically described by synoptic meteorologyinclude events like extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges, frontal zones, and to some extent jet streams. All of these are typically given on weather mapsfor a specific time. The minimum horizontal scale of synoptic phenomena is limited to the spacing between surface observation stations.
is study of weather patterns related to the transport of heat from the tropics to the poles. Also, very large scale oscillations are of importance. Global scale pushes the thresholds of the perception of meteorology into climatology. The traditional definition of climate is pushed in to larger timescales with the further understanding of how the global oscillations cause both climate and weather disturbances in the synoptic and meso-scale timescales.
is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since at least the nineteenth century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve.
deals with the impact of weather on air traffic management. It is important for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the Aeronautical Information Manual.
The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulative-thrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance. In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional drag by an equal percentage.
Meteorologists, soil scientists, agricultural hydrologists, and agronomists are persons concerned with studying the effects of weather and climate on plant distribution, crop yield, water-use efficiency, phenology of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of managed and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the role of vegetation on climate and weather.
is the branch of meteorology that deals with the hydrologic cycle, the water budget, and the rainfall statistics of storms. A hydro meteorologist prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating (quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically the range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology, meso-scale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences.
nuclear meteorology investigates the distribution of radioactiveaerosolsand gasesin the atmosphere.
deals with air and wave forecasts for ships operating at sea. Organizations such as the Ocean Prediction Center, Honolulu National Weather Service forecast office, United Kingdom Met Office, and JMA prepare high seas forecasts for the world's oceans.
Invention of Weather Instruments
are instruments used for measuring the pressure of the air in the atmosphere. They weren't invented until the 1840s—years after Franklin's time. High or rising pressure means that clear, sunny weather is expected, while falling or low pressure is a sign of rain or an approaching storm. As air pressure increases, it pushes down on a metal diaphragm, which in turn causes the indicating needle to move. This aneroid barometer was made in Germany and sits on an octagonal wooden base.
the simplest type of hygrometer, measures the relative humidity of the surrounding air by comparing the temperatures of one dry and one wet bulb thermometer. A small chain on the end of the wooden handle attaches the thermometers to each other. The psychrometer is spun around rapidly for a few minutes and readings are taken from the dry and wet bulbs. After these readings are taken, there is a scale that is used to correlate the readings. The relative humidity is read at the intersection of the RH scale and the wet bulb temperature.
is an instrument used to measure the moisture content or the humidity of air or any gas. The best known type of hygrometer is the "dry and wet-bulb psychrometer", best described as two mercury thermometers, one with a wetted base, one with a dry base. The water from the wet base evaporates and absorbs heat causing the thermometer reading to drop. Using a calculation table, the reading from the dry thermometer and the reading drop from the wet thermometer are used to determine the relative humidity.
some hygrometers use the measurements of changes in electrical resistance, using a thin piece of lithium chloride or other semiconductor devices and measuring the resistance which is affected by humidity.Leonardo da Vinci built the first crude hygrometer in the 1400s. Francesco Folli invented a more practical hygrometer in 1664.
measure temperature, by using materials that change in some way when they are heated or cooled. In a mercury or alcohol thermometer the liquid expands as it is heated and contracts when it is cooled, so the length of the liquid column is longer or shorter depending on the temperature. Modern thermometersare calibrated in standard temperature units such as Fahrenheit or Celsius.
was invented in the fourth month of 1441. The invention of the rain gauge in Korea came two hundred years before inventor Christopher Wren created a rain gauge (tipping bucket rain gauge circa 1662) in Europe. One source has is that the son of King Sejong the Great, who reigned the Choson Dynasty from 1418 to 145, invented the first rain gauge. King Sejong sought ways to improve agricultural technology to provide his subjects with adequate food and clothing.
In improving agricultural technology, Sejong contributed to the sciences of astronomy and meteorology (weather). He invented a calendar for the Korean people and ordered the development of accurate clocks. Droughts plagued the kingdom and King Sejong directed every village to measure the amount of rainfall.
Barometers Evangelista Torricelli is credited with inventing the barometer in 1643 to measure air pressure, but both Giovanni Battista Baliani in 1630 and René Descartes in 1631 had postulated a version of the barometer even earlier than that. GasperoBerti, who had heard from Galileo about the design written down by Baliani, attempted to experiment with water in a vacuum between 1639 and 1641 to explain why pumps would not draw water above a certain height. Torricelli, however, approached it from a different angle and recognized that air had weight; he also recognized that mercury in a barometer was a suitable replacement for water. Years later, Blaise Pascal and Florin Périer refined the design.