A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontologicalResources for Building Ontologies         Boris Villazón-Terrazas  ...
Outline     2
IntroductionNACE                 3
Introduction                                   GoalTo speed up the ontology          up the development by reusing    and ...
Introduction    Overview – Methodologies for building ontologiesFrom scratch• METHONTOLOGY [Gómez-Pérez et al. 2003]• On-T...
Introduction                                          The role of PatternsArchitecture [Alexander 1979]Software engineerin...
Introduction        Apply software re-engineering concepts to Ontology Engineering                      Software A Softwar...
Outline     8
State of the Art              9
State of the Art                                                                    Software re-engineering model         ...
State of the Art                                                                                       Ontology Patterns  ...
State of the Art             12
State of the Art                                                            Evaluation frameworkNon ontological resourceNo...
State of the Art                                                                                                          ...
State of the Art                                                                                                          ...
State of the Art                                                                                                          ...
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies
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A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies

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To speed up the ontology development by reusing and re-engineering
non-ontological resources that have already reached some consensus by standardization bodies.

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A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies

  1. 1. A Method for Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontologicalResources for Building Ontologies Boris Villazón-Terrazas bvillazon@fi.upm.es 14th April, 2011
  2. 2. Outline 2
  3. 3. IntroductionNACE 3
  4. 4. Introduction GoalTo speed up the ontology up the development by reusing and re‐engineering and re‐non‐non‐ontological resourcesthat have already reached  some consensus by  b standardization bodies 4
  5. 5. Introduction Overview – Methodologies for building ontologiesFrom scratch• METHONTOLOGY [Gómez-Pérez et al. 2003]• On-To-Knowledge [Staab et al. 2001]• DILIGENT [Pinto et al. 2004]NeOn Methodology [Suárez-Figueroa 2010] [Suárez Figueroa 5
  6. 6. Introduction The role of PatternsArchitecture [Alexander 1979]Software engineering [Tichy 1997]Knowledge engineering [Clark et al 2000] al.Ontology engineering gy g g• Semantic-Web Best Practices and Deployment Working Group• Ontology Design Patterns Public Catalog• Ontology Design Patterns Portal• Linked Data Patterns 6
  7. 7. Introduction Apply software re-engineering concepts to Ontology Engineering Software A Software Software Development Save resources SEngineering Process P Software B Software Re‐ Save time engineering Patterns Classification Scheme Thesaurus Lexicon Ontology Glossary y Ontology Save resources Development l Engineering Folksonomy Process Save time Ontology Re‐ engineering Patterns Reach consensus 7
  8. 8. Outline 8
  9. 9. State of the Art 9
  10. 10. State of the Art Software re-engineering model (Alteration) Reverse Con- Con- Forward re-think Engineering ceptual ceptual t l Engineering (Abstraction) Requirements re-specify Requirements (Refinement) Design re-design Design Implementation re-code Implementation Existing System Target SystemSoftware re-engineering Patterns describe how to change a legacy system into a new,refactored system that fits current conditions and requirements [Pooley et al. 1998] E.J. Byrne. A conceptual foundation for software re-engineering. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, pages 226–235. IEEE Computer Society, 1992. 10
  11. 11. State of the Art Ontology Patterns Online cataloguesSemanticWeb Best Ontology Design Ontology Design Practices and Patterns Public Patterns (ODP) Linked Data PatternsDeploymentWorking Catalog Portal Group Lack f tt L k of patterns f re-engineering resources i t ontologies for i i into t l i http://ontologydesignpatterns.org 11
  12. 12. State of the Art 12
  13. 13. State of the Art Evaluation frameworkNon ontological resourceNon-ontological• type• data model• implementationReuse• methodological guidelines• tool support• provenanceTransformation• approach: ABox,TBox or Population• semantic/syntactic level semantic/s ntactic le el• makes explicit the semantics hidden in the relations• relies on additional resources or human domain expert• automatic / semiautomatic / manual• methodological guidelines• t h i l techniques employed dOntology• lightweight or heavyweight• implementation language• single or several 13
  14. 14. State of the Art 18 methods & 13 toolsNon-ontological resource Reuse Type of Data Resource Methodological Tool Provenance model Research work Guidelines Support Research work resource is known implemented in Hepp et al. [HdB07] Classification No Database Hepp et al. [HdB07] No No No scheme, the- Hakkarainen et al. No No No sauri [HHST06] Hakkarainen et al. Classification Yes Flat file Abbasi et al. [ASC07] No No No [HHST06] scheme Maala et al. [MDA07] No No No Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Folksonomy No Not mentioned Maala et al. [MDA07] Folksonomy No Not mentioned Van Assem et al. No No Yes van Assem et al. Lexica Yes Prolog [vAGS06] [vAGS06] Gangemi et al. [GNV03, No No No Gangemi et al. [GNV03, Lexica Yes Database GGMO03] GGMO03] Hahn et al. [Hah03, HS03] No No No Hahn et al. [Hah03, HS03] Thesauri Yes ASCII files Van Assem et al. No No No Van Assem et al. Thesauri No proprietary text [vAMSW04] format, database, [vAMSW04] XML van Assem et al. No No No Van Assem et al. Thesauri No Not mentioned [vAMMS06] [vAMMS06] Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] No No No Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] Thesauri Yes XML Hyvonen et al. [HVTS08] ¨ No No No Hyvonen et al. [HVTS08] ¨ Thesauri No Not mentioned Soergel et al. [SLL+ 04, Thesauri Yes Database Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, No No No LS06] LS06] Stojanovic et al. [SSV02] Not specified Yes Database Stojanovic et al. [SSV02] No No No Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, Not specified Yes Database Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, No No No Bar07] Bar07] Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı Not specified No XML Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı No No No An et al. [AM05] Not specified No XML An et al. [AM05] No No No Cruz et al. [CXH04] Not specified No XML Foxvog et al. [FB06] Not specified No Flat file Cruz et al. [CXH04] No No No   Foxvog et al. [FB06] No No No  TransformationT f i Ontology O t l Research work Transformat Transformation Semantics of Additional Automatic / Methodological Technique Tool support Lightweight/ Components Implementation Single/ Approach Aspects NOR relations Resources / Semi- Guidelines Research Work Heavyweight language Several Domain automatic / Hepp et al. [HdB07] Lightweight classes, relations RDF(S) / OWL Single Expert Manual DLP Hepp et al. [HdB07] TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned SKOS2GenTax Hakkarainen et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, OWL DL Single semantic ad-hoc relation [HHST06] relations Hakkarainen et al. ABox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Transformation Not mentioned [HHST06] semantic ad-hoc relation rules Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Lightweight instances Not mentioned Several Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Population syntactic No Swoogle Automatic Yes Lexico T-ORG Maala et al. [MDA07] Lightweight instances RDF Single Google Syntactic Patterns Van Assem et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) / OWL Single [vAGS06] relations, instances Full Maala et al. [MDA07] Population syntactic No WordNet, Automatic Yes Not mentioned Not mentioned Geographical G hi l Gangemi et al [GNV03 al. [GNV03, Lightweight classes, attributes classes attributes, DAML+OIL Single locations, GGMO03] relations Ontology of things Hahn et al. [Hah03, Heavyweight classes, relations LOOM / ALC Single Van Assem et ABox syntactic No No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog HS03] al. [vAGS06] van Assem et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) / OWL Single Gangemi et al. TBox syntactic, ad-hoc relations DOLCE Semi-automatic Yes NLP Not mentioned [vAMSW04] relations Full [GNV03, GGMO03] semantic Techniques van Assem et al. Lightweight instances SKOS RDF Single Hahn et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Ontology Ad-hoc tool [Hah03, HS03] semantic partOf, ad-hoc Design [vAMMS06] relation Patterns Wielinga et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single van Assem et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool [WSWS01] relations [vAMSW04] semantic ad-hoc relation Hyvonen ¨ et al. Heavyweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single van Assem et al. Population syntactic Not mentioned No Automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog [vAMMS06] [HVTS08] relations Wielinga et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf Not mentioned Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, Heavyweight classes, attributes, OWL DL Single [WSWS01] semantic LS06] relations Hyvonen et al. y ¨ TBox syntactic, y , subClassOf, , DOLCE Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Stojanovic et al. Lightweight instances F Logic F-Logic / RDF Single [HVTS08] semantic partOf [SSV02] Soergel et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Manual Yes Not mentioned Not mentioned [SLL+ 04, LS06] semantic ad-hoc relation Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, Lightweight instances RDF Single Stojanovic et al. Population syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules KAON- Bar07] [SSV02] REVERSE Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı Lightweight classes, attributes, OWL Full/ RDF Single Barrasa et al. Population syntactic subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules ODEMapster relations, instances [BCGP04, Bar07] ad-hoc relation An et al. [AM05] Lightweight instances RDF Single Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı ABox syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules XSD2OWL XML2RDF Cruz et al. [CXH04] Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single An et al. [AM05] ABox syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic No Not mentioned Discovery tool relations, instances Cruz et al. [CXH04] ABox syntactic Not mentioned No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules Ad-hoc tool Foxvog et al. [FB06] Lightweight classes, attributes, CycL / OWL Several Foxvog et al. [FB06] ABox syntactic Not mentioned No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool relations, instances Full / WSML     14
  15. 15. State of the Art 18 methods & 13 toolsNon-ontological resource Reuse Data Type of Resource Type of model Data model Resource Research work Methodological Guidelines Tool Support ProvenanceResearch work Tool resource resource known is model is implemented in implemented in Hepp et al. [HdB07] Hakkarainen et al. No No No No No No [HHST06]Hepp et al. [HdB07] Classification No known Database Abbasi et al. [ASC07] No No No Maala et al. [MDA07] No No No SKOS2GenTax scheme, Classification the- No SKOS RDF Van Assem et al. No No Yes [vAGS06] sauri schemes, h Gangemi et al. [GNV03, GGMO03] No No NoHakkarainen et al. Classification Yes Flat file[HHST06] scheme thesauri Hahn et al. [Hah03, HS03] Van Assem et al. No No No No No No [vAMSW04] T-ORGAbbasi et al. [ASC07] FolksonomyFolksonomy No No mentioned Not mentioned Not van Assem [vAMMS06] et al. No No No Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] No No No KAON-Maala et al. [MDA07] Folksonomy specified Not No Yes mentioned Database Not Hyvonen et al. [HVTS08] ¨ No No No Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, No No Novan Assem REVERSE Lexica et al. Yes Prolog LS06] Stojanovic et al. [SSV02] No No No[vAGS06] ODEMapster Not specified Yes Database Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, No No No Bar07]Gangemi et al. [GNV03, Lexica Yes Database Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı No No NoGGMO03] D2R Server Not specified No Database An et al. [AM05] No No No Cruz et al. [CXH04] No No NoHahn et al. [Hah03, HS03] Com- Not specified TopBraid Thesauri No Database, XML, Foxvog et al. [FB06] No No No Yes ASCII files  Van Assem poser al. Thesauri et No proprietary text Flat file, Spread-TransformationT f[vAMSW04][ AMSW04] i t d t b sheet format, database, f Ontology O t l XSD2OWL and Not specified Research work Transformat Transformation Semantics of Additional Automatic / Methodological Technique Tool support XML No XML Lightweight/ Components Implementation Single/ Approach Aspects NOR relations Resources / Semi- Guidelines Research Work Heavyweight language SeveralVan Assem XML2RDF Thesauri et al. No Domain Expert automatic / Manual Not mentioned Hepp et al. [HdB07] Lightweight classes, relations RDF(S) / OWL Single DLP[vAMMS06] Hepp et al. [HdB07] TBox syntactic, semantic subClassOf, ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned SKOS2GenTax Hakkarainen et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, OWL DL Single ConvertToRdf Hakkarainen et al.Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] Thesauri [HHST06] Not specified ABox Yes syntactic, semantic subClassOf, ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Transformation rules Not mentioned No XML Delimited text [HHST06] Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Maala et al. [MDA07] Lightweight Lightweight relations instances instances Not mentioned RDF Several Single Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Population syntactic No Swoogle Automatic Yes Lexico T-ORGHyvonen et al. [HVTS08] y ¨ [ ] Thesauri Maala et al. [MDA07] Population No syntactic No Google WordNet, Automatic Yes Syntactic Patterns Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned data file Van Assem et al. [vAGS06] Lightweight classes, attributes, relations, instances RDF(S) / OWL Full Single Geographical G hi l Gangemi et al [GNV03 al. [GNV03, Lightweight classes, attributes classes attributes, DAML+OIL Single locations, flat2rdf04, Thesauri Not specifiedSoergel et al. [SLL + Van Assem et ABox Yes syntactic No Ontology of things No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog No Database Flat file GGMO03] Hahn et al. HS03] [Hah03, Heavyweight relations classes, relations LOOM / ALC Single al. [vAGS06] van Assem et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) / OWL SingleLS06] Java BibTeX-To- Not specified Gangemi et al. [GNV03, GGMO03] TBox syntactic, semantic ad-hoc relations DOLCE Semi-automatic Yes NLP Techniques Not mentioned No Flat file [vAMSW04] relations Full van Assem et al. Lightweight instances SKOS RDF Single Hahn et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Ontology Ad-hoc toolStojanovic et al. [SSV02] RDF Converter specified [Hah03, HS03] Not Yes semantic partOf, ad-hoc relation Design Patterns Database [vAMMS06] Wielinga et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single van Assem et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool [WSWS01] relations [vAMSW04] semantic ad-hoc relationBarrasa et al. Excel2rdf Not specified specified [BCGP04, van Assem et al. [vAMMS06] Not Population Yes syntactic Not mentioned No Automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog Database No Spreadsheet Hyvonen ¨ [HVTS08] et al. Heavyweight classes, attributes, relations RDF(S) Single Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, Heavyweight classes, attributes, OWL DL SingleBar07] Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] TBox syntactic, semantic subClassOf Not mentioned Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool LS06] relations RDF123 Hyvonen et al. y ¨ [HVTS08]Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı Soergel et al.Not specified specified Not TBox TBox No syntactic, y semantic , syntactic, subClassOf, partOf subClassOf, , DOLCE No Semi-automatic Manual Yes Yes Not mentioned Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Not mentioned No XML Spreadsheet Stojanovic [SSV02] et al. Lightweight instances F Logic F-Logic / RDF Single [SLL+ 04, LS06] semantic ad-hoc relation Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, Lightweight instances RDF Single Bar07]An et al. [AM05]XLWrap [SSV02] Barrasa et al. Not specified specified Stojanovic et al. Not Population Population No syntactic syntactic ad-hoc relation subClassOf, No No Semi-automatic Semi-automatic Yes Yes Mapping rules Mapping rules KAON- REVERSE ODEMapster No XML Spreadsheet Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı Lightweight classes, attributes, relations, instances OWL Full/ RDF Single [BCGP04, Bar07] ad-hoc relation An et al. [AM05] Lightweight instances RDF SingleCruz et al. [CXH04] An et al. [AM05] Not specified Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı ABox ABox No syntactic syntactic ad-hoc relation ad-hoc relation No No Semi-automatic Semi-automatic Yes No Mapping rules Not mentioned XSD2OWL XML2RDF Discovery tool XML Cruz et al. [CXH04] Lightweight classes, attributes, relations, instances RDF(S) Single Foxvog et al. [FB06] Lightweight classes, attributes, CycL / OWL SeveralFoxvog et al. [FB06] Not specified Cruz et al. [CXH04] Foxvog et al. [FB06] ABox ABox No syntactic syntactic Not mentioned Not mentioned No No Semi-automatic Semi-automatic Yes Yes Mapping rules Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Ad-hoc tool Flat file   relations, instances Full / WSML   15
