Section b g322 sow

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Section b g322 sow

  1. 1. INSTITUTIONS AND AUDIENCES FILM INDUSTRY
  2. 2. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes ofproduction, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporarymedia institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and therelationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should befamiliar with:•  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;•  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;•  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;•  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;•  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;•  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;•  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  3. 3. PAST EXAM QUESTIONS: G322 SECTION BDiscuss the ways in which media products are produced and distributed to audiences, within amedia area that you have studied.How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area,which you have studied.Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services tonational audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement?What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have formedia institutions and audiences?Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts inyour chosen media area.“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specificaudience as they do upon good production practices”. To what extent do you agree with thisstatement, in the media area you have studied?To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of mediaproducts in the media area you have studied?“Cross-media convergence and synergy are vital processes in the successful marketing ofmedia products to audiences.” To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation toyour chosen media area?
  4. 4. LEARNING INTENTIONS/OUTCOMESTo understand the focus for the KEY TERMSAudience and Institutions section Audienceof your exam Institution ProductionTo study and complete a range ofcase studies in preparation for the Subsidiaryexam Distribution Marketing Exhibition Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration
  5. 5. MEDIA TRIANGLE What they have produced Media Text TargetInstitution AudienceWho has produced Who the media text the media text is produced for
  6. 6. THE FILM PROCESS Three distinct areas of the film industry Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution.What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  7. 7. Figment Films is the production company who made Trainspotting.•  Production involves the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the production company•  This includes all pre-production, production & post-production processes.•  Before that the writer/director/producer must find finance for a film – which may come from one or many production companies (a co- production) Channel 4 (Film4) financed the film
  8. 8. Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell thefilmMARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipationof a new release Miramax distributedA distributor may: Trainspotting and•  Be a part of the same parent company as the production bought the rights for company $750,000•  Have a long term arrangement with a production company and provide financial assistance for many of their productions•  Provide financial assistance for a single film by a In your case study production company look carefully at•  Acquire a film after it has completed production how it was marketed andA film is likely have different distributors for: distributed.-Releases in different countries-Cinema Releases-Home-Video Releases
  9. 9. FilmFour made its reputation with films like Trainspotting in 1996.Exhibition is divided into two sections:- Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema fora copy of the film It made £23m at the- Home – the distributor is paid by the company box office but costwho is selling the film for a copy only £2.4m and was the highest grossing British film in 1996.A film s success is often decided on the amount ofmoney it makes during it s cinema release. This isknown as the Box Office Takings However, it was far more successful onHome Exhibition is becoming an increasing DVD, spawningvaluable and varied source for distributors to numerous versionsincrease profits. and special editions. WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN YOU THINK OF? Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  10. 10. MEDIA OWNERSHIP: HORIZONTAL The parent company HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION owns multiple companies VERTICAL INTEGRATION at the same stage of the film industry. A smaller company, owned by the parent is a subsidiary.•  Often a single parent company will own multiple companies in the film industry. VERTICAL•  This is divided into two types of The parent company owns multiple companies ownership across different stages of the film industry. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION VERTICAL INTEGRATION QUESTION: What are theLOOK AT THE VIVENDI CASE STUDY ON advantages for a parent company for each type THE FOLLOWING SLIDES of ownership?
  11. 11. Synergy HORIZONTALSynergy (from the Greek syn-ergos, meaning working together) basically The parentmeans working together to achieve an objective that couldnt be company ownsachieved independently. multiple companies at the same stageSynergy is the ‘strategy of synchronising and actively forging connections of the film industry.between directly related areas of entertainment’. A smaller company,New Technologies support this process (internet, DVD, downloading). owned by the parent is aMedia institutions exploit various platforms to sell various products related subsidiary.to one film (e.g. film and soundtrack and video game).Convergent technology – smart phones, tablets, computers and gamesconsoles further support the process of synergy. VERTICALCross Media Convergence (the development of products across The parentdifferent medium)can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to company ownstake advantage of the links they have forged. Disney is an obvious multiple companiesexample of a synergistic company. across different stages of the filmCross Media Convergence is really a Business Studies term and refers to industry.companies coming together vertically or horizontally (or both).(BOTH PARENT & SUBSIDIARIES)This is different to symbiosis in that synergy focuses on the relationship QUESTION:between parent companies and subsidiaries to produce, market andexhibit the film. What are the advantages for aWhere as symbiosis focuses on the parent & subsidiary companies’ parent company forrelationship with external companies that want to promote the product each type ofthrough the sales of merchandise etc. ownership?
  12. 12. How does synergy work?Synergy works when different elements within amedia conglomerate promote (e.g. film studio,record label, video game division) create linkedproducts (e.g. film, soundtrack, video game).Each distinct element promotes the others.Disney is an obvious example of a synergisticcompany from the top down from Film Studio toKids TV Channel (where it further plays andpromotes its films) to the Disney Store (in the streetand online) where your kids can pester you to buyall the merchandise and DVDs/CDs theyve seenon the TV/Web or in the cinema.
