SEEMP - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability
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SEEMP - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability

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Single European Employment Market Place EU Project - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability

Single European Employment Market Place EU Project - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability

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SEEMP - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability SEEMP - Semantic Aspects and Interoperability Presentation Transcript

  • Semantic Aspects and Interoperability Boris Villazón-Terrazas1, Asunción Gómez-Pérez1, Jaime Ramírez1, and Mick Kerrigan2 1 Ontology Engineering Group. Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial Facultad de Informática Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Campus de Montegancedo sn, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain 2 DERI, University of Innsbruck Technikerstraße 21a, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
  • Scenario p ES Vacan. Cand. q ES J r ES o EURES ESES (Int) n ES Cand. Cand. m ES l Catalonia ESES (Es) Vacan. Cand. h ES a ES b ES ES Employment Service Cand. Cand. Job Seeker’s Candidacy Vacan. Vacan. K i ES Lombard ES (It) LEGENDA Vacan. Employer Job Vacancy c ES L d ES K Private g ES ES (Int) Wallonia e ESES (Be) f ES Vacan. 2
  • Table of Contents 1. Reference Ontology 2. Local Ontologies 3. Mappings Local Ontologies - ES Data Sources 4. Mappings Reference Ontology - Local Ontologies ES Data Sources ES Data Sources M ES M M M M Data Sources M Reference Ontology M M M M M ES ? Data Sources ES M Data Sources M M Data Sources ES Data Sources ES 3
  • Repositories & libraries ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … RDF(S) ES Data Sources OWL Building Reference Ontology Building Local Ontologies Building Mappings L.O. - ES Data Sources Mappings L.O. - ES Data Sources Local Ontologies Reference Ontology Mappings R.O. - L.O. Building Mappings R.O. - L.O. 4
  • Building Reference Ontology Methodology Repositories & libraries RDF(S) ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … OWL Selection Evaluate Import Import RDF(S) Conceptualize Specify Knowledge Acquisition Integrate Prune Evaluate Use Implement WSML Extend OWL Specialize 5
  • Reference Ontology Construction Specification of the Reference Ontology 60 Competency questions grouped into 5 categories n  n  n  n  n  Job Seeker (12) Job Offer (12) Time and date management (7) Currencies (4) General (25) Given the job offer profile (job, contract type, salary, work condition) and the required profile to seek (required education level, required work experience, required knowledge, required skills), what job seekers are the most appropriate? Each organization has job offers for job seekers Vocabulary: Questions: contract type, salary, work condition, job seeker, job offer, … Answers: autonomous, 3000 euro, holliday job, … Classes: Contract Type, Compensation, Work Condition, Job Seeker, Job Offer … Relations: has job category, has compensation, requires work experience … Attributes: Name, date of birth, email … 6
  • Building Reference Ontology Methodology Repositories & libraries RDF(S) ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … OWL Selection Evaluate Import Import RDF(S) Conceptualize Specify Knowledge Acquisition Integrate Prune Evaluate Use Implement WSML Extend OWL Specialize 7
  • Reference Ontology Construction Standards and Taxonomies Selection n  We select the most appropriate standards and taxonomies for: n  Occupation Classification ISCO-88 (COM), SOC, ISCO-88, ONET,Eures Taxonomy n  Classification of Economic Activities ISIC Rev. 3.1, NACE Rev. 1.1, NAICS n  Apprenticeship classifications ISCED 97, FOET n  Currency Classification ISO 4217 n  Geography Classification ISO 3166 n  Language Classification ISO 6392 n  Driving License Classification European Legislation n  Skill Classification Eures Taxonomy n  Contract Types Classification LE FOREM, Eures and BLL Classification n  Work Condition Classification LE FOREM, Eures and BLL Classification n  The IDABC1 identifies as one of the successsful factors at facilitating the development of pan-European interoperable information systems: n  “Identify, reuse and extend existing assets (taxonomies, thesauri, etc.)” (1) -> IDABC Content Interoperability Strategy. Working paper. Sep 2005. pag 6 8
