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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1   The World of Psycholo...
Effective Study Practices <ul><li>Establish a quiet place, free of distractions, where you do nothing but study.  </li></u...
How Much Do You Know About Psychology? <ul><li>Once damaged, brain cells never work again. </li></ul><ul><li>All people dr...
An Introduction to  the World of Psychology  <ul><li>Definition of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study o...
Steps in the Scientific Method <ul><li>Observe and theorize </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Des...
The Scientific Method <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General principle or set of principles proposed to explain how ...
The Scientific Method Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells what occurred as accurately and completely as possible...
Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted to seek new knowledge and explore and advance g...
Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The father” of psychology </li></ul></ul></...
Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An early school of psychology concerned with how humans and...
Pioneering Women <ul><li>Christine Ladd-Franklin  (1847-1930)  </li></ul><ul><li>Completed PhD in the mid 1880’s at John H...
Pioneering Women <ul><li>Mary Whiton Calkins   </li></ul><ul><li>(1863-1930)   </li></ul><ul><li>Completed the requirement...
Pioneering Women <ul><li>Margaret Floy Washburn   </li></ul><ul><li>(1871-1939)  </li></ul><ul><li>Received her PhD from C...
African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Francis Cecil Sumner  (1895-1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “father” of African...
African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Albert Sidney Beckham   </li></ul><ul><li>(1897-1964),  </li></ul><ul><li>A not...
African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Kenneth Clark </li></ul><ul><li>Recent African American psychologist </li></ul>...
African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>George Sanchez  (1906-1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic American psychologist </l...
Native American & Asian Psychologists   <ul><li>Fastest growing minority group </li></ul><ul><li>Percentages of doctorates...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>The Founders of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>John B. Watson  -  Behaviorism  </li...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views observable, measurable behavior as the ap...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Term Freud used for his personality theory and t...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on uniqueness of human beings and...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Views humans as active participants in the...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Gestalt Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals perceive objects and patterns as...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Information-Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Studies mental structures and pro...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Studies how humans have adapted the beh...
Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Sociocultural Approach  </li></ul><ul><li>View that social and cultural factors m...
Evaluating Theories <ul><li>Useful theories lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testable hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Evaluating Research <ul><li>Goal:   equip students with tools needed to evaluate claims based on psychological research </...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Research methods that yield descriptions of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic o...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>The Case Study   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single person or a small number of individua...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews or questionnaires are used to gather...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Interviews and Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resu...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>The Correlational Method </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes the degree of relationship (co...
Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Correlational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation does not prove causation </li></u...
The Experimental Method <ul><li>Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><li>The only research method to identify cause-effect re...
The Experimental Method <ul><li>Independent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A factor or condition deliberately manipulated...
The Experimental Method <ul><li>Experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group that is exposed to an independent varia...
Sources of Bias in Research <ul><li>Confounding variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraneous variables (time of day, type of...
Sources of Bias in Research <ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The phenomenon that occurs when a participant‘s r...
Protecting Research Participant’s Rights <ul><li>Legality:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research must conform to applicable law...
Protecting Research Participant’s Rights <ul><li>Clients, patients, students, and subordinates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steps...
Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Specialties in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in dia...
Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Counseling   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help people who have adjustment problems (marital, social...
Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study how people grow, develop, and change throughout li...
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  • 1.1 What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.1 What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.1 What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.1 What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.1 What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.2 What are the goals of psychology?
  • 1.2 What are the goals of psychology?
  • 1.3 What roles did Wundt and Titchener play in the founding of psychology?
  • 1.4 Why is functionalism important in the history of psychology?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.5 In what ways have women and minorities shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
  • 1.6 Schools of thought in psychology
  • 1.6 How do behaviorists explain behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.7 What do psychoanalytic psychologists believe about the role of the unconscious?
  • 1.8 According to Maslow and Rogers, what motivates human behavior and mental processes?
  • 1.9 What is the focus of cognitive psychology?
  • 1.9 What is the focus of cognitive psychology?
  • 1.9 What is the focus of cognitive psychology?
  • 1.9 What is the focus of cognitive psychology?
  • 1.14 How do psychologists evaluate theories?
  • 1.15 How can critical thinking be used to interpret media reports of psychological research?
  • 1.16 How do psychological researchers use naturalistic and laboratory observation?
  • 1.17 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study?
  • 1.18 How do researchers ensure that survey results are useful?
  • 1.18 How do researchers ensure that survey results are useful?
  • 1.19 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the correlational method?
  • 1.19 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the correlational method?
  • 1.20 Why do researchers use experiments to test hypotheses about cause-effect relationships?
  • 1.21 How do independent and dependent variables differ?
  • 1.22 Why are experimental and control groups necessary?
  • 1.26 What ethical rules must researchers follow when humans are involved in studies?
  • 1.26 What ethical rules must researchers follow when humans are involved in studies?
  • 1.28 Who are some of the specialists working within psychology?
  • 1.28 Who are some of the specialists working within psychology?