  13. 13. Symbiosis – How does it work?This is when different companies work together topromote a range of related products. E.g. HighSchool Musical the film will enable spin-offs likeHappy Meals, Easter Eggs, bed linen, toycharacters etc. and the distributor will agreelicensing deals for companies to make and sellthis merchandising. A % of the profits will go backto the distributorWalt Disney pioneered symbiosis marketingtechniques in the 1930s by granting dozens offirms the right to use his Mickey Mouse characterin products and ads, and continued to marketDisney media through licensing arrangements.These products can help advertise the film itselfand thus help to increase the films sales. Forexample, the Spider-Man films had toys of web-shooters and figures of the characters made,CD soundtracks, video games, DVD s and othermerchandising.
  14. 14. SYNERGY: Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone (2001) In 2000 AOL and Time Warner merged. The promotion of Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone by AOL Time Warner is a good example of synergy. Adverts for the film The soundtrack were shown on HBO was released on and the WB, both Atlantic Records, American TV channels part of Warner which are subsidiaries Music. of Time Warner. Articles about the AOL s internet film appeared in service was offering newspapers and merchandise, and ticket promotions magazines owned tied to subscriptions by Time Warner. for AOL s services.
  15. 15. An example of synergy from Working Title Films…. SYNERGY The example often cited in exams is of Working Title making use of its parent company(s) to gain access to bigger stars and a better distribution network for their films.
  16. 16. Vivendi Universal HORIZONTAL The parent company ownsAs a company they have.. multiple companies at the same stage of the film industry.…Integrated film, music, web and distribution A smaller company,technology into the company, including owned by theowning big stakes in cables and wires that parent is adeliver these services. subsidiary.Therefore they are vertically integrated VERTICALbecause they own all the different companiesinvolved in film, from production to distribution The parentto exhibition. company owns multiple companies across differentThey are also horizontally integrated because stages of the filmthey have all the expertise for producing industry.media content under one roof – films, TV,magazines, books, music, games thus beingable to produce all the related media What are thecontent for one film under the same roof (see advantages for asynergy) parent company of each type of ownership?
  17. 17. Vivendi Universal - OWNERSHIP •  Working Title films is owned by Universal films •  Universal films is part of Vivendi Universal •  Vivendi Universal is a giant name in the world of the privatised water industry all over the world, from Brazil to the UK •  It also owns major phone companies in many countries. It also owns 60 publishing houses selling 80 million books a year / 40 million CD- ROMs a year •  Vivendi Universal own Cineplex and Odeon cinema chains- another distribution an marketing outlet •  Also owns MP3.com •  Also owns Canal+ (French TV subscription channel) which has 14 million subscribers in 11 countries in Europe. Canal+ part finance Working Title Films productions. •  Owns Universal records. (22% share of global market across 63 countries)REMEMBER: Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
  18. 18. Vivendi Universal Vivendi can produce their own TV shows and films at UniversalProduction, Distribution, Exhibition StudiosVivendi Universal own MP3.com Vivendi can market andThey can use this as a platform exhibit content throughto distribute Universal owned their TV channels andcontent entertainment parksVivendi can also use theMP3.com as a platform for Vivendi can distribute,advertising content and can market and exhibit films they own through theirsell advertising space to other own 13 cable channels,related companies e.g. CBS e.g. Chiller channel forhave links to their film sites horror films, Movies 24 in UK & Canal+ in EuropeHave exclusive Therefore the company benefit from Vivendi can distributedistribution rights of audiences owning converged their content throughWorking Title films technology such as a video-iPod as their partnershipand soundtracks this is where they will download and with Apple via iTunes exhibit their content REMEMBER: Cross-media convergence can help with synergy if companies are wise enough to take advantage of the links they have forged.
  19. 19. HOMEWORK:Why is horizontal and vertical integration important to Working TitleFilms?Points to think about…•  Production•  Distribution•  Marketing•  Exhibition•  Merchandising – increase profits
  20. 20. C/W FINISH FOR HWCreate a case study on 2 films. One must be a film from Warp Films and the other must be from WorkingTitle. WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe, Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, Hush - THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG – MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE -DUE SUNDAY 7PM – email link simonemcd38@gmail.com -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION1. RECAP:What do the following terms mean in relation to the film industry? • Production • Subsidiary • Distribution • Marketing • Exhibition • Horizontal Integration • Vertical Integration2. YOUR FILM: Choose from the following WT: Contraband, Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Definitely, Maybe, Warp: Four Lions, Tyrannosaur, HushProvide a brief synopsis of your film’s storyInclude some of your film’s marketing materials (trailers, posters, cast interviews etc.)2. PRODUCTIONWhat was your film’s production budget?Which Production Company (s) provided the finance? What other films have the company (s) produced?3. DISTRIBUTION, HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL INTEGRATIONWhen was the film’s UK release date?Who was the distributor of this film?Is your film’s production company a subsidiary of a larger company (e.g. when a parent company ownsmultiple companies at the same stage of the film industry, horizontally integrated)?Are there any signs of horizontal integration between your film’s production company (s) and distributor(s)?E.g. Is there a link between your film’s production company and the distributor?Are there any signs of vertical integration – where a conglomerate or parent company owns multiplecompanies across different stages of the film industry, (e.g. Warner Bros own: Warner Bros Production Studio,Warner Bros Distribution Company and Warner Bros Cinemas (Exhibition)?5. EXHIBITIONWhat were box office takings for your film?Would you expect it to be shown in Bromley Cinema? Why/why not?What formats is your film available on, for home exhibition?!
