Why Erlang?

                          Brad Anderson
                         BarCamp Atlanta
                          Oc...
Huh? Erlang?

                                Programming Language created at
                                Ericsson (20...
3 Biggies


                                     Massively Concurrent
                                     Seamlessly Dist...
Big #1 - Concurrent

                               User space “green” threads
                               VM manages p...
Big #1 - Concurrent




                                              image: http://english.people.com.cn/200512/21/images...
Big #1 - Concurrent
                           -module(test).
                           -compile(export_all).

          ...
Big #2 - Distributed
                               Nodes are separate OS processes,
                               instan...
Big #2 - Distributed




here we have different nodes started on different machines that form clusters.

There are three c...
Big #3 - Fault Tolerant

                                Links are formed between processes
                              ...
Big #3 - Fault Tolerant

                              Supervision Trees




Worker processes do the real work

Supervisor...
Other Goodies
                     Lists &                                                                          Live C...
Erlang Hotness
                    Facebook Chat                                                              Scalaris

  ...
Yaws vs. Apache




                                                                  throughput (KB/s) vs load

         ...
Credits

Joe Armstrong

   Programming Erlang - http://www.pragprog.com/titles/jaerlang

   http://www.pragprog.com/articl...
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Why Erlang? - Bar Camp Atlanta 2008

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My talk at Bar Camp Atlanta, 10/18/08. Why Erlang? A brief introduction to the Erlang Programming Language and why you should use it.

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Why Erlang? - Bar Camp Atlanta 2008

  1. 1. Why Erlang? Brad Anderson BarCamp Atlanta Oct. 18, 2008 brad@sankatygroup.com twitter: @boorad http://boorad.weebly.com blog url (for now)
  2. 2. Huh? Erlang? Programming Language created at Ericsson (20 yrs old now) Designed for scalable, long-lived systems Compiled, Functional, Dynamically Typed, Open Source 20 yrs old, open source since mid-90ʼs, iirc. like a mobile telephone grid compiled (but to bytecode for a VM) open source, but no access to VCS, just tarballs
  3. 3. 3 Biggies Massively Concurrent Seamlessly Distributed Fault Tolerant Why Erlang? Here are my three big ticket items - massively concurrent - seamlessly distributed into multi-machine clusters - extremely fault tolerant Great for my projects - data storage & retrieval - scalable web apps Maybe not so hot for computationally intensive projects - unless they lend themselves to parallelism
  4. 4. Big #1 - Concurrent User space “green” threads VM manages processes across kernel threads to maximize CPU utilization across all available cores Quad core? Almost 4 times faster No mutable data structures userspace threads != OS threads, so we can have thousands or more of these little guys 32- and 64-core processors coming Properly written Erlang code will run N times faster on an N core processor. I have spawned 500,000 processes on my MBP - didnʼt sweat no mutable data == no locks, mutexes, semaphores == easy to parallelize
  5. 5. Big #1 - Concurrent image: http://english.people.com.cn/200512/21/images/pop2.jpg Processes are self-contained Think of objects in Java, Python, etc. Each process has its own stack GC is per-process If a process crashes, it does not affect any other processes Message Passing Concurrency No Shared Memory - I have mine, you have yours. Two separate brains. To change your memory, I send you a message. We understand concurrency Erlang-style, because the world outside of programming is parallel
  6. 6. Big #1 - Concurrent -module(test). -compile(export_all). start() -> spawn(fun() -> loop([]) end). rpc(Pid, Query) -> Pid ! {self(), Query}, receive {Pid, Reply} -> Reply end. loop(X) -> receive Any -> io:format(“Received:~p~n”, [Any]), loop(X) end. Programming Erlang First Edition - Joe Armstrong start/0 will spawn the new process, firing off loop/1 loop/1 is tail recursive and waits for a message rpc/2 is how you send a message in
  7. 7. Big #2 - Distributed Nodes are separate OS processes, instances of the VM They are completely separate from each other, but connect to form a cluster Processes can be started on any node in the cluster So, start up two nodes on different servers, and you are distributed.
  8. 8. Big #2 - Distributed here we have different nodes started on different machines that form clusters. There are three clusters split across three machines, but I could reallocate if Red needed more horses All of this is fairly seamless - if a new node shows up, itʼs added to the cluster and can begin to handle new processes for the cluster
  9. 9. Big #3 - Fault Tolerant Links are formed between processes If a process exits abnormally, all linked processes exit too. System processes trap exits. Instead of exiting, they receive a message with the Pid and exit status of linked processes Back to our real-world thinking, If someone dies, people will notice The mobile telecom system of the UK is a PROD Erlang application. 9 nines of reliablility - 32ms of downtime per year
  10. 10. Big #3 - Fault Tolerant Supervision Trees Worker processes do the real work Supervisor processes monitor workers and restart them as needed Supervisors can also monitor other supervisors
  11. 11. Other Goodies Lists & Live Code Comprehensions reloading Pattern Matching ets & dets Higher-Order Mnesia Functions OTP bit syntax Dialyzer Lisp or Python comprehensions - leads us to map/reduce goodness Pattern Matching from Prolog, very cool for elegant coding functions are first class, can be passed around, and maintain scope for closures bit syntax is great for working w/ protocols live code reloading helps with those 9 nines, no downtime ets & dets are efficient term storage mechanisms Mnesia - built in distributed database, no need for ORM, no impedence mismatch, stores Erlang terms OTP - libraries! Dialyzer - code coverage, type analysis
  12. 12. Erlang Hotness Facebook Chat Scalaris Meebo github / Engine Yard RabbitMQ Yaws ejabberd Mochiweb OpenPoker Yahoo! delicious2 CouchDB Facebook Chat - already huge, new feature had to scale, chose Erlang Meebo - web-based IM RabbitMQ - super-scalable message broker ejabberd - super scalable XMPP server OpenPoker - high volume poker server CouchDB - document database, stores JSON docs, not relational Scalaris - Distributed Key Value System, colossal amounts of data, ACID, very fast retrieval github / Engine Yard - project provisioning Yaws - super scalable web server (ditto for mochiweb) delicious2 used Erlang to port data to new system, role in PROD system now?
  13. 13. Yaws vs. Apache throughput (KB/s) vs load http://www.sics.se/~joe/apachevsyaws.html Apache (blue, green) dies when running load of 4000 parallel sessions red curve is yaws on NFS, blue is Apache running on NFS, green is Apache on local file system
  14. 14. Credits Joe Armstrong Programming Erlang - http://www.pragprog.com/titles/jaerlang http://www.pragprog.com/articles/erlang Toby DiPasquale - http://cbcg.net/talks/erlang.pdf Sam Tesla - http://www.alieniloquent.com/talks/ErlangConcepts.pdf

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