Comparative andSuperlativeAdjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives and adverbs are words the modify other words. The comparative form of an adjective or adverb compares two things. The superlative form of an adjective or adverb compares three of more things.
ExamplesAdjectiveslarge larger largestThe first apple is large.The second apple is larger than the first.The third apple is the largest of the three.
The jalopy is a fast car.The racecar is the faster car.The dragster is the fastest car.
To make comparative and superlative forms of adjectives some rules must be followed.
Rule 1 To form the comparative or superlative of one syllable words with more than one vowel OR ending with more than one consonant at the add -er OR -est.tall taller tallestneat neater neatestdeep deeper deepest
Rule 2 To form the comparative or superlative of a one syllable word ending in e add -r OR -st.wide wider widestfine finer finestcute cuter cutest
Rule 3yllable word with one vowel and one consonant at the en sad sadder saddest big bigger biggest fat fatter fattest
Rule 4perlative of a two syllable word ending in y, change the y happy happier happiest jolly jollier jolliest lazy lazier laziest
Rule 5e of a two syllable word ending a vowel-sound that is nently take –er and –est. yellow yellower yellowest gentle gentler gentlest simple simpler simplest
Rules at a Glance Adjective form Comparative SuperlativeOnly one syllable, with morethan one vowel or more than Add -er: Add -est:one consonant at the end. lighter, neater, faster, taller, lightest, neatest, fastest,Examples: neater, deeper tallest. neatest, deepestlight, neat, fast, tall, neat, deepOnly one syllable, ending in E. Add -r: Add -st:Examples: wider, finer, cuter widest, finest, cutestwide, fine, cuteOnly one syllable, with one Double the consonant, and add Double the consonant, and addvowel and one consonant at -est: -er:the end. Examples: hottest, biggest, fattest, hotter, bigger, fatter, sadderhot, big, fat, sad saddestTwo syllables, ending in Y. Change y to i, then add -est: Change y to i, then add -er:Examples: happiest, silliest, loneliest, happier, sillier, lonelier, jollierhappy, silly, lonely, jolly jolliesttwo syllable word ending avowel-sound that is not Add -er: Add -est:stressed yellower, simpler yellower, simpleryellow, simpleTwo syllables or more, not Use more before the adjective: Use most before the adjective:ending in Y. Examples: more modern, more most modern, most interesting,modern, interesting, beautiful, interesting, more beautiful most beautiful
Like adjectives some adverbs cantake comparative and superlativeforms, with -er and -est: Sally works hard. Steve works harder than Sally Kathy and Sue work the hardest of all.
lo u ou d udThe bird sings loudly.The moose sang louder than the e bird.Pete sang the loudest of them all.
List of Adverbs in Which-er and -est May Be Added Adverb Comparative Superlativefast faster fastestslow slower slowestquick quicker quickestearly earlier earliestbright brighter brightesthigh higher highest
However, the majority of adverbs donot take these endings. Instead, theyform the comparative using more andthe superlative using most: Adverb Comparative Superlativerecently more recently most recentlyeffectively more effectively most effectivelyfrequently more frequently most frequently
ActivitiesSlide Show Going Over Ruleshttp://www.eflnet.com/grammar/adjtut.swfThe Adjective Detective (4 Activities – 2 Going Over Rules, a Quiz, and a Game)http://www.childrensuniversity.manche ster.ac.uk/interactives/literacy/wordc lasses/adjective_detective.swf
Slideshow Going Over Rules http://faculty.mdc.edu/jkolasin/tutori als/files/modifiers.swfI Never Know Which to Use (Slideshow with Activities) http://www.k8websites.com/0506/ER ORMORE.swf
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives (10 multiple choice questions) http:// www.eflnet.com/grammar/compsupa dj1.swfRegular Comparatives and Superlatives (10 multiple choice questions)http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/ 330/grammar/regcom1.htm
PracticeGo to your student packet and complete the practice on Comparative and Superlative Adjectives and Adverb, page 30, items 1-31.
Irregular Comparativeand SuperlativeAdjectives and AdverbsSome comparative and superlative forms are irregular and do not follow any rules or patterns. These must be memorized.
Irregular AdverbsWord Comparative Superlativebadly worse worstmuch more mostlittle less leastmuch more mostwell better best
Irregular AdjectivesWord Comparative Superlativegood better bestbad worse worstmuch more mostlittle less leastfar farther farthest older oldestold elder eldest
Example:Nathan made good stew.Mollys stew was better than Nathans.Ezra made the best stew of all.
PracticeGo to your student packet and complete the practice on Irregular Comparative and Superlative Adjectives and Adverb, page 33, items 1-15.
ResourcesUsing Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly (16 pages of rules) http://admissionok.com/Flash %20paper/Adjectives_and_Adver bs.swf