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Usability & User-Centred Design
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Usability & User-Centred Design



Presentation given during the JISC Usability and User-Centred Design (UCD) day; JISC Usability and Faceted Search day.

Presentation given during the JISC Usability and User-Centred Design (UCD) day; JISC Usability and Faceted Search day.




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    Usability & User-Centred Design Usability & User-Centred Design Presentation Transcript

    • Usability & User-Centred Design
      • Paper & UI Prototyping Practical (pm)Cramond/Swanston Room
      Usability & faceted search
      • Faceted Search Technology Hacking (pm)StudyPod
    • User-Centred Design & faceted Search User Interface
      Boon Low
      The University of Edinburgh
      17th May 2011
    • Outline
      User experience, usability, user-centred design
      Faceted search user interface
      Highlights from the JISC UX2 Project: Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • Digital Library - Examples
      World Digital Library
      Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • Web Environment
      “Digital library is a resource representing the intellectual substance and services of a traditional library in digital form”
      Putting in the human contexts, broader roles
      A place for solving complex problem
      A place for social interactions
      A ‘sharium’, active workspace
    • Contemporary User Experience
      Web 2.0 - new ways providing user interface/experience
      User-centric, social networking, e.g. folksonomy
      New technologies, UI interactions: AJAX and rich application UI
      Virtual (2D/3D) environment
      User experience – a broad term
      Sum of all user interactions
      Goes beyond giving users what they say they want
      Objective (e.g. functional, usability) and subjective aspects (e.g. psychology)
      How a user feels about a system including overall perceptions
      Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • Implications
      What are the usability challenges?
      What are the usefulness challenges?
      UX2 Project attempts to answer some of these questions w.r.t. digital libraries
      A range of user research and usability studies,
      UI prototypes development
    • Implications
      • Measuring and evaluating user experience
      • Usability, Usefulness, Appeal (Usability Week 2009)
      • Usable, Useful and Desirable (Jon Kolko 2010)
      • User experience goals:
      Enjoyable, satisfying, engaging, pleasurable, exciting, helpful, motivating, emotionally fulfilling, aesthetically pleasing..
      Boring, frustrating, annoying, cutesy..
      Source: Designing User Interfaces for Interactive Information Retrieval Systems, European Conference on Digital Libraries (2009)
    • User-Centred Design (UCD)
      A design process in which “the real users and their goals, not just technology, is the driving force of product development” (Rogers, Sharp, Preece)
      User research conducted early, throughout the product cycle
      Empirical measurement
      Iterative design
      User research and empirical measurement: personas, usability testing, prototype testing, contextual inquiry, survey, interviews, focus groups
    • User-Centred Design
      Similarities between UCD and agile software development methods, e.g. Scrum:
      “User Stories”
    • User-Centred Design
      Integrating UCD and agile software development to produce better quality product
      Lynn Miller and Desiree Sy approach
      Adapting Usability Investigation for Agile User-Centred Design, http://www.upassoc.org/upa_publications/jus/2007may/agile-ucd.html
    • User-Centred Design
      The key concepts of the Miller-Sy method:
      Chunking of UCD tasks (research, design, usability testing), base them around an agile implementation
      Progressive: low-fi to hi-fi usability testing and contextual inquiry.
      The Miller-Sy approach is resource intensive in terms of planning and management
      Two tracks -> two teams
    • User-Centred Design
      Fully integrated agile UCD approach:
    • Prototyping
      A key user-centred design activity
      So that users can evaluate and provide feedbacks on design before it gets implemented
      Various types of prototypes, not all are working software: low-fi (paper, UI wireframes), hi-fi (Ui, working software)
    • Prototyping
      UX2 is piloting Balsamiq, a UI prototyping tool for the JISC community, one-year pilot
      Try it online:
      Easy to use, collaborative – wiki use context
      Practical session this afternoon
    • Faceted Search
      A better technique for refining, narrowing (expanding) search compared to traditional methods
      Integrating searching and browsing seamlessly
      also faceted browsing, faceted navigation, guided navigation
    • Faceted Search
      Typical interaction
      • Perform a keyword search
      • Review a list of categories on a custom map (left of UI)
      • Use the categories (facets) on to refine and obtain results
      Essential component: Facets
      Each facet is advanced search shortcut
      Enable users to quickly formulate useful queries
      Support learning and exploration
    • Digital Library - Examples
      breadcrumb trail
    • Digital Library - Examples
      Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • Digital Library - Examples
      Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • 12/2/09
      Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
    • Facet Analysis & Design
      Facet design and analysis is a key requirement of faceted search provision
      Determine what facets are appropriate
      Facet terms can be mapped from metadata, e.g. library book catalogue
    • Metadata mapping
      CERN MARC -> Solr Fields
      display fields
      facet fields
      sort fields
      text fields (search)
      technical format (mimetype facet)
      fulltext (inside document)
      search-all ‘text’ inc. all above text fields + fulltext
    • Facet Analysis & Design
      Some sites require research efforts to derive terms (metadata not readily available)
      Standard user/content research methods: interviews, taxonomies and controlled vocabularies, content analysis, card sorting
      Types of facet:
      Hierarchy: continent & country, subject headings
      List: authors
      Binary: female|male; colour|black & white
      Range: date (last 10 years), price ($1-$10), rating (1 to 5)
    • Faceted Search Technology
      Two key components
      Custom application
      - VuFind, Blacklight
      - AquaBrowser, Summon, Endeca
      User Interface: faceted search + other services
      Search infrastructure
      Apache Solr
      Source: Stanford University, Digital Library Systems (OR10)
    • Introducing Blacklight
      Blacklight is a discovery interface for library catalogue, digital repository front-end, single-search interface
      Front-end for Apache Solr (similar to VuFind)
      UVA + Solr = UVA radiation = Blacklight!
    • Blacklight Features
      Faceted search
      User services
      Search history, saved search
      Bookmarking, folders
      Basic login
      Other beta features
      Advanced search
      Date range limits
    • Apache Solr
      A Java-based search engine/server from Apache
      Service-oriented web application
      Built upon Apache Lucene
      A full-text search library in Java, written by Doug Cutting
      Versions also in C++, C#, Ruby, Python etc.
      • Deploy on any Java (J2EE) web container: Tomcat, Jetty, etc.
    • Why Solr?
      • Both Solr and Lucene are open source
      • Active development communities
      • F/OSS community: ~1300 emails/month (dev: 800/month)
      • Commercial support: Sematext, Lucid Imagination
      Simple and easy for developer to understand and install
      Fast and scalable: distributed search, index replication
      Guardian case study: http://www.guardian.co.uk/open-platform/blog/what-is-powering-the-content-api
      Rich and powerful features: faceted search out of the box
    • Key Features
      • Advanced full-text search capabilities
      • Indexing data – export documents via data import handlers
      • inc. rich document (PDF, Word etc) parsing and indexing
      Faceted search
      “Did you mean” spelling suggestion
      Geospatial search
      Natural language processing (plugin) engine
    • Thank you
      Web/blogs: http://ux2.nesc.ed.ac.uk
      Project wikis: http://bit.ly/ux2wiki
      Boon Low Lorraine Paterson
      @boonious @lorraine_p