Chapter 9 lecture notes


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Chapter 9 lecture notes

  1. 1. Labor Market Trends Chapter 9 Section 1
  2. 2. The Labor Force • Economics define the labor force as all nonmilitary people who are employed or unemployed.
  3. 3. Employed • Are 16 years or older and meet at least one of the following requirements: – They worked a least one hour for pay within the last week – They worked 15 or more hours without pay in a family business – The held jobs but did not work due to: • • • • Illness Vacations Labor disputes Bad weather.
  4. 4. Unemployed • Are 16 years or older and meet the following criteria: – They do not have a job – They have actively looked for work in the prior 4 weeks – They are currently available for work
  5. 5. Temporary Employment • Contingent employment – Temporary or part-time employment. – Flexible work arrangements. – Easy discharge due to the lack of severance pay for temporary workers. – Temporary workers are often paid less and receive fewer benefits than their full-time counterparts. – Some employees prefer temporary arrangements.
  6. 6. How does being unemployed differ from not being part of the labor force?
  7. 7. Occupational Trends • The economy of the United States has transformed from a mainly agricultural economy in the 1800s, to an industrial giant in the 1900s. • The computer chip has revolutionized the economy since its introduction in the late 1900s.
  8. 8. Occupational Trends • Overall, the United States is shifting from a manufacturing economy to a service economy. • As service jobs increase, the nation is losing manufacturing jobs. • Demand for skilled labor is rising, and the supply of skilled workers is increasing to meet the demand.
  9. 9. Describe the changes in the U.S. economy during the period shown on the graph.
  10. 10. Women in the Workforce • Overall, the number of women in the work force has increased from about 38 percent of all women in 1960 to about 58 percent of all women in 1995. • More women are: – – – – Getting a college education Not getting married Not having children Working in “Male” jobs
  11. 11. By what percent will the number of women in the workforce have changed between 1960 and 2006?
  12. 12. Trends in Wages and Benefits • Earnings for college graduates have increased – Earnings for workers without college degrees have decreased. • Benefits now make up about 28 percent of total compensation in the economy • For employers – Rising benefits costs raise the cost of doing business – Decrease profits. – Turns them to contingent employment to curb benefits costs.
  13. 13. Why might wages for workers in retail be much lower than those for workers in construction?
  14. 14. College Education • Getting a college degree greatly is now more of a necessity rather than a luxury • The learning effect – Education increases productivity and results in higher wages. • The screening effect – The completion of college indicates to employers that a job applicant is intelligent and hard-working
  15. 15. Education and Income • Potential earnings increase with increased educational attainment.
  16. 16. Disturbing Trends in College Education • High School graduation rate is about 86% • Only 68% of high school students attend college – 6 out of 10 enter a 4 year university – The rest go to a two year community college
  17. 17. Disturbing Trends in College Education • Only 60 percent of students who start at college finish • Bachelors Degree (4 Years) – 25% of the overall population • Masters Degree (6 Years) – 7% of the overall population • Doctorate or professional degree – 2% of the overall population
  18. 18. “Outside The Lines”: Florida State • Describe the type of “college athlete” FSU is recruiting? • What “extra” help are these athletes getting? • What were Dr. Brenda Monk’s responsibilities? • How would you describe Paul Griffin? – Was he selected by an NFL team? – What is his profession after he graduates?
  19. 19. Labor and Wages Chapter 9 Section 2
  20. 20. Supply and Demand in the Labor Market Labor Demand • The higher the wage rate, the smaller the quantity of labor demanded by firms and government. Labor Supply • As wages increase, the quantity of labor supplied also increases. Equilibrium Wage • The wage rate that produces neither an excess supply of workers nor an excess demand for workers in the labor market is called the equilibrium wage.
  21. 21. Explain how the outcome of this scenario affects (a) the cooks, (b) the restaurants.
  22. 22. Explain why a stable wage means stable restaurant prices.