  • 1.29 What kinds of employment opportunities are available for psychology majors?
  • Transcript of "Wood lec ppt_01"

    1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 The World of Psychology Seventh Edition Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd
    2. 2. Effective Study Practices <ul><li>Establish a quiet place, free of distractions, where you do nothing but study. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule your study time. </li></ul><ul><li>Set specific goals for yourself each week and for each study session. </li></ul><ul><li>The more active a role you play in learning, the more you will remember. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use flash cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlearning means studying beyond the point which you can just barely recite the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting takes place most rapidly within 24 hours, always review shortly before tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping immediately after studying will help you retain more of what you have learned. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. How Much Do You Know About Psychology? <ul><li>Once damaged, brain cells never work again. </li></ul><ul><li>All people dream during a night of normal sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the time it takes for the victim to get help decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans do not have a maternal instinct. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s impossible for human beings to hear a watch ticking 20 feet away. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyewitness testimony is often unreliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Chimpanzees have been taught to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and high intelligence do not necessarily go together. </li></ul><ul><li>When it comes to close personal relationships, opposites attract. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of teenagers have a good relationship with their parents. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. An Introduction to the World of Psychology <ul><li>Definition of Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify a research problem, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>design a study to investigate the problem, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collect and analyze data, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>draw conclusions, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and communicate their findings. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Steps in the Scientific Method <ul><li>Observe and theorize </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Design a study </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Apply results to the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of repeating a study with different participants and, preferably, a different investigator to verify research findings </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. The Scientific Method Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells what occurred as accurately and completely as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An understanding of conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed by ruling in or out alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Identify all antecedent conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply principle prevents unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Basic Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted to seek new knowledge and explore and advance general scientific understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Exploring Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The father” of psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure sensations are basic elements of consciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Edward Titchener </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established Psychology lab in U.S. at Cornell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness reduced to basic elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First formal school of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endeavored to analyze basic elements of conscious mental experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Psychology’s Roots <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An early school of psychology concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included study of behavior, children, animals, and individuals w/ impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First American psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught mental processes are fluid with continuity not rigid, fixed, or structured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution theory as applied to psychology </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Pioneering Women <ul><li>Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed PhD in the mid 1880’s at John Hopkins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not receive her degree until 1926 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulated a well-regarded, evolutionary theory of color vision </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Pioneering Women <ul><li>Mary Whiton Calkins </li></ul><ul><li>(1863-1930) </li></ul><ul><li>Completed the requirements for a doctorate at Harvard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard refused to grant the degree. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley College </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the paired associates test </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Pioneering Women <ul><li>Margaret Floy Washburn </li></ul><ul><li>(1871-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Received her PhD from Cornell University </li></ul><ul><li>Taught at Vasser College </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The Animal Mind (1908) and Movement and Mental Imagery (1916) </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 15. African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Francis Cecil Sumner (1895-1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “father” of African-American psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translated French, German, and Spanish articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaired psychology department at Howard University </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Albert Sidney Beckham </li></ul><ul><li>(1897-1964), </li></ul><ul><li>A notable African American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Established first psychological laboratory at a Black institution of higher learning – Howard University. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted impressive studies on intelligence and how it related to occupational fields </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>Kenneth Clark </li></ul><ul><li>Recent African American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>National recognition for writings on the harmful effects of racial segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Writings affected Supreme Court rulings declaring rational segregation unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>Published classic writings on racial identification and self-esteem with his wife, Mamie Phipps Clark </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. African Americans and Other Groups <ul><li>George Sanchez (1906-1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Studied bias in intelligence testing during the 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Pointed out that cultural and language differences work against Hispanic students when they take IQ tests </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Native American & Asian Psychologists <ul><li>Fastest growing minority group </li></ul><ul><li>Percentages of doctorates doubled from mid 1970s to mid 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Marigold Linton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researches autobiographical memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard Suinn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminent research in behavioral psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Asian American president of American Psychological Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More women obtain degrees in psychology than men </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>The Founders of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>John B. Watson - Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow & Rogers - Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>George Miller - Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Wertheimer - Gestalt </li></ul><ul><li>Buss - Evolutionary </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views observable, measurable behavior as the appropriate subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes environment as key role in as determinant of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped establish psychology as a science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by John B. Watson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors best understood by analyzing conditions before they occur and consequences that follow them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coined phrase operant conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Term Freud used for his personality theory and treatment of disorders </li></ul><ul><li>The unconscious is primary focus of psychoanalytic theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Freudian slip” commonly known </li></ul><ul><li>NeoFreudians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed own personality theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influential in psychology though research volume diminishes </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health </li></ul><ul><li>Rejects behavioral and psychoanalytic views </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes positive view of human nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are innately good and posses free will </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important in research of human motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed client-centered therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularized group therapy </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Views humans as active participants in their environment </li></ul><ul><li>One of the prominent theories of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Studies mental processes, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other forms of cognition </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Gestalt Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units. </li></ul><ul><li>The perceived whole is more than a sum of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Phi phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>The mind interprets experiences in predictable ways rather than simply reacting to them. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Information-Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Studies mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for human thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The brain processes information in sequential steps, one step at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain interprets information – doesn’t just respond to it </li></ul><ul><li>Associations between new input and previously acquired knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Research artificial intelligence </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Evolutionary Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (Physiological) Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for links between specific behaviors and specific biological processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Combines the work of psychologists, biologists, biochemists, medical researchers, and others and studies the structure and function of the nervous system. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. Schools of Thought in Psychology <ul><li>Sociocultural Approach </li></ul><ul><li>View that social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>General points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking, whether normal or abnormal. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. Evaluating Theories <ul><li>Useful theories lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testable hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of solutions to real-world problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spur creativity and curiosity through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated debate among psychologists and researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating proponents and opponents to pursue research related to it </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. Evaluating Research <ul><li>Goal: equip students with tools needed to evaluate claims based on psychological research </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not automatically accepting what is read or heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension of judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering relevant information on all sides prior to taking a position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating new evidence even if it contradicts held beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    31. 31. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Research methods that yield descriptions of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting with out influencing or controlling it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observer bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations influence observations or interpretations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must wait for behaviors to occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Laboratory observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior studied in a laboratory setting allowing more control and use of precise instruments </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 32. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>The Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single person or a small number of individuals are studied in great depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually done over an extended period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses observations, interviews, or psychological testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of behavior difficult to establish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observer bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicability to larger groups or different cultures questionable </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    33. 33. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Survey Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews or questionnaires are used to gather information about attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire group of interest to researchers to which they wish to generalize their findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample that mirrors the population of interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes subgroups in the same proportion as found in the population </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    34. 34. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Interviews and Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results can be affected by wording, content, and interviewer characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires are less expensive and can gather information from large groups quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not meet scientific scrutiny </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly and time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty information may be gathered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Social desirability response” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberately provide misleading information </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    35. 35. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>The Correlational Method </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes the degree of relationship (correlation) between two characteristics, events, or behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A numerical value that indicates strength and direction of the relationship between variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from +1.00 (perfect positive correlation) to -1.00 (a perfect negative correlation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two variables vary in same direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When stress increases illness usually increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One value’s increase associated with decrease in another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number cigarettes smokes and years expected to live </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    36. 36. Descriptive Research Methods <ul><li>Correlational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation does not prove causation </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates the strength of a relationship between two variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from +1.00 to -1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical reasons don’t allow direct studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables of interest can’t be manipulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time consuming to conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlational studies are often less complex </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    37. 37. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Experimental Method </li></ul><ul><li>The only research method to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more variables or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A prediction about cause-effect relationship between two or more variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    38. 38. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Independent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A factor or condition deliberately manipulated to determine whether it causes changes in another behavior or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher deliberately manipulates the IV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is measured at the end of the experiment </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    39. 39. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Experimental group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group that is exposed to an independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group similar to the experimental group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to the same experimental environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not given the IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for comparison purposes </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    40. 40. Sources of Bias in Research <ul><li>Confounding variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraneous variables (time of day, type of subject, experimenter bias) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignments to groups so systematic differences are present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All participants have equal chance of being assigned to each condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response to treatment is due to a person’s expectations not the treatment itself </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    41. 41. Sources of Bias in Research <ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The phenomenon that occurs when a participant‘s response to a treatment is due to their expectations about the treatment rather than the treatment itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placebo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inert substance given to control group to control for placebo effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimenter bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental results influenced by the researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double-blind procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither researchers nor participants are aware of who is in control of experimental groups </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    42. 42. Protecting Research Participant’s Rights <ul><li>Legality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>research must conform to applicable laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional approval: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>required clearance from institution/school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informed Consent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participants must be informed of the purpose and any potential harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deception: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only used when necessary and no other means available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debriefing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participants are informed of any deception after end of research </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    43. 43. Protecting Research Participant’s Rights <ul><li>Clients, patients, students, and subordinates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>steps used to assure participants are not damaged in any way by participating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Payment for participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fully informed what is expected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>findings must be made available to others for verification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of animals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>required adherence to laws and appropriate care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimization of discomfort: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethical duty to minimize discomfort to animals and to euthanize in humane manner when necessary </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    44. 44. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Specialties in Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in diagnosis and treatment of learning and behavioral problems that interfere with learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forensic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply their training in clinical psychology to issues involving psychology and the law </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    45. 45. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help people who have adjustment problems (marital, social, or behavioral) that are generally less severe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological, Biological, or Neuropsychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study the relationship between physiological processes and behavior in humans and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct experiments, work in laboratories, teach and conduct research at colleges or universities </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    46. 46. Psychologists at Work <ul><li>Developmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study how people grow, develop, and change throughout life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialize in teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How individuals feel, think, and behave in social settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between people and work environments </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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