  • Building Reference Ontology Methodology Repositories & libraries RDF(S) ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … OWL Selection Evaluate Import Import RDF(S) Conceptualize Specify Knowledge Acquisition Integrate Prune Evaluate Use Implement WSML Extend OWL Specialize 9
  • Building Reference Ontology Evaluating Time Ontologies 1. Using the competency questions, we have identified temporal properties n  n  n  n  n  n  n  When the job seeker completed his/her first degree? Is the job seeker older than 30 years? How much time did the job seeker spend completing his/her first degree? How long is the duration of the contract? Which job offers were posted in last 24 hours? Which job offers were posted in last 7 days? Which job offers were posted in last month? 2. Result : DAML Time Ontology Time Points Cyc’s Upper Ontology Unrestricted Time Ontology Simple Time Ontology Time Points Time Interval Distinction between open and closed intervals Absolute and Relative Time Explicit modeling of proper intervals Relations between time intervals Concatenation of intervals Convex and non convex intervals Different temporal granularities Reusable Time Ontology Kestrel Time Ontology SRI’s SUMO Time DAML Time AKT Time Time Ontology Ontology Ontology Ontology Time Interval Absolute and Relative Time Relations between time intervals Convex and non convex intervals Distinction between open and closed intervals Explicit modeling of proper intervals Concatenation of intervals Different temporal granularities Provides axioms 10
  • Building Reference Ontology Methodology Repositories & libraries RDF(S) ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … OWL Selection Evaluate Import Import RDF(S) Conceptualize Specify Knowledge Acquisition Integrate Prune Evaluate Use Implement WSML Extend OWL Specialize 11
  • Building Reference Ontology EURES Reference Ontology ISCO-88 COM CEF ONET ISO 6392 EURES Language Ontology Skill Ontology Occupation Ontology EURES LE FOREM + BLL + EURES has c o is ass ntract type ociate / d to subClass-Of has w ork c ondit ion / Labour is as socia has ted to co n t Regulatory ract type Ontology / is a ssoc iated has with work is as cond soci ition ated with / Competence Ontology mpetence requires co d with is associate / Job Offer Ontology ISO 3166 ate is loc d in / ociate is ass lo has d with catio has lary / a has s d to ociate is ass Job Seeker Ontology n natio sso / is a ciate d wi / is n from ality n resid es in / is Geography Ontology th ation of en resid ce o DAML Time Ontology f has date of birth / is date of birth of Time Ontology European Legislation Driving License Ontology Economic Activity Ontology date / has begin te of da is begin FOET ISCED97 has a is as ctivity s e soci ated ctor / with Compensation Ontology r/ ecto ity s with activ d has sociate is as subClass-Of has a is as ctivity s e soci ated ctor / with ISO 4217 Education Ontology Ad hoc wrapper External Sources NACE Rev. 1.1 12
  • Building Reference Ontology Job Seeker and Job Offer has education / is education of has competence / is competence of has mother language / is mother tongue of speaks / is spoken by Language Job Seeker Ontology has nationality from / is nation of has candidacy/ belongs to has job category / resides in / is residence of has work experience / belongs to Candidacy has objective / belongs to is associated with Competence has work condition / is associated to has contract type / has compensation / is associated to is associated with / is associated to has location Language Ontology Job Seeker Offered Work Experience Objective has job category / is associated with Computing Professionals subClass-Of is associated with Occupation Education Ontology Labour Regulatory Ontology Work Condition has compensation / is associated with Compensation Compensation Ontology Country has work condition / is associated with Job Offer Ontology has contract type / is associated with Contract Type has location / is location of Organization has job vacancy/ belongs to Geography Ontology Job Vacancy Location has activity sector / is associated with Sector is located in / is associated with Requested Work Experience is associated with / requires work experience has activity sector / is associated with has job category requires competence / is associated with Competence Ontology subClass-Of ICT Objective requires education / is associated with Education has activity sector / is associated with Occupation Ontology Economic Activity Ontology has activity sector / is associated with has job category/ is associated with has vacancy/ belongs to Vacancy subClass-Of ICT Vacancy has job category/ is associated with has job category / is associated with 13