  23. 23. Wages and Skill Levels • Wages vary according to workers’ skill levels and education. Jobs are often categorized into the following four groups: – – – – Unskilled Semi-skilled Skilled Professional
  24. 24. Unskilled Labor • Unskilled labor requires: – No specialized skills – Education – Training. • Examples: – Waiters – Messengers – Janitors
  25. 25. Semi-skilled Labor • Semi-skilled labor requires: – Minimal specialized skills and education. • Example: – Fork-lift operator
  26. 26. Skilled Labor • Skilled labor requires: – Specialized skills and training. • Examples: – Auto mechanics – Plumbers
  27. 27. Professional Labor • Professional labor demands: – Advanced skills and education. • Examples: – Lawyers – Doctors – Teachers
  28. 28. Give reasons to explain why the supply of doctors is low and the supply of construction workers is high?
  29. 29. Wage Discrimination • • The Equal Pay Act of 1963 – Declared that male and female employees in the same workplace performing the same job had to receive the same pay. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Forbids job discrimination on the basis of: • • • • • • • Race Sex Color Religion nationality. Pay Levels for Minorities As the figure to the right shows, racial minorities tend to earn lower pay than white men.
  30. 30. Pay for Women • Despite these protections – American women today earn about 75 percent of what men earn. • Reasons women don’t get hired include: – – – – Pregnancy Working part-time Distracting to men Lack of cultural respect • Racial ethnicity
  31. 31. 2006 Basketball Players NBA vs. WNBA Shaq $20 Million Sue Bird $87,000
  32. 32. 2006 Golf Players PGA vs. LPGA Tiger Woods $11.9 Million Annika Sorenstam $2.5 Million
  33. 33. 2006 Tennis Players ATP vs. WTA Roger Federer $8.3 Million Maria Sharapova $3.8 Million
  34. 34. 2006 Football Players NFL vs. WPFL Michael Vick $23.1 Million Stacy Agee $100 Per Game
  35. 35. According to the graph, which group has the lowest earnings?
  36. 36. Organized Labor Chapter 9 Section 3
  37. 37. Occupational Trends • A labor union is an organization of workers that tries to improve: – working conditions – Wages – benefits for its members • Less than 14 percent of U.S. workers belong to a labor union. – This number keeps dropping
  38. 38. Why Unions Grew • The union movement took shape over the course of more than a century. • The 1935 National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act: – Gave workers the right to organize – Required companies to bargain in good faith with unions.
  39. 39. What is the trend in union membership today?
  40. 40. Why Unions are Declining • Several factors have led to declines in union membership since the 1950s: – “Right to Work” Laws – Economic Trends – Fulfillment of Union Goals
  41. 41. “Right to Work” Laws • The Taft-Harlety Act (1947) allowed states to pass rightto-work laws. • These laws ban mandatory union membership at the workplace.
  42. 42. Economic Activity as Percent of GNP, 1956 and 1998
  43. 43. Employment in Key Union Industries, 1960-2000
  44. 44. Gender Makeup of the U.S. Labor Force, 1970 and 1999
  45. 45. Economic Trends • Unions have traditionally been strongest in the manufacturing sector – Blue-collar workers • Blue-collar jobs have been declining in number – The American economy becomes more serviceoriented. – Globalization – More women in the workforce
  46. 46. Fulfillment of Union Goals • Union membership has decreased simply because their goals have been fulfilled by other organizations. • The government has set standards for workplace safety – More benefits being provided by both private and government sources
  47. 47. Unions and Negotiations • Collective bargaining is the process in which union and company representatives meet to negotiate a new labor contract. – Wages and Benefits – Working Conditions – Job Security
  48. 48. Wages and Benefits • The Union negotiates on behalf of all members for – – – – Wage rate Overtime rates Planned raises Benefits
  49. 49. Working Conditions • Working conditions include – – – – Safety Comfort Worker responsibilities Other workplace issues • These are all negotiated and written into the final contract
  50. 50. Job Security • One of the union’s primary goals is to secure its members’ jobs. • The contract spells out the conditions under which a worker may be fired.
  51. 51. Labor Strike • If no agreement is met between the union and the company – The union may ask its members to vote on a strike. • A strike – An organized work stoppage intended to force an employer to address union demands. – Strikes can be harmful to both the union and the firm.
  52. 52. Labor Mediation • To avoid the economic losses of a strike, a third party is sometimes called in to settle the dispute. • Mediation – A settlement technique in which a neutral mediator meets with each side to try and find an acceptable solution that both sides will accept.
  53. 53. Labor Arbitration • If mediation fails, talks may go into arbitration • Arbitration – A settlement technique in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding for both sides.