  21. 21. -  THE LIFE OF A FILM ~ RESEARCH TASK -SUBMIT AS A POST ON YOUR BLOG & MAKE AS INTERACTIVE AS POSSIBLE-DUE SUNDAY 7PM . Email link to simonemcd38@gmail.com -STARTING POINT FOR RESEARCH SHOULD BE IMDB.COM   – USE COMPANY CREDITS SECTION
  22. 22. RECAPWhat do the following terms mean in relation to the filmindustry?ProductionSubsidiaryDistributionMarketingExhibitionHorizontal IntegrationVertical Integration
  23. 23. CONVERGENCE CROSS MEDIA & TECHNOLOGICALLearning Intention:To show your understanding of technological convergence inrelation to the James Bond Franchise of filmsLearning Outcome:To provide a contemporary case study (in the last 4 years) of afilm that has used convergence
  24. 24. THE EXAM Section B: Institutions and AudiencesCandidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes ofproduction, distribution, marketing and exchange as they relate to contemporarymedia institutions, as well as the nature of audience consumption and therelationships between audiences and institutions. In addition, candidates should befamiliar with:•  the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;•  the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;•  the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;•  the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;•  the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;•  the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;•  the ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based upon one of the specified media areas.
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO CONVERGENCEIn the film industry the number of platforms where you can view filmsis proliferating all the time; audiences can also watch films in a variety ofways when they want to.DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY:You can use digital technology to:download a film or TV programmeonto your mobile phone, laptop, I-Pad or PC; you can watch it on yourflat-screen TV; you can also connectyour  HD TV to the Internet and watchthe film on You Tube; of course, youcan see the film on Blue Ray orordinary DVDs;  some might prefer towatch the film on PlayStation or XBox; you could, perhaps, download iton Pirate Bay or other sites andconsume it at a time that suits you.
  26. 26. DEFINING CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE & TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCECROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCErefers to the development of products across different mediumsIt is also an example of SYNERGY (Parent and subsidiaries coming together toproduce, market, distribute and exhibit the film) e.g.The BBC air EastEnders on BBC TV channels, then make EastEnders availableon the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further 7 days. Major storylines willbe covered in the TV Times. The BBC website will also give you access to plothistory, cast members etc. So, the BBC owns a variety of media forms.Technological convergencerefers to the process where new technology is moving towards singleplatforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs that can be usedto reach audiences.
  27. 27. TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE & SYNERGYTechnological Convergence refers topreviously separate technologies such asvoice (and telephony features), data (music, An example ofapps, games), and video that now share synergyresources and interact with eachother, synergistically to create new features Disneyand offer more choice from a single device.(Synergy = two or more things workingtogether harmoniously) Today, we are surrounded by a multi-levelconvergent media world where all modes of Game DVDcommunication and information arecontinually reforming to adapt to theenduring demands of technologies. Thisconvergence is changing the way wecreate, consume, learn and interact with CD Outletseach other.
  28. 28. Technological convergence refers to the process where new technologyis moving towards single platforms (e.g. iPhone) delivering multiple media outputs thatcan be used to reach audiences.Convergent technology is technology that allows an audience to consumemore than one type of media from a single platform.
  29. 29. iPhone – An example of ‘convergence’ of a wide range of technologies. Phone Games Console CameraWeb Browser Video Camera mp3 player Palmtop FM radio Computer Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  30. 30. Convergence Primary function is video gaming Download and watch movies from Lovefilm.com Watch catch up TV and music videos.PS3 Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  31. 31. Convergence Games Console DVD Player Internet ModemX Box 360 Convergence is the process by which a range of media platforms are integrated within a single piece of media technology.
  32. 32. GAME OF THRONES FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK Jim Marsh - Social Marketing Manager Use of convergent technology to market a filmMARKETING STRATEGY:GAME OF THRONESJanuary 2011 Multi-phasedsocial media strategy PURPOSE: to win over existing fans and gain new ones by breaking the stereotypes of typical fantasy fare and reinforcing HBO’s unique take on the genre FACEBOOK: The Facebook page launched with special features and an engagement strategy designed to grow the fan base before the show premiered on the network and sustain accelerated growth in that season and beyond.