  • Building Reference Ontology Conceptualization Modular approach for ontology construction Reusability Usability - + Application Domain O. : Job Seeker, Job Offer Domain O.: Economic Activity, Occupation, Education, Skill, Driving License, Compensation, Labour Regulatory, Competence General/Common Ontologies: Time, Geography, Language + Representation Ontology: WSML 14
  • Building Reference Ontology Semiautomatic Ontology Construction EURES Taxonomy Oracle DB ONET HTML ISCO-88 (COM) MS Access Integrate Extend Specialize Prune Ad hoc wrapper WSML exporter Occupation Ontology 15
  • Repositories & libraries ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … RDF(S) ES Data Sources OWL Building Reference Ontology Building Local Ontologies Reference Ontology 16
  • Building Local Ontologies Local Ontologies Building Process n  Option 1:Building Local Ontologies from the Reference Ontology. Specialize Reference Ontology Resultant Local Ontology Extend Prune n  Option 2:Building Local Ontologies as a reverse engineering process from ES Data Sources. Resultant Local Ontology ES Data Sources Reverse Engineering 17
  • Building Local Ontologies Comparison between the options Option 1: Building Local Ontologies from the Reference Ontology. Option 2: Building Local Ontologies as a reverse engineering process from ES Data Sources. Mappings between Local Ontologies and Reference Ontology Mappings are not complex. They use the same terms. Complex mappings due to terminology heterogeneity. Mappings between Local Ontologies and ES schema sources Complex mappings due to terminology and structural heterogeneity. Mappings are not complex. They use the same terms. Building process Structured/guided by the architecture of the Reference Ontology and scoped with applications needs. Requires more sophistication of knowledge engineering and good acquaintance of all the data and their structures of the application. Changes in the Reference Ontology Imply changes in · the mappings between local and reference ontologies. · the mappings between the local ontologies and the ES schema sources. · the Local Ontology. Imply changes in · the mappings between Local Ontologies and the Reference Ontology. Changes in the ES schema sources Imply changes in · its Local Ontology (probably the part that is not a mirror of the Reference Ontology). · the mappings between Local Ontologies and ES schema sources. · in the mappings between Local Ontology and the Reference Ontology. Imply changes in · the Local Ontologies. · in mappings between ES sources and Local Ontologies. · mappings between local and the Reference Ontology. 18
  • Building Local Ontologies Approach followed by SEEMP for building Local Ontologies A hybrid approach n  Option 1 for Job Seeker and Job Offer Ontologies n  Option 2 for Occupation, Education, etc. Skill Education Economic Activity Job Offer Reference Ontology Reverse Engineering Occupation Ontology Job Seeker Ontology ES Occupation Taxonomy Integrate Local Ontology 19
  • Repositories & libraries ISCO-88 (COM), ONET, EURES taxonomy, FOET, ISCED97, NACE, ISO 4217, ISO 3166, ISO 6392, HR-XML, … RDF(S) ES Data Sources OWL Building Reference Ontology Building Local Ontologies Building Mappings L.O. - ES Data Sources Mappings L.O. - ES Data Sources Local Ontologies Reference Ontology Mappings R.O. - L.O. Building Mappings R.O. - L.O. 20
  • Building Mappings Local Ontologies – Reference Ontology SEEMP Connector Architecture EMPAM WSMT Exposed EMPAM Web Services WSML (Reference Ontology) Exposed Connector Web Services Reference Ontology WSML (Reference Ontology) Data Mediator Mediation Mappings Mappings WSML (Local Ontology) XML to WSML Converter X2O Mappings Mappings XML Exposed Connector Web Services XML Exposed PES Web Services PES Local Ontology XMapster Mapping Editor 21
  • Building Mappings Local Ontologies – Reference Ontology Tools for Creating and Testing Mappings 22
  • 1. Reference Ontology 2. Local Ontologies 3. Mappings Local Ontologies - ES Data Sources 4. Mappings Reference Ontology - Local Ontologies ES Data Sources ES Data Sources M ES M M M M Data Sources M Reference Ontology M M M M M ES Data Sources ES M Data Sources M M Data Sources ES Data Sources ES 23
  • Semantic Aspects and Interoperability Boris Villazón-Terrazas1, Asunción Gómez-Pérez1, Jaime Ramírez1, and Mick Kerrigan2 1 Ontology Engineering Group. Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial Facultad de Informática Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Campus de Montegancedo sn, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain 2 DERI, University of Innsbruck Technikerstraße 21a, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria