by : David K




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Watch out for bias
The presenter may look towards a selection of
favorable data in an act to hide the data that
r...


You need to ask yourself if the sample is
large enough to permit any reliable
conclusion.

What’s Missing?




What i...






Watch out for a switch between the original
statement and the concluding statement.
For example; “more reported c...




It is important to remember one thing, the
trend-to-now may be a fact but the future
trend is no more than an educat...
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"How To Lie With Statistics" Chapter 10

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"How To Lie With Statistics" Chapter 10

  1. 1. by : David K
  2. 2.    Watch out for bias The presenter may look towards a selection of favorable data in an act to hide the data that really doesn’t support his or her conclusion. Who says so? Many times we hear a study from universities, scientific laboratories, medical professional; should we believe it? Please note that while the data may have come from “Cornell” the conclusion is entirely dependent on the writer. So yes the study my be true but what the presenter wants to come across may be emphasized instead and therefor bias.
  3. 3.  You need to ask yourself if the sample is large enough to permit any reliable conclusion. What’s Missing?   What information has been omitted prior to being presented to you? Are you given all of the facts? Sometimes very valuable numbers are missing. In example: It is much better to have solid numbers brought forward instead of a percentage or an average.
  4. 4.    Watch out for a switch between the original statement and the concluding statement. For example; “more reported cases of a disease” is not always the same thing as “more cases of the disease”. Make sure it is a study based on actual facts instead of based upon assumptions or word of mouth.
  5. 5.   It is important to remember one thing, the trend-to-now may be a fact but the future trend is no more than an educated guess. For example: The number of television sets in American homes increased around 10,000 percent from 1947 to 1952. Project this for the next five years soon we will have 40 sets per family. It is like saying you can prove that soon every family will have 40,000 sets.

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