  33. 33. FILM CAMPAIGN ON FACEBOOK: CASE STUDYA customized “Welcome” tab introduced new users to the series and encouraged them to“like” the Facebook page. The tab also embedded videos from the Game of ThronesYouTube Channel and drove to key features such as the HBO GO interactive viewingexperience, Viewer’s Guide and behind the scenes episodic features on HBO.com.With the launch of Facebook’s new profile layout, a Takeover Application was launched thatallowed users to automatically “skin” their Facebook profile in the Game of Thronestheme and design. The Facebook page was then used as one of the main pipelines ofinformation for fans to participate in The Maester’s Path, a game that required fansto take clues and information from the virtual world to complete a series ofchallenges related to the first season in the physical world. The Game of ThronesFacebook page extended this offline marketing initiative by releasing weekly clues aboutchallenges and information about the time and locations of the food truck stunts.Fans paid close attention the Facebook page and congregated at these events to get ataste of the cuisine of Westeros, crafted by renowned chef Tom Colicchio.Jumping on this virtual-to-physical world connection at WonderCon 2011, HBO gave fansthe opportunity to sit on an exact replica of the Iron Throne itself to have theirpictures taken. These pictures were then featured on the official Game of ThronesFacebook page in real time, resulting in several galleries of thousands of fans andeven celebrities such as Rainn Wilson. Swag giveaways of commemorative T-Shirts andbooks were conducted to entice more fans to come visit the Game of Thrones booth.As the season progressed, fans checked in on Facebook to get updates, recaps, and previews,and were presented with graphic postcards they could share with friends. And as a finalreward, HBO launched the Facebook game, The Battle for the Iron Throne, which allowedfans to compete against one another, testing their strategy and knowledge, tovictoriously claim the Iron Throne.
  34. 34. RECAP The iPad is a great example of technological convergence. Why?  
  35. 35. RECAP This is another example....why?
  36. 36. RECAP/ TASK PRODUCTS/SERVICES TECHNOLOGICALLY CONVERGENT DEVICES Quick Research Task. Create a mood board of Technologically Convergent devices. What media products/services do your devices offer the audience?
  37. 37. TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE – CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLESMedia industries have had to respond to changes in media technology.•  Media convergence means that today a lot of TV programmes, films and music exist across a range of media and are the products of several industries.•  Music is available across a huge range of formats; •  The music industry has converged with other media industries.Examples:Convergence of game and music industry:Guitar Hero, DJ Hero, soundtrack for X-Box and PS3 games - e.g.bands making money from licensing their image and music to gamescompanies. Convergence of TV, internet and music industry:X-Factor, Britains Got Talent; the way the show encourages people touse phones to vote and iTunes to download tracks featured on theshow.
  38. 38. RECAP/TASKTechnological Convergence•  Technological Convergence has altered the way we access and engage with media products.•  It has radically altered our expectations as consumers of the media.•  Convergence has radically altered every media industry.Research activity:1.  Review your research into technologically convergent devices.Choose one device to research further.1.  What media can you access on your device?2.  What media can you produce on your device?3.  Why is your device a positive thing for the media industry (in other words how can they make money from you?)4.  Why is the device a negative thing for the media industry?5.  List some benefits of your device for the user (audience)6.  List some draw-backs of your device for the user (audience)7.  Has your device benefitted society and made the world a better place? Give reasons for your answer.
  39. 39. QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE:USE THE FOLLOWING KEY WORDS IN A SHORT PARAGRAPH:1.  Technological convergence2.  Synergistically3.  Multi-level convergent media4.  Adapt5.  Create6.  Consume7.  Learn8.  Interact•  HOW MANY DID YOU USE?•  HOW MANY DID YOU USE ACCURATELY?•  IS YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO LINK THESE WORDS TOGETHER SECURE?
  40. 40. QUICK WRITING CHALLENGE:POSSIBLE ANSWER:KEY WORDS1.  Technological convergence2.  Synergistically3.  Multi-level convergent media4.  Adapt5.  Create6.  Consume Technological Convergence refers to previously7.  Learn separate technologies such as voice (and telephony8.  Interact features), data (music, apps, games), and video that now share resources and interact with each other, synergistically to create new features and offer more choice from a single device.   Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of communication and information are continually reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of technologies. This convergence is changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other.
  41. 41. SORTING OUT KEY TERMSOwnership of institutionHow the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces.Cross Media ConvergenceThe use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possibleaudience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels,then make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A singlecompany will often own all of the media forms.SynergyWhen two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals arecreated between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at thesame time. Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denotedwearing an Omega watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TVadvertisements for other products are good examples.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjkNew Media TechnologyThe emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communicationtechnologies in the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media"are digital. This is simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storagewhen compared with older analogue methods.Proliferation of contentAn increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
  42. 42. SORTING OUT KEY TERMSTechnological convergenceThe combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. aPC which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using theinternet, download filmsProductionHow films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies usedDistributionIn the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies intheatres, and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This willusually be through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films arereleased straight to DVD.MarketingThe process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of theresponsibility of the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. Theobjective of film marketing is to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely forthe audience’s money. This does not simply mean against other film campaigns, but themarketing of any other product too. Split into three sections – advertising, publicity andpromotion.ExhibitionExhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition orprivate home exhibition through DVD or downloads.
  43. 43. POSSIBLE QUESTIONS/ TOPICS The question will be broad, allowing you to discuss a variety of issues relating to your case study. Effect of New Relationship between institution and OR Media Technology on institutions and audience in a audiences in a media industry media industry These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss. HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply yourknowledge in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt your answer to the question.
  44. 44. THE FILM PROCESS Three distinct areas of the film industry Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution.What would you expect to happen at each stage?
  45. 45. Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000.This budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Production involvesHuda and producer friend George Issac the creation of the media product and is the responsibility of the productionQUESTION: Why would this film have found it difficult to companyget finance from a production company? This includes all pre-Some of this budget was funded by the UK Film production,Council production & post- production processes.QUESTION: How much was given to the film forproduction and distribution? Before that the writer/director/ producer must find finance for a film –QUESTION: What criteria did the film have to meet to which may comebe awarded the funds? from one or many production companies (a co- production)
  46. 46. Marketing StrategyViral marketing is probably one of the best marketing strategiesfor Kidulthood. According to the UK Film Council s survey, 33%of the people who went to see the film heard about it throughword-of-mouth. People are mainly able to hear about the filmthrough family, friends and social networking websites. (egFacebook, Twitter) The film uses synergy so that it gets known. It uses soundtracks from grime artists such as Shystie, Lethal Bizzle and Dizzee Rascal. The music these artists produce relate to people who live an urban lifestyle. If people hear that their music is going to be in the film Kidulthood, they would watch it because it might appeal to them. Therefore the record label and production company work together to gain mutual benefit of targeting their audience.Kidulthood s distribution company, Revolver Entertainmenthas produced copies of the film on DVD which is an exampleof New Media Technology. Kidulthood is likely to become moresuccessful on DVD than in the cinema because it is cheaperwhen its released on DVD and people can watch it in their owntime.
  47. 47. Kidulthood had a production budget of £600,000. ThisKidulthood-problems with budget was mostly provided by director Menhaj Hudafinance! and producer friend George Issac." Why would this film have found it difficult to get financeUnknown screen writer." from a production company?The screenwriter Noel clarke, Kidulthoodwas his first film therefore people might not Menhaj Huda directed the film Kidulthood aiming forhave had faith in him to produce a up and the finance target of budgeting the film at £800,000.coming film. " Working with his friend George Issac Menhaj was able toEnsamble cast." get the total finance up to only 650,000, but he stillAll cast members have equal billing thought this would be enough to make and producetherfore no well known actors to promote the film. A problem that they would probably havethe film." come across was even though they were working withSubject Matter. " the production company Stealth, this was going to beThe gand culture element of the film is too their first movie, and exhibition companies wouldnt"sensitive" for an older audience. know how the film was goin to turn out. Another problem that Menhaj would have come across that because his budget was lower than he thought after paying the writers fee, the producers fee, and some legal fees, he had to make cuts elsewhere. "We decided to shoot on 35mm and finish on High Definition, so if the film was a complete pile of rubbish we wouldnt be wasting money on getting a print". By doing this the quality of the film wouldnt be as good if they had the higher budget, but it would have been cheaper this way definately for them if the film was a flop and didnt make any money.
  48. 48. The most effective way that this film wasmarketed was virally, as this type of advertising wouldappeal the most to the age group it is aimed at. 15 - 24year olds spend a lot of time on the internet so thisstrategy would be very effective.a survey was conducted by the UK film council, thatrevealed that 33% of the people who went to watch the filmin the cinema had heard about it through word of mouth.This percentage was the highest compared to the otherways that people found out about it. The films marketersmay have had a clever strategy to start people talking This is the homepage of the webpage for Kidulthood, an important film in the teen-about it. drama genre. It is mainly comprised of aanother way that the film was marketed is by includingsoundtracks from famous grime artists such as lethal large e-poster promoting the DVD release ofBizzle and Dizee Rascal. Using these tracks attracted the film, but at the bottom are tabs such asaudiences that listen to these artists music and made them About Kidulthood, Press, Soundtrack and Forum, giving fans of the film a chance towant to watch the film more. Including songs from these interact with one another and critics of theartists allows the record labels that they are signed to workwith the marketing team of the film for mutual benefit, as film a place to post their opinions as well asthey will both advertise each other. giving the fans the chance to downloadThe film also used reviews by the press to market their film songs they heard on the soundtrack. The element of the interactive would make theto speed up the process of people talking about it, usingthis technique will add to the number of people that hear website attractive to teens, who are theabout the film due to word of mouth. main target audience of the film.
