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Usability & User-Centred Design


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Presentation given during the JISC Usability and User-Centred Design (UCD) day; JISC Usability and Faceted Search day. …

Presentation given during the JISC Usability and User-Centred Design (UCD) day; JISC Usability and Faceted Search day.

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  • 1. Usability & User-Centred Design
    • Paper & UI Prototyping Practical (pm)Cramond/Swanston Room
    Usability & faceted search
    • Faceted Search Technology Hacking (pm)StudyPod
  • User-Centred Design & faceted Search User Interface
    Boon Low
    The University of Edinburgh
    17th May 2011
  • 2. Outline
    User experience, usability, user-centred design
    Faceted search user interface
    Highlights from the JISC UX2 Project: Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Digital Library - Examples
    World Digital Library
    Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 6. Web Environment
    “Digital library is a resource representing the intellectual substance and services of a traditional library in digital form”
    Putting in the human contexts, broader roles
    A place for solving complex problem
    A place for social interactions
    A ‘sharium’, active workspace
  • 7. Contemporary User Experience
    Web 2.0 - new ways providing user interface/experience
    User-centric, social networking, e.g. folksonomy
    New technologies, UI interactions: AJAX and rich application UI
    Virtual (2D/3D) environment
    User experience – a broad term
    Sum of all user interactions
    Goes beyond giving users what they say they want
    Objective (e.g. functional, usability) and subjective aspects (e.g. psychology)
    How a user feels about a system including overall perceptions
    Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 8. Implications
    What are the usability challenges?
    What are the usefulness challenges?
    UX2 Project attempts to answer some of these questions w.r.t. digital libraries
    A range of user research and usability studies,
    UI prototypes development
  • 9. Implications
    • Measuring and evaluating user experience
    • 10. Usability, Usefulness, Appeal (Usability Week 2009)
    • 11. Usable, Useful and Desirable (Jon Kolko 2010)
    • 12. User experience goals:
    Enjoyable, satisfying, engaging, pleasurable, exciting, helpful, motivating, emotionally fulfilling, aesthetically pleasing..
    Boring, frustrating, annoying, cutesy..
    Source: Designing User Interfaces for Interactive Information Retrieval Systems, European Conference on Digital Libraries (2009)
  • 13. User-Centred Design (UCD)
    A design process in which “the real users and their goals, not just technology, is the driving force of product development” (Rogers, Sharp, Preece)
    User research conducted early, throughout the product cycle
    Empirical measurement
    Iterative design
    User research and empirical measurement: personas, usability testing, prototype testing, contextual inquiry, survey, interviews, focus groups
  • 14. User-Centred Design
    Similarities between UCD and agile software development methods, e.g. Scrum:
    “User Stories”
  • 15. User-Centred Design
    Integrating UCD and agile software development to produce better quality product
    Lynn Miller and Desiree Sy approach
    Adapting Usability Investigation for Agile User-Centred Design,
  • 16. User-Centred Design
    The key concepts of the Miller-Sy method:
    Chunking of UCD tasks (research, design, usability testing), base them around an agile implementation
    Progressive: low-fi to hi-fi usability testing and contextual inquiry.
    The Miller-Sy approach is resource intensive in terms of planning and management
    Two tracks -> two teams
  • 17. User-Centred Design
    Fully integrated agile UCD approach:
  • 18. Prototyping
    A key user-centred design activity
    So that users can evaluate and provide feedbacks on design before it gets implemented
    Various types of prototypes, not all are working software: low-fi (paper, UI wireframes), hi-fi (Ui, working software)
  • 19. Prototyping
    UX2 is piloting Balsamiq, a UI prototyping tool for the JISC community, one-year pilot
    Try it online:
    Easy to use, collaborative – wiki use context
    Practical session this afternoon
  • 20. Faceted Search
    A better technique for refining, narrowing (expanding) search compared to traditional methods
    Integrating searching and browsing seamlessly
    also faceted browsing, faceted navigation, guided navigation
  • 21. Faceted Search
    Typical interaction
    • Perform a keyword search
    • 22. Review a list of categories on a custom map (left of UI)
    • 23. Use the categories (facets) on to refine and obtain results
    Essential component: Facets
    Each facet is advanced search shortcut
    Enable users to quickly formulate useful queries
    Support learning and exploration
  • 24.
  • 25. Digital Library - Examples
    breadcrumb trail
  • 26. Digital Library - Examples
    Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 27. Digital Library - Examples
    Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 28. 12/2/09
    Usability and Contemporary User Experience in Digital Libraries
  • 29. Facet Analysis & Design
    Facet design and analysis is a key requirement of faceted search provision
    Determine what facets are appropriate
    Facet terms can be mapped from metadata, e.g. library book catalogue
  • 30. Metadata mapping
    CERN MARC -> Solr Fields
    display fields
    facet fields
    sort fields
    text fields (search)
    technical format (mimetype facet)
    fulltext (inside document)
    search-all ‘text’ inc. all above text fields + fulltext
  • 31. Facet Analysis & Design
    Some sites require research efforts to derive terms (metadata not readily available)
    Standard user/content research methods: interviews, taxonomies and controlled vocabularies, content analysis, card sorting
    Types of facet:
    Hierarchy: continent & country, subject headings
    List: authors
    Binary: female|male; colour|black & white
    Range: date (last 10 years), price ($1-$10), rating (1 to 5)
  • 32. Faceted Search Technology
    Two key components
    Custom application
    - VuFind, Blacklight
    - AquaBrowser, Summon, Endeca
    User Interface: faceted search + other services
    Search infrastructure
    Apache Solr
    Source: Stanford University, Digital Library Systems (OR10)
  • 33. Introducing Blacklight
    Blacklight is a discovery interface for library catalogue, digital repository front-end, single-search interface
    Front-end for Apache Solr (similar to VuFind)
    UVA + Solr = UVA radiation = Blacklight!
  • 34. Blacklight Features
    Faceted search
    User services
    Search history, saved search
    Bookmarking, folders
    Basic login
    Other beta features
    Advanced search
    Date range limits
  • 35. Apache Solr
    A Java-based search engine/server from Apache
    Service-oriented web application
    Built upon Apache Lucene
    A full-text search library in Java, written by Doug Cutting
    Versions also in C++, C#, Ruby, Python etc.
    • Deploy on any Java (J2EE) web container: Tomcat, Jetty, etc.
  • Why Solr?
    • Both Solr and Lucene are open source
    • 36. Active development communities
    • 37. F/OSS community: ~1300 emails/month (dev: 800/month)
    • 38. Commercial support: Sematext, Lucid Imagination
    Simple and easy for developer to understand and install
    Fast and scalable: distributed search, index replication
    Guardian case study:
    Rich and powerful features: faceted search out of the box
  • 39. Key Features
    • Advanced full-text search capabilities
    • 40. Indexing data – export documents via data import handlers
    • 41. inc. rich document (PDF, Word etc) parsing and indexing
    Faceted search
    “Did you mean” spelling suggestion
    Geospatial search
    Natural language processing (plugin) engine
  • 42. Thank you
    Project wikis:
    Boon Low Lorraine Paterson
    @boonious @lorraine_p