Intonation Intonation Pitch Tone Functions of the tone The tone unit Structure of the tone unit Falling and rising Functions of Intonation
Intonation No language is spoken on a monotone Languages have variations of pitch English intonation: pitch patterns of spoken English; the speech tunes or melodies; the musical features of English Intonation is significant Intonation is systematic Intonation is characteristic Because word/sentence stress involves changes in voice pitch, speakers continually modify the fundamental frequency of their voice while speaking in order to stress particular words in an utterance.
The modification of voice pitch is known as intonationA speaker’s intonation pattern cues a listener as to the type of utterance being spoken, i.e., a statement of fact, a question, an exclamation, etc. Intonation is also responsible, in part, for indicating a speaker’s particular mood. Intonation is different from stress, however there are relations between them. Range of intonation varies.
Pitch Auditory sensation experienced by the hearer An individual speaker does have control over his/her pitch and may choose to speak with a higher pitch than normalPitch: High or Low
Tone Behaviour of the pitch One-syllable words can be said with level tone or moving tone, however, English speakers do not use level tones. It sounds unnatural. Tone Languages imply meaning: Mandarin Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese The tones are falling, rising, fall-rise, rise-fall Representation of tones.
Structure of the tone unit Nucleus (Tonic syllable) Tail Head Pre-head
Functions of the English tone Fall ˎyes ˎno Rise ̗yes ̗no Rise-fall yes ̭no ̭ Level _yes _no
Falling and Rising Falling intonation or tune Statements Questions containing a special interrogative word Commands
Rising Intonation Questions requiring the answer “yes” or “no” First part of sentences Statements with an implication
Functions of Intonation Attitudinal function Accentual function Grammatical function Discourse function
Bibliography• Allen, W Stannard. Living English Speech, 1954• Celce Murcia, et al. Teaching Pronunciation, 1996• Finch and Ortiz. A course in English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers, 1982• Jones, Daniel. An Outline of English Phonetics, 1967• Roach, Peter. English Phonetics and Phonology, 2000• Wells, J C. English Intonation. 2007