  49. 49. Marketing Strategy Kidulthood was also funded by the UK Film Council. Being produced by an independent production company with a low budget, it was difficult for Kidulthood to get distributed. Instead, posters were produced for the film and did in some way become successful. From the UK Film Council s exit poll data, 25% of the people who went to see the film heard about it through posters.Another way which gets people talking about Kidulthood are the reviews by thepress. If the film gets good reviews, it would make people want to see it and theword-of-mouth spreads.The Sun rated the film 4 stars and said the following: Impressive directing and great performances by all of the films raw young castcombine to make this low-budget bruiser a must-see.
  50. 50. • Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/homerelease and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the filmMARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of anew release• A distributor may:-Be a part of the same parent company as the productioncompany- Have a long term arrangement with a production company andprovide financial assistance for many of their productions Revolver- Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production Entertainmentcompany distributed Kidulthood- Acquire a film after it has completed production• A film will likely have different distributors for: Although heavily promoted there was-Releases in different countries limited distribution-Cinema Release of the film, why?-Home-Video Release
  51. 51. •  Exhibition is divided into two sections:-  Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy of the film-  Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is selling the film for a copy•  A film’s success is often decided on the amount of money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is known as the Box Office Takings Kidulthood made just•  Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable £454,000 at the cinema and varied source for distributors to increase profits. It was far more successful on DVD WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF? Why would this film be more successful on DVD than in the cinema?
  52. 52. Today s LessonLI/LO: Section B – Audiences and Institutions•  Explore the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice Learn the Nuts ‘n Bolts of Film 4 Understand the link with Channel 4 and its Ethos•  Explore the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing
  53. 53. Nuts ‘n Bolts of Channel 4 What is Channel 4?•  A British terrestrial TV channel•  A commercial broadcaster – funded entirely by advertising, programme sponsorship, merchandising and overseas sales.•  The owner of a number of digital UK channels including: More 4, Film4, E4 and Channel 4 HD•  The owner of independent film production company – Film4 Productions•  Channel 4 IS NOT a television production company as it s broadcasting license prevents it from making any programmes of it s own.•  It commissions independent production companies (such as Endemol) to make it s programmes or buys in programmes from abroad
  54. 54. The conditions of the Channel 4 Remit stipulate that theyChannel 4 REMIT must: • demonstrate innovation, experimentChannel 4 is unique as a and creativity in the form and contentcommercial broadcaster of programmes;as it has a public service • appeal to the tastes and interests of aremit. culturally diverse society;This means that rather • makes a significant contribution tothan it s primary concern meeting the need for the licensedbeing to make money for public service channels to include programmes of an educational natureshareholders it exists to and other programmes of educativefulfil a public need. value • exhibit a distinctive character • broadcast programmes from many independent production companies, including a high proportion from Europe
  55. 55. 1982-1998 History of Film 4•  Established as Channel Four Films to produce diverse & challenging films for Ch4 ~a small number got cinema exhibition!AUDIENCES•  Part of Channel 4’s remit was to experiment, innovate & cater for audiences not addressed by other channels
  56. 56. FILM4 & CROSS-MEDIA CONVERGENCE LILO: Explore the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing through a case studyAre there any obvious advantages Film 4 has when compared to other independent production companies?
  57. 57. 1992-97 Period of financial successThe Crying Game (1992) – took $62m in US,Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) - $240mworldwide,Trainspotting (1996) - $16m (US) £12m+ (UK) We will be looking at the film Trainspotting in a bit more detail later on.Introduction of Lottery moneyUK Film Production rose to level not seen since1970s
  58. 58. 1998-2002•  Creation of FilmFour production and distribution company•  Part of Channel 4 (channels, websites) which act as exhibitors and promoters•  Unique to British Film – Why? Twice the production budget of Channel Four Films (now £32m)•  International and domestic audience – this model failed: Charlotte Gray (2001)
  59. 59. 2002FilmFour closed in 2002•  Studio model had failed in UK L•  Film production returned to Channel 4 with reduced budget•  Return to realist roots•  Recent successes?
  60. 60. 2013•  Nowadays they fund around 20 films per year•  A number of films are by first time feature screenwriters or directors•  They look for distinctive films which will make their mark in a competitive cinema market•  Television premieres on FilmFour Channel and Channel 4, 2 years after theatrical release
  61. 61. RESEARCHING TARGET AUDIENCES
  62. 62. My Beautiful Laundrette ~Audiences•  David Rose, commissioning editor, “a preference for contemporary and social political topics”•  My Beautiful Laundrette (1985) portrayed the homosexual relationship between a white fascist and a Omar, born in Britain to Pakistani parents.•  Main audiences were contemporary critical audiences in the 20 – 30 age ranges•  Before Laundrette, a large percentage of the British population went largely unrepresented
  63. 63. Target Audience• What audience does Film 4 target?• What are the problems with this?• How do they target an audience?