  16. 16. State of the Art 18 methods & 13 toolsNon-ontological resource Reuse Methodological Tool Provenance Research work Guidelines Support Hepp et al. [HdB07] No No No Hakkarainen et al. No No No • Ad-hoc solutions for particular resources [HHST06] Abbasi et al. [ASC07] No No No • Only focus on the resource type or Maala et al. [MDA07] No No No Van Assem et al. No No Yes [vAGS06] resource i l implementation t ti Gangemi et al. [GNV03, GGMO03] No No No Hahn et al. [Hah03, HS03] No No No Van Assem et al. No No No [vAMSW04] van Assem et al. No No No [vAMMS06] Wielinga et al. [WSWS01] No No No Hyvonen et al. [HVTS08] ¨ No No No Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, No No No LS06] Stojanovic et al. [SSV02] No No No Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, No No No Bar07] Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı No No No An et al. [AM05] No No No Cruz et al. [CXH04] No No No Foxvog et al. [FB06] No No No  TransformationT f i Ontology O t l Research work Transformat Transformation Semantics of Additional Automatic / Methodological Technique Tool support Lightweight/ Components Implementation Single/ Approach Aspects NOR relations Resources / Semi- Guidelines Research Work Heavyweight language Several Domain automatic / Hepp et al. [HdB07] Lightweight classes, relations RDF(S) / OWL Single Expert Manual DLP Hepp et al. [HdB07] TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned SKOS2GenTax Hakkarainen et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, OWL DL Single semantic ad-hoc relation [HHST06] relations Hakkarainen et al. ABox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Transformation Not mentioned [HHST06] semantic ad-hoc relation rules Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Lightweight instances Not mentioned Several Abbasi et al. [ASC07] Population syntactic No Swoogle Automatic Yes Lexico T-ORG Maala et al. [MDA07] Lightweight instances RDF Single Google Syntactic Patterns Van Assem et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) / OWL Single [vAGS06] relations, instances Full Maala et al. [MDA07] Population syntactic No WordNet, Automatic Yes Not mentioned Not mentioned Geographical G hi l Gangemi et al [GNV03 al. [GNV03, Lightweight classes, attributes classes attributes, DAML+OIL Single locations, GGMO03] relations Ontology of things Hahn et al. [Hah03, Heavyweight classes, relations LOOM / ALC Single Van Assem et ABox syntactic No No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog HS03] al. [vAGS06] van Assem et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) / OWL Single Gangemi et al. TBox syntactic, ad-hoc relations DOLCE Semi-automatic Yes NLP Not mentioned [vAMSW04] relations Full [GNV03, GGMO03] semantic Techniques van Assem et al. Lightweight instances SKOS RDF Single Hahn et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Ontology Ad-hoc tool [Hah03, HS03] semantic partOf, ad-hoc Design [vAMMS06] relation Patterns Wielinga et al. Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single van Assem et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool [WSWS01] relations [vAMSW04] semantic ad-hoc relation Hyvonen ¨ et al. Heavyweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single van Assem et al. Population syntactic Not mentioned No Automatic Yes Not mentioned Swi-Prolog [vAMMS06] [HVTS08] relations Wielinga et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf Not mentioned Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Soergel et al. [SLL + 04, Heavyweight classes, attributes, OWL DL Single [WSWS01] semantic LS06] relations Hyvonen et al. y ¨ TBox syntactic, y , subClassOf, , DOLCE Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool Stojanovic et al. Lightweight instances F Logic F-Logic / RDF Single [HVTS08] semantic partOf [SSV02] Soergel et al. TBox syntactic, subClassOf, No Manual Yes Not mentioned Not mentioned [SLL+ 04, LS06] semantic ad-hoc relation Barrasa et al. [BCGP04, Lightweight instances RDF Single Stojanovic et al. Population syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules KAON- Bar07] [SSV02] REVERSE Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı Lightweight classes, attributes, OWL Full/ RDF Single Barrasa et al. Population syntactic subClassOf, No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules ODEMapster relations, instances [BCGP04, Bar07] ad-hoc relation An et al. [AM05] Lightweight instances RDF Single Garc´a et al. [GC05] ı ABox syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules XSD2OWL XML2RDF Cruz et al. [CXH04] Lightweight classes, attributes, RDF(S) Single An et al. [AM05] ABox syntactic ad-hoc relation No Semi-automatic No Not mentioned Discovery tool relations, instances Cruz et al. [CXH04] ABox syntactic Not mentioned No Semi-automatic Yes Mapping rules Ad-hoc tool Foxvog et al. [FB06] Lightweight classes, attributes, CycL / OWL Several Foxvog et al. [FB06] ABox syntactic Not mentioned No Semi-automatic Yes Not mentioned Ad-hoc tool relations, instances Full / WSML     16
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