  64. 64. Research TaskWatch the trailers for these films:- Brassed Off (1996)- This is England (2006)- Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994)
  65. 65. Research Questions•  Who are the target audience? (how do you know this?)•  What is the style of the film?•  How did they do at the box office? (what other films were they competing with?)•  Who was the distributor? (in UK and US)
  66. 66. FilmFour  Sec,on  B  exam  prep  
  67. 67. Independent Study! Develop a case study on a film studio which produces or distributed films to the UK * Your study should cover production, distribution & marketing and exhibition & consumption *If FilmFour is your chosen company then you MUST make reference to specific films.
  68. 68. What is a British film?•  A setting in the UK?•  A focus on British people abroad?•  A predominantly British cast?•  A storyline about some aspect of British life?•  Based on the work of a British author?
  69. 69. The importance of a national film industry•  Significant returns for the UK economy through film making, inward investment, film exhibition, DVD rentals and sales, film exports•  The UK Film Council estimates that a successful Brit film will make up to 70% of its revenue outside the UK
  70. 70. THINK PAIR SHARE: AUDIENCE•  If a film addresses a domestic audience about culturally specific themes, is it likely to find wider distribution difficult?•  Will non-British people want to see the film?•  What significant advantage do British filmmakers have over European filmmakers?
  71. 71. British Cinema and Hollywood•  British film production companies have co- production and distribution links with Hollywood studios•  ‘British’ films can be funded and distributed by US companies•  Decisions on which British films to produce and how to market them are often based on the tastes of both domestic and American audiences
  72. 72. Hollywood – a brief overview• Hollywood is built around studios• Studios are companies who aim to make money from films Many Hollywood blockbuster movies are successful. Why?
  73. 73. The success of HollywoodIt’s ability to continually re-invent itself by:•  Responding to a changing marketplace•  Taking advantage of new opportunities offered by new technologies
  74. 74. Recent British Cinema & Audiences•  British film has become more confident in expanding its range to include a wider cross- section of ethnic groupings, gender groupings and cultural groupings•  Promoting diversity and offering a more representative and inclusive national identity•  Slumdog is a recent example!
  75. 75. Is British Cinema Distinctive?•  180 million tickets sold yearly•  Inward investment to improve the cinema-going experience•  80% of admissions come out of mainstream American distributors•  Exploration of British themes and values THIS IS ENGLAND
  76. 76. How does HOLLYWOOD stay one foot ahead of BRITAIN?•  Hollywood realized that there is serious money to be made in international distribution so they invest heavily•  They retain the rights to their films so secure profits for many years•  British film industry is production led ~ distribution is usually through an American company Any money made is not going back into the British film industry “British Film is a ‘Cottage’ industry” ~Discuss~
  77. 77. More challenges•  2004  –  UK  output  27  •  Bri,sh  film  industry  unable  to  respond  to   increasing  audience  demand  •  Hollywood  has  diversified  and  strengthened   to  develop  links  with  other  media  and  delivery   plaForms  crea,ng  vast  media  empires  •  Global  market  at  $63  billion  in  2003  •  US  takes  80%  of  this  global  market  
  78. 78. CASE STUDY
  79. 79. TRAINSPOTTINGA SUCCESSFUL CO-PRODUCTION Summary: The movie follows a group of heroin addicts in a late 1980s economically •  Produced by: depressed area of Edinburgh and their •  Channel Four Films passage through life. Beyond drug •  Figment Films addiction, other concurrent themes in •  The Noel Gay Motion the film are exploration of the urban Picture Company poverty and squalor in "culturally rich" Distributed by: Edinburgh. •  PolyGram Filmed Entertainment (UK) •  Miramax Films (USA) •  Directed by Danny Boyle~ British director •  Released: February 23, 1996 •  Starring Ewan McGregor in his 2nd (United Kingdom) film •  Budget: ₤1,550,000 •  Box Office Figures $16,491,345
  80. 80. TRAINSPOTTING & A CLOCKWORK ORANGETHEME: David Aukin, Head of Drama at Four Films it isn t really aboutdrugs…it s a buddy movieUS critics compared the movie to Kubricks A ClockworkOrange ("Trainspotting" is a lot like "A Clockwork Orange," from its sociallysatirical message to its choice of amoral protagonists with bad habits. Butthe two are different in their approach."A Clockwork Orange” & "Trainspotting” are an assault on the senses andmight not be good for people with a weak stomach. It has graphiclanguage, graphic sex, graphic drug use, and even graphic violence.Both are anti-social-realist films dealing with subjects – gangs, violence,drugs – which are stylized and fast-paced.A graphic film, one might say. How is this similar to ‘My Beautiful Laundrette’ or ‘This is England’?
  81. 81. MARKETING TRAINSPOTTINGTrainspotting was more an objectof youth culture or popularculture than it was cinematicBritpop was Trainspottings mainvehicle to integrate youthsubculture into popular culture. SYNERGY The brand TrainspottingPolygram put large sums of Soundtrackmoney into a sophisticated Postersmarketing and branding strategy DVD’sincluding posters and a Copies of the screenplaysoundtrack Reprinting of Welsh s novel featuring the poster on the coverKnew film would appeal to Music cross-promotionclubbers and ravers so targetedthese – Underworld s Born Slippybecame a massive hit from thesoundtrackFilm gained distribution in the USalthough it did need subtitles!
  82. 82. FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLE Four Weddings and a Funeral
  83. 83. FILM 4 Vs. WORKING TITLEFour Weddings and a FuneralFour Weddings and a Funeral is a1994 British romantic comedy filmdirected by Mike Newell. It was thefirst of several films by screenwriterRichard Curtis to feature HughGrant.The film was an unexpected success,becoming the highest-grossing Britishfilm in cinema history at the time,with worldwide box office in excessof $245.7 million, and receiving anAcademy Award nomination for BestPictureCo-production with Polygram andWorking Title
  84. 84. MARKETING FOUR WEDDINGS & A FUNERALFour Weddings and a Funeral•  Played upon aspects of national identity•  Played upon the more ‘naïve’ elements of ‘Britishness’•  Hugh Grants quintessential fumbling middle class gentleman~ well recognized British stereotype•  Appealed to an American audience•  A universal storyline of romance and a feel good happy ending
  85. 85. Film Four under David Aukin (1990’s)•  Typical cost of production rose from £400,000 to £1.8million•  Trainspotting (Film 4) and Four Weddings (WT) were hugely successful although appealed to very different audiences•  Trainspotting was a low budget film which had carved itself a niche audience
  86. 86. Representation and Cultural Identity•  FilmFour films explored and developed ideas of cultural hybridity•  East is East•  The first British film representing hybrid and ever changing cultural and social mix in Britain making it into mainstream multiplex cinemas.•  Brick Lane (2007) won a BAFTA
  87. 87. Problems•  One of Film 4s biggest problems has been competing for cinema space with multinational film companies, whose films account for more than two thirds of UK box office takings.•  Film 4 blames the poor box office results on its lack of clout in the distribution market rather than the quality of its films. (BBC on Film Four Partner Search)
  88. 88. Film 4 channel•  Originally only subscribers could access the channel•  The company wasn t making enough money through subscriptions alone•  Relaunched the channel in July 2006 as a freeview channel•  Believed they could make more money through advertising•  Has become the Uks largest free film channel available to 18 million homes
  89. 89. Supply and Demand•  Why do you go to the cinema?•  What other options are available to you if you want to see a film?•  What are the pros and cons of these options?•  So why do you still go to the cinema?!
  90. 90. Changing patterns of consumption•  Young people are increasingly watch films on small screens using various models of DVD players•  Cinema admissions in Britain fell by 4% in 2005 and US box- office by 9%•  Trend towards home consumption began in the 1960s when studios realized they could use television to show films long after they had passed their sell-by date in the cinema
  91. 91. VHS to DVD•  1970s VHS was introduced•  1980s satellite was introduced•  DVDs have pushed VHS out of the home•  What are the advantages of DVD over VHS?•  What are some drawbacks for the studios?
  92. 92. Synergy – Let’s Recap…•  Massive corporations may be able to•  Publicize and advertise their films via their own print, sound and visual media arms•  Put out associated books and music, again from within their own organisation•  Show their films via their own various TV and cinema outlets
  93. 93. Film Four and Synergy•  A major issue for FilmFour is that it does NOT own its own exhibition theatrical chain•  What issues might this raise for FilmFour?•  Synergy was not always apparent Film 4 – Ali G show•  In 2003 Ali G went to Working Title!
  94. 94. New technologies and the consumer Changing patterns of consumption
  95. 95. New technologies and the consumer•  An improved overall experience as a result of better sound and images reproduction•  A heightened emotional experience as a result of a stronger sense of empathy with characters who in some way seem more real•  Enhanced spectacle•  Improved ease of access•  New, easier and intensified ways of using film to pleasure themselves e.g. IMAX•  Enhanced intellectual experience•  The chance for new, ever cheaper and more compact devices to make films for themselves
  96. 96. New technologies and the film industry•  The chance to repackage and resell old products, esp cult films, thereby establishing a new audience base for an old product•  An opportunity to place products for sale in a new window thereby lengthening the commercial life of each film•  The chance to encourage multiple purchases of essentially the same product•  A means of still managing to make profit on films that initially perform poorly at the box office
  97. 97. New technologies and the cinema experience •  New technologies have always added to the cinema experience •  The size/quality of the spectacle have been enhanced

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